A call that is presented to a trunk or group of trunks. See Traffic Engineering.
A call center term . A call that is received by the ACD. Offered calls are then either answered by an employee (handled) or abandoned .
The total traffic load, including load that results from retries, submitted to a system, group of servers, or the network over a circuit. See also Offered Traffic.
In Frame Relay terms, the total data rate presented to the network. Note that Offered Load does not translate to carried load. See also Committed Information Rate.
The total attempts to seize a group of servers.
Nobody knows what office automation means, though there are many consultants out there who will tell you what it means for an grand sum of money. In reality, it's a benign , imprecise term for data processing when it applies to self-focused (as opposed to customer-focused) white collar -type activities ” accounting, word processing, communications, document management.
OBH. Normally, the hour in which the maximum load on a switching system, desk, etc., occurs.
A telephone company definition. The peculiarities that make one switching entity different from others. Some examples: a. Class of Service Mixture b. Trunking Configuration c. Holding Times d. Special Services e. Calling habits of subscribers and f. Size of office.
Functional ranking of a telephone central office switch depending on transmission requirements and hierarchical relationship to other switching centers. (Awful mouthful!) There used to be five classes of switches in the U.S. telephone network hierarchy, with the one closest to the end-subscriber being a class 5 central office. But technology and marketing is changing things and, by distributing intelligence closer to the end user , it is diffusing our traditional definitions of network hierarchies and the class of switches. See Class 5 Central Office. See Office Classification.
Prior to divestiture, those numbers that were assigned to offices according to their hierarchical function in the U.S. public switched telephone network. The following class numbers are used:
Class 1: Regional Center (RC)
Class 2: Sectional Center (SC)
Class 3: Primary Center (PC)
Class 4: Toll Center (TC) if operators are present, or else Toll Point (TP)
Class 5: End Office (EO) (local central office)
Any one center handles traffic from one to two or more centers lower in the hierarchy. Since divestiture and with more intelligent software going into telephone switching offices, these designations have become less firm.
The first three digits of your seven-digit local telephone number. Also called NXX code. See also NXX.
A network within an office. An older term for a Local Area Network. User concern is with application sharing, file/database sharing, electronic mail, word processing and circuit switching.
ORB. Mounting and powering arrangement for digital regenerators, such as for T-1 lines.
A special shell program which sets up windows with menus of available utilities and applications.
See Office User Interface.
An application that lets you read postings to Usenet newsgroups without having to stay connected to the Internet. The program downloads all the newsgroup postings you have not read and disconnects from your Internet Service Provider. You can then read the postings at your convenience without incurring online charges or tying up your telephone line. If you reply to any of these postings, the program will automatically upload them to the correct newsgroup the next time you connect to your service provider.
The offset of a port or a memory location is the difference between the address of the specific port or memory address and the address of the first port or memory address within a contiguous group of ports or a memory window. This term is used when identifying the locations of registers located with respect to the base address of the 16 contiguous I/O ports in a PCMCIA card. It is also used when identifying the location of memory mapped registers with respect to the base address of the memory window. See also Offset Parabolic Antenna and Offset Geometry.
Shadow-free geometry. The feeder in the primary focus is mounted so that the effect of its shadow on the secondary radiation is negligible.
An offset antenna is a new form of satellite antenna that is taller than it is wide. According to the manufacturers, the antenna design makes for more efficient use of the antenna surface. What that means is that it captures more of the satellite signal hitting the antenna. Offset antennas are more expensive than the "normal" parabolic satellite antennas, which are called "prime focus parabolic antennas." They are more expensive because they cost more to make since they typically must be made out of one sheet of metal. Offset antennas are harder to carry around, since you can't make them out of several foldover sheets of metal.
Sending some corporate function ” typically manufacturing overseas to a cheaper labor country.
This mode allows incoming after-hours calls to be forwarded automatically to an off site location.
Operational Fixed Microwave. See IMASS.
Optical Fiber Nonconductive Riser.
Optical Fiber Nonconductive Plenum.
Operational Fixed Station.
The OFfice of TELecommunications in the United Kingdom. OFTEL is the main regulatory body over the U.K. telecommunications industry, which includes phones and cable. OFTEL was created at the time British telecommunications was sort of de- regulated in 1984 by the Telecommunications Act. On its Web site, Oftel describes itself: "OFTEL is the regulator - or "watchdog" - for the UK telecoms industry. Broadcast transmission is also part of OFTEL's remit. Our aim is for customers to get the best possible deal in terms of quality, choice and value for money. OFTEL is a government department but independent of ministerial control. It is headed by the Director General of Telecommunications, who is appointed by the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry." All telecommunications operators in the U.K. ” such as BT, Mercury, local cable companies, mobile network operators and the increasing number of new operators ” must have an operating licence. These set out what the operators can ” or must - do or not do. For example, BT's licence contains the formula (currently RPI ” 7.5%) which controls the prices of its main network services. Users of telecom services supplied by the operators also need a licence. In nearly all cases they are covered by a class licence ” a licence issued to a group, not an individual, allowing certain activities. For example, the Self Provision Licence (SPL) enables customers to use telephones in their homes . What are OFTEL's functions? Under the Telecommunications Act 1984, OFTEL has a number of functions. Briefly these are:
to ensure that licensees comply with their licence conditions.
to initiate the modification of licence conditions either by agreement with the licensee or, failing that, by reference to the Monopolies and Mergers Commission (MMC) together with the Director General of Fair Trading to enforce competition legislation - under both the Fair Trading Act 1973 and the Competition Act 1980 - in relation to telecommunications. OFTEL expects to gain wider powers under the new 1998 Competition Bill. This will bring UK law into line with European law, and is much more flexible.
to advise the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry on telecommunications matters and the granting of new licences.
to obtain information and arrange for publication where this would help users.
to consider complaints and enquiries made about telecommunications services or apparatus. www.oftel.gov.uk.
Open Financial eXchange. A technical specification for the exchange of electronic financial data over the Internet for the purpose of Electronic Commerce. OFX was developed jointly by CheckFree, Intuit and Microsoft in concert with financial services and technology companies. The OFX specification is an Internet-oriented client/server system which provides security, features full data synchronization, and offers error recovery mechanisms to simplify and streamline the process by which financial services companies connect to transactional Web sites, thin clients and financial software. OFX supports a range of financial activities including consumer and small business banking, bill presentment, and investments.
According to Open Financial Exchange, Specification 1.0.2 issued on May 30, 1997, Open Financial Exchange is a broad-based framework for exchanging financial data and instructions between customers and their financial institutions. It allows institutions to connect directly to their customers without requiring an intermediary. Open Financial Exchange is an open specification that anyone can implement: any financial institution, transaction processor, software developer, or other party. It uses widely accepted open standards for data formatting (such as SGML), connectivity (such as TCP/IP and HTTP), and security (such as SSL).
Open Financial Exchange defines the request and response messages used by each financial service as well as the common framework and infrastructure to support the communication of those messages. This specification does not describe any specific product implementation.
The following principles were used in designing Open Financial Exchange:
Broad Range of Financial Activities. Open Financial Exchange provides support for a broad range of financial activities. Open Financial Exchange 1.0.1 specifies the following services: bank statement download; credit card statement download; funds transfers including recurring transfers; consumer payments, including recurring payments; business payments, including recurring payments; brokerage and mutual fund statement download, including transaction history, current holdings, and balances .
Broad Range of Financial Institutions - Open Financial Exchange supports communication with a broad range of financial institutions (FIs), including Banks, Brokerage houses , Merchants, Processors, Financial advisors, Government agencies
Clients use the HyperText Transport Protocol (HTTP) to communicate to an Open Financial Exchange server. The World Wide Web throughout uses the same HTTP protocol. In principle, a financial institution can use any off-the-shelf web server to implement its support for Open Financial Exchange. To communicate by means of Open Financial Exchange over the Internet, the client must establish an Internet connection. This connection can be a dial-up Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) connection to an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or a connection over a local area network that has a gateway to the Internet. Clients use the HTTP POST command to send a request to the previously acquired Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for the desired financial institution. The URL presumably identifies a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) or other process on an FI server that can accept Open Financial Exchange requests and produce a response. www.ofx.net See also Electronic Commerce. See also Electronic Commerce, GOLD and XML. www.ofx.net.
OutGoing Message. The message an answering machine delivers to someone who calls. Sample, "I'm not here. Leave a message after the beep."
That tiny fraction of time in which you realize you've just made a gigantic mistake.
Optical Hard Drive. A term pioneered by Pinnacle Micro, Irvine, CA. OHD technology, according to Pinnacle, combines the advantages of magneto-optical technology with speeds faster than most hard drives .
The practical unit of resistance. The resistance that will allow one ampere of current to pass at the electrical potential of one volt. Ohm's Law dictates the relation between the current, electromotive force and resistance in a circuit:
Amperes = Volts divided by Ohms
Volts = product of Amperes and Ohms
Ohms = Volts divided by Amperes
The law that for any circuit, the electric current is directly proportional to the voltage and is inversely proportional to the resistance. The law relates current measured as Amps (I), voltage (V) and resistance measured as Ohms (R). Ohm's Law is V = I x R. It can also be expressed as I = V/R, or R = V/I. Sometimes E is used instead of volts. E is short for EMF or Electro Motive Force, a synonym for voltage.
Measures of resistance. A resistance of one Ohm allows one Ampere to flow when a potential difference of one volt is applied to the resistance. See Ohm's LAW.
Off-Hook Queue. See Off-Hook Queuing.
Optical Handwriting Recognition. Exactly what it says. Machine reading of handwriting.
Occupational Health and Safety Act. Specifically the Williams-Steiger law passed in 1970 covering all factors relating to safety in places of employment.
Off-Hook Voice Announce. A phone system feature that permits an intercom announcement to be heard through a speaker at a phone where the handset is in use on an outside call.
Online Insertion and Removal is the practice of replacing or removing equipment components without powering off the system. This provides a high availability of service because the components are hot swappable. This term is commonly found in Cisco equipment documentation.
Object Identifier. See MIB.
Optical Internetworking Forum. A coalition of manufacturers, telecom service providers, and end users that cooperate in the acceleration of the deployment of optical internetworks. Members of the OIF are engaged in the development of optical products based on specifications that ensure compatibility and interoperability. www.oiforum.com.
Online Insertion and Removal. Feature that permits the addition, the replacement, or the removal of cards without interrupting the system power, entering console commands, or causing other software or interfaces to shutdown. Sometimes called hot swapping or power-on servicing . See also Hot Swappable.
On-Line Analytical Processing, also called a multidimensional database. According to PC Week, these databases can slice and dice reams of data to produce meaningful results that go far beyond what can be produced using the traditional two-dimensional query and report tools that work with most relational databases. OLAP data servers are best suited to work with data warehouses. A database warehouse consolidates information from many departments within a company. This data can either be accessed quickly by users or put on an OLAP server for more thorough analysis.
According to Microsoft, OLAP refers to a class of database-management systems and client software that arranges data in multiple dimensions for high-speed analysis. Microsoft does not currently ship its own OLAP software, but is in the process of adding OLAP functionality to its SQL Server database and some client applications. In October, 1996, Microsoft announced the acquisition of OLAP technology from Panorama Software Systems in Tel Aviv. At the time, Microsoft said it intended to use the technology to add OLAP features to SQL Server and to some of its desktop tools, such as its Excel spreadsheet and the Internet Explorer browser.
End-user applications, that can request slices from OLAP servers and provide two- or multidimensional displays, user modifications, selections, ranking, calculations, etc.,for visualization and navigational purposes. OLAP clients can be as simple as a spreadsheet program retrieving a slice for further work by a spreadsheet-literate user or or as high functioned as a financial-modeling or sales-analysis application.
An OLAP server is a high-capacity, multi-user, data manipulation engine specifically designed to support and operate on multi-dimensional data structures. A multidimensional is arranged so that every data item is located and accessed based on intersection of the dimension members that define the item. The design of the server and the structure of the data are optimized for rapid, ad-hoc information retrieval in any orientation, as well as for fast, flexible calculation and transformation of raw data based on formulaic relationships.
See Overload Class.
Old media is magazines and TV, etc. New media is Internet and web "magazines." The term became important when America Online (new media) announced it had agreed to buy Time Warner (old media) in January, 2000.
Object Linking and Embedding. A Microsoft Corp. software technology that allows Windows programs to exchange information and work together. For instance, a word processing document with OLE capabilities could contain a link to a chart created in a spreadsheet. Version 2.0 of OLE was released in the Windows 95 operating system. OLE means tying one piece of information in one form into a document in another form, such that a change in one piece of information will be automatically reflected in the other document. Here's an explanation from the New York Times: Business reports may contain information in a variety of formats, including text and numbers, charts , tables, images, graphics, sound and video. Typically, these are created in separate applications programs (e.g. spreadsheet, word processing, charting, database, etc.) and are merged into a single document (i.e. the report). But when the numbers used to create a chart are changed the chart must be updated as well. The executive then has to track down all the various components of the report, call up their respective applications, make the changes and stitch everything back together. OLE promises to keep track of those links and update the various components as they change. Here's an explanation from PC Magazine: Ole is a complex specification that describes the interfaces used for such tasks as embedding objects created by one application within documents created by another, performing drag-and-drop data transfers within or between applications, creating automation servers that expose their inner functionality to other programs, extending the Windows 95 shell with custom DLLs, and much more. Version 1.0 of the specification was originally created for placing objects such as Excel spreadsheets inside documents created by other applications such as Microsoft Word for Windows. OLE 2.0 greatly expanded the scope of OLE and made the original name obsolete, but the name had achieved widespread recognition and was retained. See OLE DB.
Abbreviation of Object Linking and Embedding (pronounced as separate letters or as "oh-leh"). OLE is a compound document standard developed by Microsoft Corporation. It enables you to create objects with one application and then link or embed them in a second application. Embedded objects retain their original format and link to the application that created them. Support for OLE is built into the Windows and Macintosh operating systems. A competing compound document standard developed jointly by IBM, Apple Computer, and other computer firms is called OpenDoc.
Originating Local Exchange Carrier. Where the call comes from. See also LEC, CLEC and TLEC.
OLED stands for organic light-emitting diode. It's a technology that's brighter and more cost-effective than the current LCD ” or liquid crystal display ” technology. The organic chemicals in OLED displays emit their own light when electrically charged and don't rely on backlighting, which adds weight, cost and thickness to conventional (i.e. non-OLED) screens. OLED screens will be lighter and brighter and consume less power than today's displays. They will also be thin and flexible, even foldable eventually.
Optical Line Interface Unit.
Originating Line Number Screening.
This is a European term that stands for "Other Licensed Operators" referring to all Public Telecommunications Operators ” except for the one that was originally the PTT.
Originating Line Screening.
OnLine Services. See Internet Access Provider.
Optical Line Terminal. A device serving to terminate an optical trunk in a carrier CO (Central Office) or headend, an OLT is one of the primary elements of a FSAN (Full Service Optical Network). See also FSAN.
OnLine Transaction Processing. A generic concept in the computer industry to cover everything from issuing airline tickets to dispensing money out of street-corner, automated teller machines.
Texas Instruments' Open Multimedia Applications Protocol. OMAP is designed to reduce the number of chips required to put together a cell phone, thereby reducing the cost. It's also designed to create new applications ” such as videoconferencing ” for the new faster 2.5G and 3G cellphones. See 2.5G and 3G.
Operational Measurement and Analysis Tool.
Operation and Maintenance Center. Computer hardware and software assigned specifically to monitor and manage one part of a telecommunications network, usually employed in GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications).
Operations and Maintenance Center ” Environment. An OMC dedicated to monitoring and managing the physical environment where telecommunications equipment resides.
Operations and Maintenance Center ” Intelligent Network. A wireless telecommunications term. An OMC dedicated to monitoring and managing components of the Intelligent Network in GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications). This includes the HLR, AUC, EIR, SMSC, and VMS.
Operations and Maintenance Center ” Miscellaneous. An OMC that manages and monitors non-intelligent devices in a mobile telecommunications network under GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications).
Operations and Maintenance Center ” Radio. An OMC that manages and monitors the radio interface under GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) including the BSS, BSC, and BTS.
Operations and Maintenance Center ” Switching. An OMC dedicated to monitoring and managing switches in a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) telecommunications network.
Operations and Maintenance Center ” SS7. A wireless telecommunications term.An OMC dedicated to monitoring and managing the SS7 signaling network in a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) telecommunications network.
Operations and Maintenance Center ” Transmission. A wireless telecommunications term.An OMC dedicated to managing and monitoring transmission activities under a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) telecommunications network.
Operations and Maintenance Center ” Wide Area Network. A wireless telecommunications term.An OMC dedicated to managing and monitoring components of the Wide Area Network under GSM. The WAN links all or most devices in a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) telecommunications network together.
A global radio navigation system that provides position information by measuring phase difference between signals radiated by a network of eight transmitting stations deployed worldwide. The transmitted signals time-share transmission on frequencies of 10.2, 11.05, 11.33, and 13.6 KHz. Since the transmissions are coordinated with UTC (Universal Time Coordinated), they also provide time reference. In the U.S., UTC is the responsibility of the USNO (U.S. Naval Observatory). See also UTC.
Object Management Group. A group of major systems vendors involved in the definition of standards for object management. According the OMG, "a non-profit consortium dedicated to promoting the theory and practice of Object Technology for the development of distributed computing systems. OMG was formed to help reduce the complexity, lower the costs, and hasten the introduction of new software applications." The stated goal of the OMG is to "provide a common architectural framework for object-oriented applications based on widely available interface specifications." OMG membership currently stands at over 600 software vendors , developers and end users. www.omg.org.
A microphone with a pickup pattern essentially uniform in all directions.
An antenna whose pattern is nondirectional in azimuth. The vertical pattern may be of any shape.
A program established by the Network Management Forum (NMF) to speed the implementation of TMN (Telecommunications Management Network). OMNIPoint is a collaborative partnership between NMF and a number of other groups. Each OMNIPoint document release specifies a strategy and a comprehensive set of network management components, such as standards, de-facto standards, software development tools, and implementation and procurement guides. The intent of the document releases is to provide users with sufficient information to prepare and evaluate responses to RFPs and to guide suppliers in implementing network management products. See also Network Management Forum and TMN.