Configuring Dial Peers


As a call is set up across the network, the existence of various parameters is checked and negotiated. A mismatch in parameters can cause call failure. Therefore, it is important to understand how routers interpret call legs and how call legs relate to inbound and outbound dial peers. Successful implementation of a VoIP network relies heavily on the proper application of dial peers, the digits they match, and the services they specify. A network designer needs in-depth knowledge of dial peer configuration options and their uses. This section discusses the proper use of digit manipulation and the configuration of dial peers.

Understanding Call Legs

Call legs are logical connections between any two telephony devices, such as gateways, routers, Cisco Unified CallManagers, or telephony endpoint devices. Additionally, call legs are routercentric. When an inbound call arrives, it is processed separately until the destination is determined. Then a second outbound call leg is established, and the inbound call leg is switched to the outbound voice port. The topology shown in Figure 4-1 illustrates the four call legs involved in an endtoend call between two voiceenabled routers.

Figure 4-1. Call Legs


An endtoend call consists of four call legs: two from the source router's perspective and two from the destination router's perspective. To complete an endtoend call from either side and send voice packets back and forth, you must configure all four dial peers. Dial peers are only used to set up calls. After the call is established, dial peers are no longer employed.

An inbound call leg occurs when an incoming call comes into the router or gateway. An outbound call leg occurs when a call is placed from the router or gateway, as depicted in Figure 4-2.

Figure 4-2. End-to-End Calls


A call is segmented into call legs, and a dial peer is associated with each call leg. The process for call setup, as diagramed in Figure 4-2, is:

  1. The POTS call arrives at R1, and an inbound POTS dial peer is matched.

  2. After associating the incoming call to an inbound POTS dial peer, R1 creates an inbound POTS call leg and assigns it a call ID (call leg 1).

  3. R1 uses the dialed string to match an outbound VoIP dial peer.

  4. After associating the dialed string to an outbound voice network dial peer, R1 creates an outbound voice network call leg and assigns it a call ID (call leg 2).

  5. The voice network call request arrives at R2, and an inbound VoIP dial peer is matched.

  6. After R2 associates the incoming call to an inbound VoIP dial peer, R2 creates the inbound voice network call leg and assigns it a call ID (call leg 3). At this point, both R1 and R2 negotiate voice network capabilities and applications, if required. The originating router or gateway might request nondefault capabilities or applications. When this is the case, the terminating router or gateway must match an inbound VoIP dial peer that is configured for such capabilities or applications.

  7. R2 uses the dialed string to match an outbound POTS dial peer.

  8. After associating the incoming call setup with an outbound POTS dial peer, R2 creates an outbound POTS call leg, assigns it a call ID, and completes the call (call leg 4).

Understanding Dial Peers

When a call is placed, an edge device generates dialed digits as a way of signaling where the call should terminate. When these digits enter a router voice port, the router must decide whether the call can be routed and where the call can be sent. The router does this by searching a list of dial peers.

A dial peer is an addressable call endpoint. The address is called a destination pattern and is configured in every dial peer. Destination patterns use both explicit digits and wildcard variables to define one telephone number or range of numbers.

Dial peers define the parameters for the calls that they match. For example, if a call is originating and terminating at the same site and is not crossing through slow-speed WAN links, then the call can cross the local network uncompressed and without special priority. A call that originates locally and crosses the WAN link to a remote site may require compression with a specific coder-decoder (CODEC). In addition, this call may require that voice activity detection (VAD) be turned on and will need to receive preferential treatment by specifying a higher priority level.

Cisco voice-enabled routers support four types of dial peers, including POTS, VoIP, VoFR, and VoATM. However, this book focuses on POTS and VoIP dial peers:

  • POTS dial peers Connect to a traditional telephony network, such as the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or a PBX, or to a telephony edge device such as a telephone or fax machine. POTS dial peers perform these functions:

    - Provide an address (telephone number or range of numbers) for the edge network or device

    - Point to the specific voice port that connects the edge network or device

  • VoIP dial peers Connect over an IP network. VoIP dial peers perform these functions:

- Provide a destination address (telephone number or range of numbers) for the edge device that is located across the network

- Associate the destination address with the nexthop router or destination router, depending on the technology used

In Figure 4-3, the telephony device connects to the Cisco voice-enabled router. The POTS dial peer configuration includes the telephone number of the telephony device and the voice port to which it is attached. The router determines where to forward incoming calls for that telephone number.

Figure 4-3. Dial Peers


The Cisco voiceenabled router VoIP dial peer is connected to the packet network. The VoIP dial peer configuration includes the destination telephone number (or range of numbers) and the next-hop or destination voiceenabled router network address.

Follow these steps to enable a router to complete a VoIP call:

1.

Configure a compatible dial peer on the source router that specifies the recipient destination address.

2.

Configure a POTS dial peer on the recipient router that specifies which voice port the router uses to forward the voice call.

Configuring POTS Dial Peers

Before the configuration of Cisco IOS dial peers can begin, you must have a good understanding of where the edge devices reside, what type of connections need to be made between these devices, and what telephone numbering scheme is applied to the devices.

Follow these steps to configure POTS dial peers:

1.

Configure a POTS dial peer at each router or gateway, where edge telephony devices connect to the network.

2.

Use the destination-pattern command in dial peer configuration mode to configure the telephone number.

3.

Use the port command in dial peer configuration mode to specify the physical voice port that the POTS telephone is connected to.

The dial peer type will be specified as POTS because the edge device is directly connected to a voice port, and the signaling must be sent from this port to reach the device. There are two basic parameters that need to be specified for the device: the telephone number and the voice port. When a PBX is connecting to the voice port, a range of telephone numbers can be specified.

Figure 4-4 shows POTS dial peers. Example 4-1 illustrates proper POTS dial peer configuration on the Cisco voice-enabled router shown in Figure 4-4. The dialpeer voice 1 pots command notifies the router that dial peer 1 is a POTS dial peer with a tag of 1. The tag is a number that is locally significant to the router. Although the tag does not need to match the phone number specified by the destination-pattern command, many administrators recommend configuring a tag that does match a dial-peer's phone number, to help make the configuration more intuitive. The destination-pattern 7777 command notifies the router that the attached telephony device terminates calls destined for telephone number 7777. The port 1/0/0 command notifies the router that the telephony device is plugged into module 1, voice interface card (VIC) slot 0, and voice port 0.

Figure 4-4. POTS Dial Peers


Example 4-1. Configuration for Dial Peer 1 on Router 1

 Router1#configure terminal Router1(config)#dialpeer voice 1 pots Router1(config-dialpeer)#destination-pattern 7777 Router1(config-dialpeer)#port 1/0/0 Router1(config-dialpeer)#end 

Practice Scenario 1: POTS Dial Peer Configuration

Throughout this chapter, you will practice what you have learned. In this scenario, assume that there is a data center at the R1 site and executive offices at the R2 site. Using the diagram shown in Figure 4-5, create POTS dial peers for the four telephones shown. Notice that three configuration commands are required for R1, and nine configuration commands are required for R2. You might want to use a separate sheet of paper to write your configuration commands.

Figure 4-5. POTS Dial Peer Configuration


R1: __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

R2: ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

R2: __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

Practice Scenario 1: Suggested Solution

Although your choice of dial peer tags might vary, the following offers a suggested solution to Practice Scenario 1:

R1:

 dial-peer voice 2222 pots        destination-pattern 2222        port 1/0/0 


R2:

 dial-peer voice 3111 pots         destination-pattern 3111         port 1/0/0 dial-peer voice 3112 pots         destination-pattern 3112         port 1/0/1 dial-peer voice 3113 pots         destination-pattern 3113         port 1/1/0 


Configuring VoIP Dial Peers

The administrator must know how to identify the far-end voice-enabled device that will terminate the call. In a small network environment, the device might be the IP address of the remote device. In a large environment, identifying the device might mean pointing to a Cisco Unified CallManager or gatekeeper for address resolution and call admission control (CAC) to complete the call.

Follow these steps to configure VoIP dial peers:

1.

Configure the path across the network for voice data.

2.

Specify the dial peer as a VoIP dial peer.

3.

Use the destinationpattern command to configure a range of numbers reachable by the remote router or gateway.

4.

Use the session target command to specify an IP address of the terminating router or gateway.

5.

As a best practice, use the remote device loopback address as the IP address.

The dial peer specified as a VoIP dial peer alerts the router that it must process a call according to the various dial peer parameters. The dial peer must then send the call setup information in IP packets for transport across the network. Specified parameters might include the CODEC used for compression (for example, VAD) or marking the packet for priority service.

The destinationpattern parameter configured for this dial peer is typically a range of numbers that are reachable via the remote router or gateway.

Because this dial peer points to a device across the network, the router needs a destination IP address to put in the IP packet. The session target parameter allows the administrator to specify either an IP address of the terminating router or gateway or another device. For example, a gatekeeper or Cisco Unified CallManager might return an IP address of that remote terminating device.

To determine which IP address a dial peer should point to, Cisco recommends you use a loopback address. The loopback address is always up on a router as long as the router is powered on and the interface is not administratively shut down. The reason an interface IP address is not recommended is that if the interface goes down the call will fail, even if there is an alternate path to the router.

Figure 4-6 shows VoIP dial peers. Example 4-2 lists the proper VoIP dial peer configuration on Router 1, which is a Cisco voiceenabled router shown in Figure 4-6. The dialpeer voice 2 voip command notifies the router that dial peer 2 is a VoIP dial peer with a tag of 2. The destinationpattern 8888 command notifies the router that this dial peer defines an IP voice path across the network for telephone number 8888. The session target ipv4:10.18.0.1 command defines the IP address of the router that is connected to the remote telephony device.

Figure 4-6. VoIP Dial Peers


Example 4-2. Configuration for Dial Peer 2 on Router 1

 Router1#configure terminal Router1(config)#dialpeer voice 2 voip Router1(configdialpeer)#destinationpattern 8888 Router1(configdialpeer)#session target ipv4:10.18.0.1 Router1(configdialpeer)#end 

Practice Scenario 2: VoIP Dial Peer Configuration

Create VoIP dial peers for each of the R1 and R2 sites based on the diagram presented in Figure 4-7.

Figure 4-7. VoIP Dial Peer Configuration


R1: __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

R2: __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

Practice Scenario 2: Suggested Solution

Although your choice of dial peer tags might vary, the following offers a suggested solution to Practice Scenario 2:

R1:

 dial-peer voice 3111 voip        destinationpattern 3111        session target ipv4:10.1.1.2 dial-peer voice 3112 voip        destinationpattern 3112        session target ipv4:10.1.1.2 dial-peer voice 3113 voip        destinationpattern 3113        session target ipv4:10.1.1.2 


R2:

 dial-peer voice 2222 voip        destination-pattern 2222        session target ipv4:10.1.1.1 


The next section of this chapter introduces you to the use of wildcards to minimize the number of dial peers you must configure.

Configuring destination-pattern Options

As previously discussed, the destination pattern associates a telephone number with a given dial peer. It also determines the dialed digits that the router collects and forwards to the remote telephony interface, such as a PBX, Cisco Unified CallManager, or PSTN. You must configure a destination pattern for each POTS and VoIP dial peer that you define on the router.

The destination pattern can indicate a complete telephone number or a partial telephone number with wildcard digits, or it can point to a range of numbers defined in a variety of ways.

Destinationpattern options include the following:

  • Plus sign (+) An optional character that indicates an E.164 standard number. E.164 is the ITU-T recommendation for the international public telecommunication numbering plan. The plus sign in front of a destination-pattern string specifies that the string must conform to E.164.

  • string A series of digits specifying the E.164 or private dial-plan telephone number. The following examples show the use of special characters that are often found in destination pattern strings:

    - Asterisk (*) and pound sign (#) An asterisk (*) and pound sign (#) appear on standard touchtone dial pads. These characters may need to be used when passing a call to an automated application that requires these characters to signal the use of a special feature. For example, when calling an interactive voice response (IVR) system that requires a code for access, the number dialed might be 5551212888#, which would initially dial the telephone number 5551212 and input a code of 888 followed by the pound key to terminate the IVR input query.

    - Comma (,) A comma (,) inserts a onesecond pause between digits. The comma can be used, for example, where a 9 is dialed to signal a PBX that the call should be processed by the PSTN. The 9 is followed by a comma to give the PBX time to open a call path to the PSTN, after which the remaining digits are played out. An example of this string is 9,5551212.

    - Period (.) A period (.) matches any single entered digit from 0 to 9 and is used as a wildcard. The wildcard can be used to specify a group of numbers that might be accessible via a single destination router, gateway, PBX, or Cisco Unified CallManager. A pattern of 200. allows for ten uniquely addressed devices, while a pattern of 20.. can point to 100 devices. If one site has the numbers 2000 through 2049 and another site has the numbers 2050 through 2099, then a bracket notation would be more efficient, as described next.

    - Brackets ([ ]) Brackets ([ ]) indicate a range. A range is a sequence of characters that are enclosed in the brackets. Only single numeric characters from 0 through 9 are allowed in the range. In the previous example, the bracket notation could be used to specify exactly which range of numbers is accessible through each dial peer. For example, the first site pattern would be 20[0 4]., and the second site pattern would be 20[5-9]. Note that in both cases, a dot is used in the last digit position to represent any single digit from 0 through 9. The bracket notation offers much more flexibility in how numbers can be assigned.

  • T An optional control character indicating that the destination-pattern value is a variable-length dial string. In cases where callers might be dialing local, national, or international numbers, the destination pattern must provide for a variable-length dial plan. If a particular voice gateway has access to the PSTN for local calls and access to a transatlantic connection for international calls, then calls being routed to that gateway have a varying number of dialed digits. A single dial peer with a destination pattern of ".T" could support the different call types. The interdigit timeout determines when a string of dialed digits is complete. The router continues to collect digits until there is an interdigit pause longer than the configured value, which by default is 10 seconds.

When the calling party finishes entering dialed digits, there is a pause equal to the interdigit timeout value before the router processes the call. The calling party can immediately terminate the interdigit timeout by entering the pound character (#), which is the default termination character. Because the default interdigit timer is set to 10 seconds, users might experience a long call setup delay.

Note

Cisco IOS software does not check the validity of the E.164 telephone number. It accepts any series of digits as a valid number.


Table 4-1 demonstrates the use of various destination pattern wildcards, including the period, brackets, and the ".T."

Table 4-1. Destination Pattern Options

Destination Pattern

Matching Telephone Numbers

5550124

Matches one telephone number exactly, 5550124.

 

This is typically used when there is a single device, such as a telephone or fax, connected to a voice port.

55501[1-3].

Matches a sevendigit telephone number where the first five digits are 55501; the sixth digit can be a 1, 2, or 3; and the last digit can be any valid digit.

 

This type of destination pattern is used when telephone number ranges are assigned to specific sites. In this example, the destination pattern is used in a small site that does not need more than 30 numbers assigned.

.T

Matches any telephone number that has at least one digit and can vary in length from 1 through 32 digits total.

 

This destination pattern is used for a dial peer that services a variablelength dial plan, such as local, national, and international calls. It can also be used as a default destination pattern so that any calls that do not match a more specific pattern will match this pattern and can be directed to an operator.


Characteristics of the Default Dial Peer

When a matching inbound dial peer is not found, the router resorts to a virtual dial peer called the default dial peer. The default dial peer is often referred to as dial peer 0.

Note

Default dial peers are used for inbound matches only. They are not used to match outbound calls that do not have a dial peer configured.


Dial peer 0 for inbound VoIP peers has the following characteristics:

  • Any CODEC

  • IP precedence 0

  • VAD enabled

  • No RSVP support

  • faxrate service

For inbound POTS peers, dial peer 0 has no IVR application.

You cannot change the default configuration for dial peer 0. Default dial peer 0 fails to negotiate nondefault capabilities or services. When the default dial peer is matched on a VoIP call, the call leg that is set up in the inbound direction uses any supported CODEC for voice compression that is based on the requested CODEC capability coming from the source router. When a default dial peer is matched, the voice path in one direction may have different parameters than the voice path in the return direction. This might cause one side of the connection to report good quality voice while the other side reports poor quality voice. For example, the outbound dial peer has VAD disabled, but the inbound call leg is matched against the default dial peer, which has VAD enabled. VAD would be on in one direction and off in the return direction.

When the default dial peer is matched on an inbound POTS call leg, there is no default IVR application with the port. As a result, the user gets a dial tone and proceeds with dialed digits. Interestingly, the default dial peer cannot be viewed using show commands.

In Figure 4-8, only oneway dialing is configured. Example 4-3 and Example 4-4 illustrate the configuration for this topology. The caller at extension 7777 can call extension 8888 because there is a VoIP dial peer configured on Router 1 to route the call across the network. However, there is no VoIP dial peer configured on Router 2 to point calls across the network toward Router 1. Therefore, there is no dial peer on Router 2 that will match the calling number of extension 7777 on the inbound call leg. If no incoming dial peer matches the calling number, the inbound call leg automatically matches to a default dial peer (POTS or VoIP).

Figure 4-8. Default Dial Peer 0


Example 4-3. Router 1 Configuration

Router1(config)# dialpeer voice 1 pots Router1(configdialpeer)# destination-pattern 7777 Router1(configdialpeer)# port 1/0/0 Router1(configdialpeer)# exit Router1(config)# dialpeer voice 2 pots Router1(configdialpeer)# destinationpattern 8888 Router1(configdialpeer)# session target ipv4: 10.18.0.1 

Example 4-4. Router 2 Configuration

 Router2(config)# dialpeer voice 3 pots Router2(configdialpeer)# destinationpattern 8888 Router2(configdialpeer)# port 1/1/0 

Matching Inbound Dial Peers

When determining how inbound dial peers are matched on a router, it is important to note whether the inbound call leg is matched to a POTS or VoIP dial peer. Matching occurs in the following manner:

  • Inbound POTS dial peers are associated with the incoming POTS call legs of the originating router or gateway.

  • Inbound VoIP dial peers are associated with the incoming VoIP call legs of the terminating router or gateway.

Three information elements sent in the call setup message are matched against four configurable dialpeer command attributes. Table 4-2 describes the three call setup information elements.

Table 4-2. Call Setup Information Elements

Call Setup Element

Description

Called number dialed number identification service

This is the call-destination dial string, and it is derived from the ISDN setup message or channel associated signaling dialed number identification service (DNIS).

Calling number automatic number identification

This is a number string that represents the origin, and it is derived from the ISDN setup message or channel associated signaling (CAS) automatic number identification (ANI). The ANI is also referred to as the calling line ID (CLID).

Voice port

This represents the POTS physical voice port.


The four configurable dial peer command attributes are detailed in Table 4-3.

Table 4-3. Command Attributes for the dial-peer Command

dial-peer Command Attribute

Description

incoming callednumber

Defines the called number or DNIS string

answer-address

Defines the originating calling number or ANI string

destination-pattern

Uses the calling number (originating or ANI string) to match the incoming call leg to an inbound dial peer

Port

Attempts to match the configured dial peer port to the voice port associated with the incoming call (POTS dial peers only)


When the Cisco IOS router or gateway receives a call setup request, it looks for a dial peer match for the incoming call. This is not digit-by-digit matching. Instead, the router uses the full digit string received in the setup request for matching against the configured dial peers.

The router or gateway matches call setup element parameters in the following order:

1.

The router or gateway attempts to match the called number of the call setup request with the configured incoming called-number of each dial peer.

2.

If a match is not found, the router or gateway attempts to match the calling number of the call setup request with the answer-address of each dial peer.

3.

If a match is not found, the router or gateway attempts to match the calling number of the call setup request to the destination-pattern of each dial peer.

4.

The voice port uses the voice port number associated with the incoming call setup request to match the inbound call leg to the configured dial peer port parameter.

5.

If multiple dial peers have the same port configured, then the router or gateway matches the first dial peer added to the configuration.

6.

If a match is not found in the previous steps, then dial peer 0 is matched.

Because call setups always include DNIS information, it is recommended that you use the incoming called-number command for inbound dial peer matching. Configuring incoming called-number is useful for a company that has a central call center providing support for a number of different products. Purchasers of each product get a unique tollfree number to call for support. All support calls are routed to the same trunk group destined for the call center. When a call comes in, the computer telephony system uses the DNIS to flash the appropriate message on the computer screen of the agent to whom the call is routed. The agent will then know how to customize the greeting when answering the call.

The calling number ANI with answer-address is useful when you want to match calls based on the originating calling number. For example, when a company has international customers who require foreign-language-speaking agents to answer the call, the call can be routed to the appropriate agent based on the country of call origin.

You must use the calling number ANI with destination-pattern when the dial peers are set up for two-way calling. In a corporate environment, the head office and remote sites must be connected. As long as each site has a VoIP dial peer configured to point to each site, inbound calls from each remote site will match against that dial peer.

Practice Scenario 3: Matching Inbound Dial Peers

In this practice scenario, assume that you are setting up a technical support center for desktop PCs, printers, and laptops. Customers who dial specific numbers need to reach the appropriate technical support staff. Using the diagram in Figure 4-9, create dial peers on R1 to route incoming calls (that is, from the PSTN) by the incoming called number to the appropriate site. Because the focus of this practice scenario is dial peer configuration, as opposed to digit manipulation, assume the DNIS has already been truncated to four digits.

Figure 4-9. Matching Inbound Dial Peers


R1: __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

Practice Scenario 3: Suggested Solution

Although your choice of dial peer tags might vary, the following offers a suggested solution to Practice Scenario 3:

R1:

dialpeer voice 111 voip         incoming callednumber 5550111         session target ipv4:10.1.1.2 dial-peer voice 122 voip         incoming callednumber 5550122         session target ipv4:10.1.1.3 dial-peer voice 133 voip         incoming callednumber 5550133         session target ipv4:10.1.1.4 


Matching Outbound Dial Peers

Outbound dial peer matching is completed on a digit-by-digit basis. Therefore, the router or gateway checks for dial peer matches after receiving each digit and then routes the call when a full match is made.

The router or gateway matches outbound dial peers in the following order:

1.

The router or gateway uses the dial peer destination-pattern command to determine how to route the call.

2.

The destination-pattern command routes the call in the following manner:

- On POTS dial peers, the port command forwards the call.

- On VoIP dial peers, the session target command forwards the call.

3.

Use the show dialplan number string command to determine which dial peer is matched to a specific dialed string. This command displays all matching dial peers in the order that they are used.

In Example 4-5, dial peer 1 matches any digit string that does not match the other dial peers more specifically. Dial peer 2 matches any seven-digit number in the 30 and 40 range of numbers starting with 55501. Dial peer 3 matches any sevendigit number in the 20 range of numbers starting with 55501. Dial peer 4 matches the specific number 5550124 only. When the number 5550124 is dialed, dial peers 1, 3, and 4 all match that number, but dial peer 4 places that call because it contains the most specific destination pattern.

Example 4-5. Matching Outbound Dial Peers

 Router(config)# dial-peer voice 1 voip Router(configdialpeer)# destinationpattern .T Router(configdialpeer)# session target ipv4:10.1.1.1 Router(config)# dialpeer voice 2 voip Router(configdialpeer)# destinationpattern 55501[3-4]. Router(config-dial-peer)# session target ipv4:10.2.2.2 Router(config)# dialpeer voice 3 voip Router(configdialpeer)# destinationpattern 555012. Router(configdialpeer)# session target ipv4:10.3.3.3 Router(config)# dialpeer voice 4 voip Router(configdialpeer)# destinationpattern 5550124 Router(configdialpeer)# session target ipv4:10.4.4.4 


Configuring Hunt Groups

Cisco voiceenabled routers support the concept of hunt groups, sometimes called rotary groups, in which multiple dial peers are configured with the same destination pattern. The destination of each POTS dial peer is a single voice port to a telephony interface so hunt groups help ensure that calls get through even when a specific voice port is busy. If the router is configured to hunt, it can forward a call to another voice port that is not busy.

The following is a listing of hunt group commands:

  • preference valueSets priority for dial peers. The destination with the lowest setting has the highest priority. Values range from 0 through 10, and 0 is the default.

  • huntstopDisables dial peer hunting on the dial peer.

  • dialpeer hunt hunt-grouporderChanges the default selection order for hunting through dial peers. Table 4-4 lists the possible values for the hunt-group-order parameter.

Table 4-4. Supported huntgrouporder Values

huntgrouporder Number

Description

0

Longest match in phone number, explicit preference, random selection. This is the default hunt order number.

1

Longest match in phone number, explicit preference, least recent use.

2

Explicit preference, longest match in phone number, random selection.

3

Explicit preference, longest match in phone number, least recent use.

4

Least recent use, longest match in phone number, explicit preference.

5

Least recent use, explicit preference, longest match in phone number.

6

Random selection.

7

Least recent use.


In some business environments, such as call centers or sales departments, there may be a group of agents available to answer calls coming in to a single number. Scenario 1 may randomly distribute the calls between all agents. Scenario 2 may send calls to the senior agents first and to the junior agents only when all senior agents are busy. Both of these scenarios can be serviced by configuring a hunt group with specific commands to control the hunt actions.

Follow these steps to configure hunt groups:

1.

Configure the same destination pattern across multiple dial peers.

2.

Use the preference command if the destination pattern of the dial peer is the same for several dial peers. If the preference does not act as the tiebreaker, then the router picks the matching dial peer randomly.

You must use the dial-peer hunt global configuration command to change the default selection order of the procedure or to choose different methods for hunting through dial peers. To view the current setting for dial-peer hunt, use the show dial-peer voice summary command.

If you do not want to hunt through a range of dial peers, the huntstop command disables dial peer hunting. After you enter this command, no further hunting is allowed if a call fails on the selected dial peer. This is useful in situations where it is undesirable to hunt to a less-specific dial peer if the more specific dial peer fails. For example, if a call is destined for a particular staff member and the person is on the phone, the router searches for any other dial peer that might match the dialed number. If there is a more generic destination pattern in another dial peer that also matches, the call is routed to the more generic destination pattern. Configuring the huntstop command in the more specific dial peer will send the caller a busy signal and stop hunting.

You can mix POTS and VoIP dial peers when creating hunt groups. This is useful if you want incoming calls sent over the IP network but network connectivity fails. You can then reroute the calls back through the PBX, or through the router, to the PSTN. By default, the router selects dial peers in a hunt group according to the following criteria, in the order listed:

  1. The router matches the most specific telephone number.

  2. The router matches according to the preference setting.

  3. The router matches randomly.

The destination pattern that matches the greatest number of dialed digits is the first dial peer selected by the router. For example, if one dial peer is configured with a dial string of 345.... and a second dial peer is configured with 3456789, the router selects 3456789 first because it has the longest explicit match of the two dial peers. Without a PBX, if the line is currently in use, the desired action is to send a call to a voice-mail system or a receptionist, instead of giving the caller a busy signal.

If the destination pattern is the same for several dial peers, you can configure the priority by using the preference dial peer command. This would be the configuration for scenario 2, where the dial peers connecting to the senior agents would have preference 0 and the dial peers connecting to the junior agents would have preference 1. The lower the preference is set, the more likely that dial peer will handle the call.

By default, if all destination patterns are equal, the preference is set to 0 on all dial peers. If the preference does not act as the tiebreaker, then a dial peer matching the called number will be picked randomly.

Example 4-6 shows an example of configuring a hunt group to send calls to the PSTN if the IP network fails, as shown in Figure 4-10. For all calls going to 555-0188, VoIP dial peer 2 is matched first because the preference is set to 0. If the path through the IP network fails, POTS dial peer 3 is matched and the call is forwarded through the PSTN. The forwarddigits command forwards all digits to the PSTN to automatically complete the call without a secondary dial tone.

Example 4-6. HuntGroup Configuration

 Router(config)# dial-peer voice 1 pots Router(configdialpeer)# destinationpattern 5550111 Router(configdialpeer)# port 1/0/0 Router(configdialpeer)# exit Router(config)# dialpeer voice 2 voip Router(configdialpeer)# destinationpattern 5550188 Router(configdialpeer)# session target ipv4:10.18.0.1 Router(configdialpeer)# preference 0 !VoIP dial peer 2 will be matched first because preference is 0 Router(configdialpeer)# exit Router(config)# dialpeer voice 3 pots Router(configdialpeer)# destinationpattern 5550188 Router(configdialpeer)# port 1/1/0 Router(configdialpeer)# preference 1 Router(configdialpeer)# forwarddigits all !POTS dial peer 3 will be matched next if dial peer 2 is busy or not available 


Figure 4-10. PSTN Fallback Using a Hunt Group


Practice Scenario 4: Configuring Hunt Groups

Consider the diagram presented in Figure 4-11. Create a hunt group using the preference command on R2. Configure it so that if extension 3111 is busy, the call rings extension 3112. Assume that you have POTS dial peers for all three extensions already configured.

Figure 4-11. Configuring Hunt Groups


R2: Already configured

 dialpeer voice 1 pots destinationpattern 3111 port 1/0/0 ! dialpeer voice 2 pots destinationpattern 3112 port 1/0/1 ! dialpeer voice 3 pots destinationpattern 3113 port 1/1/0 


R2: Hunt group dial peer __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

Practice Scenario 4: Suggested Solution

Although your choice of a dial peer tag and priority value might vary, the following offers a suggested solution to Practice Scenario 4:

R2:

 dial-peer voice 4 pots         destination-pattern 3111         port 1/0/1         preference 1 


Collecting and Analyzing Digits

Effective destination-pattern design requires an understanding of how a voice-enabled router collects and analyzes digits. By default, when the terminating router matches a dial string to an outbound POTS dial peer, the router strips off the left-justified digits that explicitly match the destination pattern. The remaining wildcard digits are forwarded to the telephony interface, which connects devices such as a PBX or the PSTN.

Use the no digitstrip command to disable the automatic digit-stripping function. This allows the router to match digits and pass them to the telephony interface.

However, digit stripping is the desired action in some situations. There is no need to forward digits out of a POTS dial peer if it is pointing to a Foreign Exchange Station(FXS) port that connects a telephone or fax machine. When digit stripping is turned off on this type of port, the user will hear tones after answering the call because any unconsumed and unmatched digits are passed through the voice path after the call is answered.

When a PBX or the PSTN is connected through the POTS dial peer, digit stripping is not desired because these devices need additional digits to further direct the call. In these situations, the administrator must assess the number of digits that need to be forwarded for the remote device to correctly process the call. With a VoIP dial peer, all digits are passed across the network to the terminating voice-enabled router.

When a voice call enters the network, the router collects digits as follows:

1.

The originating router collects dialed digits until it matches an outbound dial peer.

2.

The router immediately places the call and forwards the associated dial string.

3.

The router collects no additional dialed digits.

Example 4-7 and Example 4-8 demonstrate the impact that overlapping destination patterns have on the call routing decision. In Example 4-7, the destination pattern in dial peer 1 is a subset of the destination pattern in dial peer 2. The router matches one digit at a time against available dial peers. This means that an exact match will always occur on dial peer 1, and dial peer 2 will never be matched. Only the collected digits of 555 will be forwarded.

Example 4-7. Dial Peer Digit Consumption with VariableLength Destination Patterns

 Router(config)# dial-peer voice 1 voip Router(configdialpeer)# destinationpattern 555 Router(configdialpeer)# session target ipv4:10.18.0.1 Router(configdialpeer)# exit Router(config)# dialpeer voice 2 voip Router(configdialpeer)# destinationpattern 5550124 Router(configdialpeer)# session target ipv4:10.18.0.2 


In Example 4-8, the length of the destination patterns in both dial peers is the same. Dial peer 2 has a more specific value than dial peer 1, so it will be matched first. If the path to IP address 10.18.0.2 is unavailable, dial peer 1 will be used when 5550124 is dialed. Collected digits of 5550124 will be forwarded.

Example 4-8. Dial Peer Digit Consumption with Fixed-Length Digit Consumption

 Router(config)# dialpeer voice 1 voip Router(configdialpeer)# destinationpattern 555.... Router(configdialpeer)# session target ipv4:10.18.0.1 Router(configdialpeer)# exit Router(config)# dialpeer voice 2 voip Router(configdialpeer)# destinationpattern 5550124 Router(configdialpeer)# session target ipv4:10.18.0.2 


Destination patterns are matched based on the longest explicit number match. Digits collected are dependant on the configured destination pattern. Table 4-5 describes how different number combinations are matched and collected.

Table 4-5. Matching Destination Patterns

Dialed Digits

Destination Pattern

Dialed Digits Collected

5550124

5......

5550124

5550124

555....

5550124

5550124

555

555

5550124

555T

5550124


In the first row of Table 4-5, the destination pattern specifies a seven-digit string. The first digit must be a five, and the remaining six digits can be any valid digits. All seven digits must be entered before the destination pattern is matched.

In the second row, the destination pattern specifies a seven-digit string. The first three digits must be 555, and the remaining four digits can be any valid digits. All seven digits must be entered before the destination pattern is matched.

In the third row, the destination pattern specifies a three-digit string. The dialed digits must be exactly 555. When the user begins to dial the seven-digit number, the destination pattern matches after the first three digits are entered. The router then stops collecting digits and places the call. If the call is set up quickly, the answering party at the other end may hear the remaining four digits as the user finishes dialing the string, because after a call is set up, any dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF) tones are sent through the voice path and played out at the other end.

In the last row, the destination pattern specifies a variable-length digit string that is at least three digits long. The first three digits must be exactly 555, and the remaining digits can be any valid digits. The "T" tells the router to continue collecting digits until the interdigit timer expires. The router stops collecting digits when the timer expires or when the user presses the pound (#) key.

Manipulating Digits

Digit manipulation is the task of adding or subtracting digits from the original dialed number to accommodate user dialing habits or gateway needs. The digits can be manipulated before matching an inbound or outbound dial peer. The following list describes digit manipulation commands issued in dial peer configuration mode:

  • prefix Adds digits to the front of the dial string before it is forwarded to the telephony interface. This occurs after the outbound dial peer is matched but before digits get sent out of the telephony interface. Use the prefix command when the dialed digits leaving the router must be changed from the dialed digits that had originally matched the dial peer. For example, a call is dialed using a four-digit extension such as 0123, but the call needs to be routed to the PSTN, which requires ten-digit dialing. If the four-digit extension matches the last four digits of the actual PSTN number, then you can use the prefix 902555 command to prepend the six additional digits needed for the PSTN to route the call to 902-555-0123. After the POTS dial peer is matched with the destination pattern of 0123, the prefix command prepends the additional digits and the string "9025550123" is sent out of the voice port to the PSTN.

  • forward-digits Specifies the number of digits that must be forwarded to the telephony interface, regardless of whether they match explicitly or with wildcards. This command occurs after the outbound dial peer is matched but before the digits are sent out of the telephony interface. When a specific number of digits are configured for forwarding, the count is right-justified. For example, the POTS dial peer has a destination pattern configured to match all extensions in the 1000 range (destination-pattern 1...). By default, only the last three digits are forwarded to the PBX that is connected to the specified voice port. If the PBX needs all four digits to route the call, you can use the command forward-digits 4 or forward-digits all so that the appropriate number of digits are forwarded. To restore the forward-digits command to its default setting, use the default forward-digits command. Using the no forward-digits command specifies that no digits are to be forwarded.

  • num-exp The num-exp global command expands an extension into a full telephone number or replaces one number with another. The number expansion table manipulates the called number. This command occurs before the outbound dial peer is matched. Therefore, you can configure a dial peer with the expanded number in the destination pattern for the call to go through. The number expansion table becomes useful when the PSTN changes the dialing requirements from seven-digit dialing to ten-digit dialing. In this scenario, you can do one of the following:

    - Make all the users dial all ten digits to match the new POTS dial peer that is pointing to the PSTN.

    - Allow the users to continue dialing the seven-digit number as they have before but expand the number to include the area code before the ten-digit outbound dial peer is matched.

Note

You can use the show num-exp command to view the configured number-expansion table. You can use the show dialplan number number command to confirm the presence of a valid dial peer to match the newly expanded number.


  • translation-rule Digit translation is a two-step configuration process. First, the translation rule is defined at the global level. Then, the rule is applied at the dial peer level either as inbound or outbound translation on either the called or calling number. Specifically, translation rules manipulate the ANI or DNIS digits for a voice call. They also convert a telephone number into a different number before the call is matched to an inbound dial peer or before the outbound dial peer forwards the call. For example, an employee may dial a five-digit extension to reach another employee of the same company at another site. If the call is routed through the PSTN to reach the other site, the originating gateway might use translation rules to convert the five-digit extension into the ten-digit format that is recognized by the central office (CO) switch.

You can also use translation rules to change the numbering type for a call. For example, some gateways may tag a number with more than 11 digits as an international number, even when the user must dial 9 to reach an outside line. In this case, the number that is tagged as an international number needs to be translated into a national number, without the 9, before it is sent to the PSTN.

As illustrated in this section, there are numerous ways to manipulate digits at various stages of call completion. The administrator needs to determine which command will be most suitable and the requirements that are necessary for manipulation.

Note

To test configured translation rules, you can use the test translation command.


Example 4-9 shows a sample configuration using the prefix command.

Example 4-9. The prefix Command

 Router(config)# dial-peer voice 1 pots Router(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 555.... Router(config-dial-peer)# prefix 555 Router(config-dial-peer)# port 1/0/0 

In the sample configuration using the prefix command, the device attached to port 1/0/0 needs all seven digits to process the call. On a POTS dial peer, only wildcard-matched digits are forwarded by default. Use the prefix command to send the prefix numbers 555 before forwarding the four wildcard-matched digits.

Example 4-10 illustrates a sample configuration using the forward-digits command.

Example 4-10. The forward-digits Command

 Router(config)# dial-peer voice 1 pots Router(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 555.... Router(config-dial-peer)# forward-digits 7 Router(config-dial-peer)# port 1/0/0 

In the sample configuration using the forward-digits command, the device attached to port 1/0/0 needs all seven digits to process the call. On a POTS dial peer, only wildcard-matched digits are forwarded by default. The forward-digits command allows the user to specify the total number of digits to forward.

Example 4-11 provides a sample configuration using the number expansion table (num-exp)command.

Example 4-11. The num-exp Command

 Router(config)# num-exp 2... 5552... Router(config)# dial-peer voice 1 pots Router(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 5552... Router(config-dial-peer)# port 1/1/0 

In the sample configuration using the num-exp command, the extension number 2... is expanded to 5552... before an outbound dial peer is matched. For example, the user dials 2401, but the outbound dial peer 1 is configured to match 5552401.

Example 4-12 presents a sample configuration using the translation-rule command.

Example 4-12. The translation-rule Command

 Router(config)# translation-rule 5 Router(config-translate)# rule 1 2401 5552401 Router(config-translate)# exit Router(config)# dial-peer voice 1 pots Router(config-dial-peer)# translate-outgoing called-number 5 

In the sample configuration using the translation-rule command, the rule is defined to translate 2401 into 5552401. The dial peer translate-outgoing called-number 5 command notifies the router to use the globally defined translation rule 5 to translate the number before sending the string out the port. The translation rule is applied as an outbound translation from the POTS dial peer.

Example 4-13 demonstrates a translation rule that converts any called number that starts with 91 and is tagged as an international number into a national number without the 9 before sending it to the PSTN.

Example 4-13. Sample translation-rule Configuration

 Router(config)# translation-rule 20 Router(config-translate)# rule 1 91 1 international national Router(config-translate)# exit Router(config)# dial-peer voice 10 pots Router(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 91.......... Router(config-dial-peer)# translate-outgoing called 20 Router(config-dial-peer)# port 1/1:5 Router(config-dial-peer)# forward-digits all 

The IOS can also leverage regular expression characters, as shown in Table 4-6, to create powerful translation rules.

Table 4-6. Translation Rule Regular Expressions

Regular Expression Characters

Match Condition

^

Match the expression at the beginning of the line.

$

Match the expression at the end of the line.

/

Delimiter that marks the beginning and ending of both the matching and replacement strings.

\

Escape the special meaning of the next character.

-

Indicates a range, used with the brackets.

[list]

Match a single character in a list.

[^list]

Do not match a single character specified in the list.

.

Match any single character.

*

Repeat the previous regular expression 0 or more times.

+

Repeat the previous regular expression 1 or more times.

?

Repeat the previous regular expression 0 or 1 time. (Use CTRL-V to enter in the IOS CLI.)

()

Groups regular expressions.


Example 4-14 offers an example of a translation rule using regular expressions.

Example 4-14. Sample translation-rule Using Regular Expressions

 Router(config)# voice translation-rule 1 Router(config-translate)# rule 1 /^555\(....\)/ /444\1/ Router(config-translate)# rule 2 /^\(555\)\(....\)/ /444\2/ 

To interpret rule 1, consider the following:

  • Matching pattern /^555\(....\)/

    Notice that the parentheses are escaped out with the \ character. If the \ was not used, the parentheses would be matched as part of the string instead of being used to group the expression. The parentheses are used to group portions of the expression into sets so you can manipulate it. Since the 555 is not in a set, it is ignored, and the first set consists of the four digits following 555.

  • Replacement pattern /444\1/

    This replacement pattern makes the new string start with 444 and then appends \1. The \1 means that you take the first set from the matching pattern and put it here. For this replacement, the number looks like 444.... If the dialed string was 5551212, then the replacement string would be 4441212.

Rule 2 is functionally equivalent to rule 1. The matching pattern in rule 2 is divided into two sets. The first set is 555 and the second set is the four digits following the 555. The replacement pattern starts with 444 and then appends the \2, which adds the second set from the matching pattern.

For illustrative purposes, Table 4-7 shows several examples of translation rule regular expressions.

Table 4-7. Regular Expression Examples

Match String

Replace String

Dialed String

Replaced String

Comments

/^$/

//

NULL

NULL

Simple null-to-null translation.

/^.$/

//

9195551212

NULL

Any-to-null translation.

/^\(555\)\(....\)/

/444\2/

5551212

4441212

Match beginning of the line. Second parentheses structure is pulled to the new string.

/^555\(....\)/

/444\1/

5551212

4441212

Match beginning of the line. Notice the \1 replaces the first grouping of the regular expression within parenthesis.

/\(^...\)555\(....\)/

/\1444\2/

9195551212

9194441212

Match middle of a string.

/\(^...\)\(555\)\(....\)/

/\1444\3/

9195551212

9194441212

Match middle of a string.

/\(.*\)1212$/

/\13434/

9195551212 555121212

9195553434 555123434

Match end of string.

/444/

/555/

4441212 44441212 44414441212

5551212 55541212 55514441212

Match substring.


Practice Scenario 5: Digit Manipulation

Assume that all POTS and VoIP dial peers are configured for the topology illustrated in Figure 4-12. Create a dial peer to divert calls from R1 to R2 across the PSTN in the event of failure of the VoIP network. Assume that digits must be forwarded to the PSTN, and a prefix of 555 is necessary.

Figure 4-12. Digit Manipulation


R1:

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

Practice Scenario 5: Suggested Solution

Although your choice of a dial peer tag might vary, the following offers a suggested solution to Practice Scenario 5:

R1:

 dial-peer voice 5 pots         destination-pattern 311[1-3]         port 1/1/0         prefix 555311         preference 1 

Special-Purpose Connections

Integrating VoIP technologies with legacy PBXs and the public switched telephone network (PSTN) often requires voice port configuration for certain connection types. The original design of a PBX might have called for tie-lines between PBXs. When replacing tie-lines with a VoIP solution, special configuration at the voice port level can emulate the original tie-line design. In many cases, telecommuters require access to PBX services that resemble other extensions of the PBX, regardless of where the telecommuters actually reside. In other instances, telephones, such as lobby customer-service telephones, need to be connected directly to customer-service staff.

You can configure voice ports to support special connection requirements. These requirements usually reflect the needs of a specific business environment that must connect to the network in a special way. The following list describes the available connection types and their application:

  • Private line, automatic ringdown (PLAR) PLAR is an autodialing mechanism that permanently associates a voice port with a far-end voice port, allowing call completion to a specific telephone number or PBX.

  • PLAR-OPX Most frequently, a PLAR-OPX (Off Premises eXtension) is a PBX extension not located on the business site, even though it operates as though it is directly connected to the PBX.

  • Trunk The trunk connection type specifies a connection that emulates a permanent trunk connection between two PBXs, a PBX and a local extension, or some combination of telephony interfaces with signaling passed transparently through the packet data network.

  • Tie-line The tie-line connection type specifies a connection that emulates a temporary tie-line trunk to a PBX.

Table 4-8 illustrates the use of the connection command to establish these special purpose connections.

Table 4-8. Options for the connection Command

Command Option

Description

connection plar digits

digits represent the destination number to be automatically dialed.

connection plar-opx digits

digits represent the off-premise extension number to be automatically dialed.

connection trunk digits[answer-mode]

digits represent the trunk number to be used to create the virtual trunk across the network.

answer-mode (optional) specifies that the router should wait for an incoming call before establishing the trunk.

connection tie-line digits

digits represent the tie-line number to be used to create the temporary tie-line.

 


The next sections describe each connection type in more detail.

PLAR

With a PLAR connection, when the calling telephone goes off hook, a predefined network dial peer is automatically matched, which sets up a call to the destination telephone or PBX. Callers do not hear a dial tone nor do they have to dial a number. PLAR connections are widely used in the business world. One common use is to connect stockbrokers with trading floors. Timing is critical when dealing with stock transactions; the amount of time it takes to dial a number and get a connection can be costly in some cases.

Another common use is in the travel sector, directly connecting travelers with services. Often, at places like airports, the traveler will see display boards advertising taxi companies, car rental companies, and local hotels. These displays often have telephones that connect the traveler directly with the service of choice. The device is preconfigured with the telephone number of the desired service. One obvious difference between these telephones and a normal telephone is that they lack a dial mechanism. Figure 4-13 shows a PLAR topology whose syntax is provided in Example 4-15 and Example 4-16.

Figure 4-13. PLAR Connection


Example 4-15. Remote Site Router Configuration

 Router(config)# voice-port 1/0/0 Router(config-voiceport)# connection plar 5600 Router(config-voiceport)# exit Router(config)# dial-peer voice 5 voip Router(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 5... Router(config-dial-peer)#session target ipv4:10.18.0.1 

Example 4-16. Central Site Router Configuration

 Router(config)# dial-peer voice 1 pots Router(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 5... Router(config-dial-peer)# port 1/0:1 Router(config-dial-peer)# forward-digits 4 

The following actions occur during the establishment of the PLAR connection illustrated in Figure 4-13:

  1. A user at the remote site lifts the handset.

  2. A voice port at the remote site router automatically generates the digits 5600 for a dial peer lookup.

  3. The router at the remote site matches digits 5600 to VoIP dial peer 5 and sends the setup message with the digits 5600 to IP address 10.18.0.1 as designated in the session target command.

  4. The router at the central site matches received digits 5600 to POTS dial peer 1 and forwards digits 5600 out voice port 1/0:1. At the same time, the central site router sends a call-complete setup message to the router at the remote site, because both the inbound and outbound call legs on the central site router were processed correctly.

  5. The PBX receives digits 5600 and rings the appropriate telephone.

PLAR-OPX

With a PLAR-OPX connection, company staff can dial an extension and reach the remote telephone as though it were on site. The remote telephone has access to PBX services such as voice mail and extension dialing. This functionality is most often used when on-site staff become telecommuters. Many companies are cutting back on office space in expensive locations and are setting up their staff with home offices. A PLAR-OPX connection is configured between the office and the remote site so that a telecommuter can continue to access all the corporate telephony services in the same manner as before. This approach allows a telecommuter to dial the same extensions to reach other staff and to have access to long-distance dialing and other voice services via the same calling codes. From the office perspective, on-site staff can reach the telecommuter by dialing the same extension as before.

One OPX connection feature is that when a call is being attempted the voice-enabled router or gateway that takes the call from the PBX or Cisco Unified CallManager will not report a call completion until the far end has answered the call. Without the OPX configuration, the PBX or Cisco Unified CallManager passes the call to the local gateway or router. Then the gateway or router routes the call to the PSTN. After the PSTN sends ringing current to the telephone, the router reports call completion back to the PBX or Cisco Unified CallManager. At this point, the call is completed. The problem is that if the call is not answered, there is no way to reroute the call to the corporate voice mail server. From the PBX or Cisco Unified CallManager perspective, the call is completed. When you configure the OPX, however, the gateway or router will not report call completion until the telephone is actually answered. Figure 4-14 illustrates a PLAR-OPX topology whose syntax is provided in Example 4-17 and Example 4-18.

Figure 4-14. PLAR-OPX Connection


Example 4-17. Remote Site Router Configuration

 Router(config)# dial-peer voice 1 pots Router(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 5701 Router(config-dial-peer)# port 1/1/0 

Example 4-18. Central Site Router Configuration

 Router(config)# voice-port 1/0/0 Router(config-voiceport)# connection plar-opx 5701 Router(config-voiceport)# exit Router(config)# dial-peer voice 10 voip Router(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 5701 Router(config-dial-peer)# session target ipv4:10.0.0.1 

  1. The series of steps occurring during the PLAR-OPX connection, illustrated in Figure 4-14, are as follows:

  2. A user at the central site calls a user at a remote site using the extension 5701.

  3. The central site PBX routes the call to the central site router port 1/0/0, which is configured for PLAR-OPX and points to extension 5701.

  4. The central site router matches VoIP dial peer 10 and sends a setup message to the corresponding IP address. In the meantime, port 1/0/0 does not respond immediately to the PBX with a seizure or off-hook indication, but waits for the remote site call setup complete message.

  5. After the remote router sends the call setup complete message, the central site router sends a trunk seizure indication to the PBX and opens a voice path.

Trunk Connection

A trunk connection remains permanent in the absence of active calls and is established immediately after configuration. The ports on either end of the connection are dedicated until you disable trunking for that connection. If, for some reason, the link between the two voice ports goes down, the virtual trunk reestablishes itself after the link comes back up. This trunk configuration is useful when a permanent connection is desired between two devices. For example, a caller at one end of the trunk connection can pick up the telephone and speak into it without dialing any digits or waiting for call setup. This is analogous to the red telephone to the Kremlin that is depicted in vintage movies. With a trunk connection, there is no digit manipulation performed by the gateway or router. Because this is a permanent connection, digit manipulation is not necessary. Figure 4-15 shows the establishment of a trunk connection. The syntax for the topology is provided in Examples 4-19 and 4-20.

Example 4-19. Router R1's Configuration

 R1(config)# voice-port 1/0:1 R1(config-voiceport)# connection trunk 55 R1(config-voiceport)# exit R1(config)# dial-peer voice 55 voip R1(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 55 R1(config-dial-peer)# session target ipv4:10.18.0.1 R1(config-dial-peer)# exit R1(config)# dial-peer voice 44 pots R1(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 44 R1(config-dial-peer)# port 1/0:1 

Figure 4-15. Trunk Connection


The syntax for the topology shown in Figure 4-15 is provided in Example 4-19 and Example 4-20.

Example 4-20. Router R2's Configuration

 R2(config)# voice-port 1/0:5 R2(config-voiceport)# connection trunk 44 R2(config-voiceport)# exit R2(config)# dial-peer voice 44 voip R2(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 44 R2(config-dial-peer)# session target ipv4:10.0.0.1 R2(config-dial-peer)# exit R2(config)# dial-peer voice 55 pots R2(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 55 R2(config-dial-peer)# port 1/0:5 

In Example 4-19, router R1 is configured to set up a trunk connection from voice port 1/0:1 to a remote voice-enabled router with the IP address of 10.18.0.1 (router R2). This is done by specifying the same number in the connection trunk voice port command as in the appropriate dial peer destination-pattern command. In this example, router R1 uses connection trunk 55, which matches VoIP dial peer 55. The call is routed to router R2, which matches the 55 in a POTS dial peer. Router R2 is also configured to set up a trunk connection from its voice port, 1/0:5, to a remote voice-enabled router with the IP address of 10.0.0.1 (router R1). Router R2 uses 44 as its connection trunk number. These trunk connections are set up when the routers power on and remain up until a router is powered down or the ports are shut down.

The following conditions must be met for a VoIP network to support virtual trunk connections:

  • You must use the following voice port combinations:

    - E&M to E&M (same type)

    - Foreign Exchange Station (FXS) to Foreign Exchange Office (FXO)

    - FXS to FXS (with no signaling)

  • You must not perform number expansion on the destination-pattern telephone numbers configured for a trunk connection.

  • You must configure both end routers for trunk connections.

Tie-Line Connection

In traditional telephony networks, companies often had dedicated circuits called tie-lines connecting two PBXs. This, in effect, allowed callers at one site to reach callers at a remote site through that tie-line connection. Now that the IP network is replacing the traditional telephony connection, the two sites are logically tied together through the use of the connection tie-line command at both sites. Callers at one site can still reach callers at the remote site, but the call goes over the IP network. The connection tie-line command emulates tie-lines between PBXs.

Although a tie-line connection is similar to a trunk connection, it is automatically set up for each call and torn down when the call ends. Another difference is that digits are added to the dial string before matching an outbound dial peer. For example, if a user were to dial extension 8000, which terminates at a remote office, the voice port is configured with an identifying number for that remote office. If that office ID is the number 7, then the digits that are sent to be matched against the outbound dial peer would be 78000. This new five-digit number would be carried across the network to the remote site. At the remote site, the number 7 can be stripped off or, if necessary, passed to the destination device.

As demonstrated in Figure 4-16, with the syntax provided in Example 4-21 and Example 4-22, the following procedure is used to establish a tie-line connection:

  1. Use the connection tie-line command when the dial plan requires the addition of digits in front of any digits dialed by the PBX.

  2. Use the combined set of digits to route the call onto the network.

  3. The tie-line port waits to collect digits from the PBX.

  4. The terminating router automatically strips the tie-line digits.

Figure 4-16. Tie-Line Connection


Example 4-21. Router R1's Configuration

 R1(config)# voice-port 1/0:1R1 (config-voiceport)# connection tie-line 55 R1(config-voiceport)# exit R1(config)# dial-peer voice 55 voip R1(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 55.... R1(config-dial-peer)# session target ipv4:10.18.0.1 R1(config-dial-peer)# exit R1(config)# dial-peer voice 44 voip R1(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 44.... R1(config-dial-peer)# port 1/0:1 

Example 4-22. Router R2's Configuration

 R2(config)# voice-port 1/0:5 R2(config-voiceport)# connection tie-line 44.... R2(config-voiceport)# exit R2(config)# dial-peer voice 44 voip R2(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 44.... R2(config-dial-peer)# session target ipv4:10.0.0.1 R2(config-dial-peer)# exit R2(config)# dial-peer voice 55 voip R2(config-dial-peer)# destination-pattern 55.... R2(config-dial-peer)# port 1/0:5 

In Figure 4-16, the caller off of router R1 picks up the telephone and dials the four-digit extension, 5600. Because the voice port on router R2 is configured for connection tie-line, the router collects the four digits and prepends the tie-line digits 55 to make a six-digit number, 555600. That number is then matched to a VoIP dial peer and sent to the appropriate IP address. After the call reaches router R2, it is matched against a POTS dial peer with a destination pattern of 55.... Because POTS dial peers, by default, forward only wildcard digits, only the four-digit extension 5600 is passed to the PBX.




Cisco Voice over IP Cvoice (c) Authorized Self-study Guide
Cisco Voice over IP (CVoice) (Authorized Self-Study Guide) (2nd Edition)
ISBN: 1587052628
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2006
Pages: 111
Authors: Kevin Wallace

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