Section A.2. The PAM Configuration File Format


A.2. The PAM Configuration File Format

Configuring PAM means editing its configuration files. The format of these files is fairly simple, but these files use a number of options that aren't immediately obvious to the uninitiated. You must also know something about how the PAM configuration file works with multiple modules. These modules can also interact in unintuitive ways.

A.2.1. PAM Configuration Files and Fields

In order to implement its design goals, PAM uses one or more configuration files: either a file called /etc/pam.conf or files in the /etc/pam.d directory named after the particular systems they control. The /etc/pam.d directory is more common in Linux; this approach enables packages to add files to the directory for their services, without having to modify /etc/pam.conf.

When reconfiguring PAM, you can easily render your system unable to support logins. Thus, I recommend experimenting with one login server at a time, leaving yourself some way to log in should you create an inoperable system. For instance, experiment with the login service and leave the gdm or xdm service alone. Some distributions use the pam_stack.so module (described shortly) to control many login servers. With such a system, you may need to back up its original configuration file and leave a root session running to be sure you can undo any disastrous mistake without logging in anew.


The /etc/pam.conf file entries are similar to the contents of files in /etc/pam.d. The principle difference is that the /etc/pam.conf entries begin with a service name field, which is missing from individual service files. The overall format for the lines in /etc/pam.d files is:

management_group  control_flag  module  [options]

Each field has a specific meaning:


management_group

This field holds one of four keywords specifying the type of service it defines: auth for authentication, account for account management, session for session management, or password for password management. Most PAM configuration files have at least one line of each type.


control_flag

This field describes how PAM should react to the success or failure of a module. Possible values are requisite, required, sufficient, and optional. The meanings of these values are described in the next section. A more advanced syntax involves matching specific actions to the module's exact return value. This is flexible but tedious to configure (it involves 30 return codes and six possible actions), and so it isn't described in this book.


module

This field is a pointer to the module file itself, sometimes with its complete path. (If the path is missing, PAM checks its modules directory, which is usually /lib/security.)


options

You can pass parameters to the module via the options field on the module definition line. Some options are highly module-specific, but others are recognized by many modules. Some of these options are described in the Section A.3.1.

This first field in the lines of pam.conf, which is missing from the /etc/pam.d files in most Linux distributions, holds the name of the tool it configures, such as login for the login service, or gdm for the GDM GUI login tool. If your system uses files in /etc/pam.d, the names of these files are typically the names that appear in this first column in a system that uses /etc/pam.conf.


In addition to configuration lines, PAM configuration files can contain comments. These begin with a hash mark (#). Entire lines can be comments, or comments can come at the end of a line that serves some other purpose.

A.2.2. Module Stacks

A configuration for a single authentication tool can combine several PAM modules. This happens in two ways. First, each of the four management groups (auth, account, session, and password) requires its own configuration. Second, with each management group, multiple modules can be called. When multiple modules are called, the result is referred to as a module stack. For instance, a login service might have separate auth and account stacks. These stacks are likely to have some modules in common (they perform different actions depending upon the calling stack), but each may also have some unique modules.

Individual modules in a stack deliver return values that can be classified as failures or successes. In this context, these terms don't refer to program bugs or the lack thereof, but to failures or successes in authentication or other actions. For instance, if a user enters the wrong password, an authentication module will fail.

Modules in a stack are called in the order in which they're specified. This order is unimportant if all of the modules are of the required variety, but if you use other control flagsparticularly requisite or sufficientorder can become important, as described shortly.

Understanding the operation of module stacks can be tricky, because the different control flags can have confusing implications. Table A-1 summarizes the consequences of successes and failures of modules called with particular control flags.

Table A-1. Consequences of control flags

Control flag

Module success result

Module failure result

requisite

Stack execution continues; stack may succeed or fail, depending on outcome of other modules

Stack execution terminates immediately; stack fails

required

Stack execution continues; stack may succeed or fail, depending on outcome of other modules

Stack execution continues, but stack fails

sufficient

Stack execution terminates immediately, provided no prior required module has failed; stack succeeds (failure of a prior required module may cause stack failure, though)

Stack execution continues; stack may succeed or fail, depending on outcome of other modules

optional

Stack execution continues; stack may succeed or fail, depending on outcome of other modules, unless other modules are missing or give inconclusive results, in which case the stack succeeds

Stack execution continues; stack may succeed or fail, depending on outcome of other modules, unless other modules are missing or give inconclusive results, in which case the stack fails


These rules can become quite confusing in the event of conflicting outcomes. For instance, consider the following stack:

auth required   pam_unix.so try_first_pass auth sufficient pam_krb5.so try_first_pass auth required   pam_env.so

For now, you need only know that the pam_unix.so and pam_krb5.so modules authenticate users, while pam_env.so sets environment variables but never returns a failure code. Because this stack provides two login modules, each with two possible outcomes, you must consider four possibilitiesboth succeed, both fail, pam_unix.so succeeds while pam_krb5.so fails, or pam_unix.so fails while pam_krb5.so succeeds. In practice, this stack as a whole succeeds if and only if pam_unix.so succeeds; if it fails, its required status overrides the sufficient status of pam_krb5.so, and if it succeeds, that success won't be overridden by a failure of the sufficient pam_krb5.so. What happens if the two authentication modules' order is reversed, though?

auth sufficient pam_krb5.so try_first_pass auth required   pam_unix.so try_first_pass auth required   pam_env.so

In this case, because the sufficient pam_krb5.so module comes first, its success bypasses the later required pam_unix.so module, so this stack succeeds if either module succeeds. A success of pam_krb5.so, though, bypasses the pam_env.so module, which may not be desirable.



    Linux in a Windows World
    Linux in a Windows World
    ISBN: 0596007582
    EAN: 2147483647
    Year: 2005
    Pages: 152

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