Pages divides its formatting abilitiesthe variety of ways it can modify your text and the overall document's appearanceinto five formatting categories: Character, Paragraph, Layout, Section, and Document.
Character (or font) formatting includes all the modifications you can apply to each individual character: font, size , style, and color . You can make these changes to single characters or to words, paragraphs, entire pages, or the whole documentwhatever you've highlighted before applying the formatting commands described below.
Paragraph formatting modifies the way a paragraph or group of paragraphs appear, including line spacing, tabs, indents, and bullets and numbering. Since this formatting applies to the entire paragraph, you need only have the insertion point somewhere within the paragraph before applying the formattingyou don't have to highlight the entire paragraph. (See Paragraph Formatting, Section 126.96.36.199.)
Layout formatting controls the number, size, and spacing of columns and page margins for your document's layout . Layouts are one way you can subdivide your document to create, for example, two columns in one part, three columns in another, and wider margins in another. (See Layout Formatting, Section 3.4, for the full story.)
Section formatting involves page numbering, header and footer placement, and Master Objects (repeating elements that appear on every page of a section). (Section Formatting, Section 3.5.3.)
Document formatting incorporates overall page margins and the footnote setup for the whole document. (Document Formatting, Section 2.1.4.)
Character formattingalso called font formattingcontrols the appearance of a single letter, a word, a paragraph, or even an entire document. You'll find controls for adjusting character formatting in four places within Pages: the Font panel, the Text Inspector, the Format menu, and the shortcut pop-up menus (Figure 2-1).
To choose or change a font, adjust its size, color, shadow, and more, click the toolbar's Fonts button or choose Format Fonts Show Fonts. The Font panel appears. Now you have access to all the fonts on your computer, and extensive controls to modify their appearance (see Figure 2-2).
The heart of the Font panel is the display of columns that list your font Collections (font groupings that came on your computer or that you've created), the font Family (the font nameHelvetica or Times, for example), the Typeface (the font styleplain, bold, italic, and so on), and the size. Select All Fonts under Collections to see every font available on your computer. Work your way through the columns from left to right to select a font, style and size.
Professional designers and typesetters may roll their eyes, but when you're starting from scratch with the Blank document template, Pages assumes Helvetica is your favorite font. Helvetica is a sans serif font, best suited for headlines and small amounts of text. Serif fonts like Times or Palatino are better for body text.
With most word processors, you can just change a preference setting to choose a different standard, or default, fontbut with Pages' page-layout approach to word processing you have to create a new template with your preferred font. Slightly annoying, but doable. The next section shows you how.
Changing the standard font . To create a new template with a new standard font style, begin by choosing the Blank template to create a new document (page 2). Select the font in the size you prefer for your new standard. (Now's also the ideal time to make any other changes you want for your standard documentfor example, margins, text alignment, and so on. You'll find details on how to make those adjustments later in this chapter.) Choose File Save as Template. Give the template a name such as, "Blank-Times-12 and click Save.
Your newly minted template appears in the Template Chooser window in the category "My Templates." Now you can select it instead of the Blank template as a starting point for your normal documents.
The font effects toolbar . You can further format your font in the Font panel after you've selected the basics of font, style, and size. You'll find a row of buttons in the Font panel controlling various font special effects such as color, strikethrough style, and text shadow. See Figure 2-2 for a rundown of all the options.
The Actions Menu . You can control the Font panel's behavior and access some of the more esoteric font settings through the Actions menu. Click the Actions pop-up menu at the bottom of the Font panelit looks like a gearto see these options.
Add to Favorites . After you choose a font Family, Typeface, and Size, use this command to add the font to a special collection called Favorites. Pages saves the font, style, and size in the Favorites and the Recently Used collections. You can use these font collections in any program that uses OS X's Font panel, such as TextEdit, Keynote, and Mail.
Show/Hide Preview . Surprisingly, Pages hides one of the Font panel's best features when it opens the first time. Choose Show Preview to reveal the font preview pane. Now as you select fonts, styles, and sizes you can see exactly what they look like (see Figure 2-2). Repeat this commandnow labeled Hide Previewif you don't appreciate this feature.
Hide/Show Effects . Choose this command to hide the row of buttons for text special effectsunderline, color, shadow, and so on.
| UP TO SPEED |
The First Rule of Fonts
Serifs are the little points or lines at the ends of the strokes that form certain kinds of typefaces. They're remnants of the time before printing presses, when all type was inscribed by hand with a broad-tipped pen and ink. Over the past 500 years , type designers have retained serifs in these font designsnot out of a reverence for tradition, but because serifs make type more readable. Tests for readability have shown that serif-style typefacesespecially the old style ones like Garamond, Palatino, and Timesare much easier than sans serif typefaces to read in blocks of text.
Most books, including this one, use a serif font as the primary typeface, and a sans serif font for headlines, titles, and little informative sidebar boxes like this one. Grab almost any book, newspaper, or magazine and you'll see the serif-for-body-copy rule in effect. Do your readers a favor by following this rule, whether you're writing a letter, a newsletter, or a doctoral dissertation.
Color . The Color Picker appears when you choose this command, allowing you to choose text coloruseful if you choose to hide the color effects buttons, above.
Characters . Forget about trying to remember the convoluted keyboard combinations for the special symbols included in many fonts. This command brings up the Character Palette , OS X's built-in cheat sheet for selecting all those math and currency symbols, Greek letters , copyright signs, and so on.
Typography . Choose this command and prepare to be amazed. The Typography Palette is a potpourri of advanced typographical controls that affect the text in your entire document. You can choose to turn on such esoteric options as Unicode decomposition, Diacritics, Yiddish Digraphs, Diphthong ligatures, or Vietnamese Double Accents. Pages presents different options depending on the font you've selected. (If such typographical exotica sound useful to you, a quick Google search turns up definitions for this lingo, which is unfortunately beyond the scope of this book.)
Edit Sizes . This command lets you show or hide the font size list and slider, and set a size range for the slider. You can also edit the list of sizes displayed, so, for example, if you often use a font size of 13.6 or 192 points, you can add those sizes to the list for easy accessand remove 9 if you never use it. (You can always type a font size directly into the size box if it's not in the list.)
Manage Fonts . Choose the final command in the Actions menu to open the Font Book, the heart of OS X's font management system. In the Font Book you can add or remove fonts, activate or disable fonts, search for duplicate fonts, and manage font collections.
After you've formatted your fonts using the Font Panel, the next stop is the Text Inspector. Use the Text Inspector's Text pane to control character spacing and access another way to change font color (see Figure 2-3). Choose View Show Inspector or click the Inspector button on the toolbar, and then click the Text button in the Inspector palette. Finally, click the Text tab to reveal the text color (also available via the Font Palette, described above) and character spacing controls.
| GEM IN THE ROUGH |
Playing Favorites with Templates
If you find you're always starting Pages with the same template, you can save yourself the extra steps of going through the Template Chooser every time by specifying a standard template for new documents.
Once you set this preference for new Pages documents, say adios to the Template Chooser. You only see it againand you can only select other Templatesif you change the "For New Documents" preference back to "Use Template Chooser."
When you click the Text Color sample box once again, you summon the Color Picker. Click a Color Picker color to load it into the Text Inspector. Any text you had highlighted changes to the new color; otherwise, typing at the insertion point reflects your new color choice.
The Character Spacing slider adjusts the amount of space between letters, known to typographers as tracking . You'd want to use this control, for example, to expand or contract a headline to perfectly fit above a column. Used judiciouslyjust a few percentthe effect is nearly invisible, yet it can make a big improvement to the appearance of your layout. Use it at higher or lower settings only if you're trying to attract attention.
Click the Text Inspector's More tab to get to one more character formatting control tucked in amongst the paragraph formatting controls: Baseline Shift. Use this setting to raise or lower the selected text relative to other text on the line. Use the up arrow button or enter the number of points in the box to raise the text; use the down arrow button or enter a negative number to lower the text.
The Format Font Baseline menu holds commands for raising and lowering the baseline in one-point increments and for creating preset superscripts and subscriptsraised or lowered baselines and a smaller font sizewhich are useful for creating endnote reference numbers or chemical formulae (Figure 2-4). Youll find the Text Inspector's Baseline Shift control more flexible, however. With this control, you can make fractional -point adjustments to the baseline shiftjust what you might need for precision character tweaking when you're mixing different fonts on the same line, or need to adjust a trademark symbol, for example.
By choosing Format Font you can access some of the same controls found in the Font panel and the Text Inspector. You can apply the basic font styles (bold, italic, underline, and so on); increase or decrease size; adjust tracking and baseline; and turn ligatures (see the upcoming sidebar "Ligatures: The Art of Linked Letters") or capitalization on or off (Figure 2-4). (Although you can select Format Font Ligature Use Default or Use All, this setting doesnt have any effect if ligatures are turned off in the Document Inspector for the entire document.)
| POWER USERS' CLINIC |
Ligatures: The Art of Linked Letters
Ligatures are pairs of letters that share common components when printed next to each other. Scribes writing with pen and ink in the Middle Ages originally created ligatures to save space on the parchment and increase writing speedjust like when you cross two Ts in a word at once
Typographers now create these special combination characters to improve the printed text's appearance. The most common ligatures are ff, fi, fl, ffi, and ffl. Believe it or not, the ampersand (&) is actually a stylized ligature for the letters et Latin for and .
Though Pages can apply formatting variations in a dizzying array at the character level, another style of formatting applies only to entire paragraphsline spacing, paragraph indents, margins, and so on.
Even though most computer owners haven't touched a typewriter for yearsif evermany bad habits persist from that earlier technology. Here are a few of the more egregious examples of typewriter style that are obsolete in the computer age.
Underlining : Although Pages makes it simple to format text with underlining, don't use this style for emphasis. Use bold or italics , which are much more professional looking (and equally easy to apply). (When's the last time you saw something underlined in a magazine article?)
Spacing with the space bar: Use the space bar only for spacing between words. Never use the space bar for aligning successive lines of text; when printed, those spaces cause your text to tumble out of alignment. Instead, use Pages' tab feature, as described later in this chapter.
Special characters and accents are easy to produce correctly on a computer. Don't write resume if you mean rsum. Are you making copies or using the Xerox? Don't put it off until maanatake that vacation to Curaao today!
To find out how to produce these special markings , use the Keyboard Viewerbut first you have to bring it out of hiding. Choose Apple Menu System Preferences International and click the Input Menu tab. Turn on the checkboxes for Character Palette, Keyboard Viewer, and "Show input menu in menu bar." From now on, you can open the Keyboard Viewer by clicking the International menuletthe little flagat the right end of your Macs menu bar and choosing Show Keyboard Viewer.
Use its pop-up menu to select the font you're using and watch the Keyboard Viewer as you press Optionwith and without the shift keyto display these hidden characters. When you spot the character you're looking for, press that key on the keyboard or click it in the Keyboard Viewer to add it to your document at the insertion point.
When you press Option, the Keyboard Viewer highlights five keystilde, E, U, I, and Nthat you can use to add accents to letters using a two-step process. For example, to type the