Creating an Object Using the Singleton Pattern


Creating a JavaScript object with the Singleton pattern is so simple and intuitive that you might not have even realized that you made one in Chapter 6, "Creating the Engine," when you created the Ajax object. To instantiate a Singleton object, simply write the following line of code:

AjaxUpdater = {};


Instantiating the object is truly this simple and, as you can see, it only allows us to create the one reference to the object within the object itself. This object will then be used throughout the rest of the web application for constant reference. Now that we have our object instantiated, all we have to do is call it by name from anywhere in the application to access its properties and methods.

Creating properties and methods in a Singleton object is just as simple as instantiating the object. Write the name of the object, followed by the name of the method, and then point it to a new function, with any associated parameters if necessary. Take a look at the example of the initialize method in Listing 14.1.

Listing 14.1. Creating a Method in a Singleton Object (AjaxUpdater.js)

AjaxUpdater.initialize = function() {     AjaxUpdater.isUpdating = false; } AjaxUpdater.initialize();

The initialize method needs to be invoked after it is created in order to initialize the object before we can use the rest of its methods. It also prevents JavaScript from throwing an error because the method will not have existed at this point. This method initializes the AjaxUpdater and, although it does not accept any parameters, it is used to set all the local properties for the object. If this object is not initialized, the properties of the object will not be properly instantiated when we try to access their values, resulting in unexpected behaviors. Creating a property in a Singleton object is as simple as typing the name of the object, followed by the property you want to create.

AjaxUpdater.isUpdating = false;


In the preceding example, we are creating a Boolean property named isUpdating. This property is set to false by default because the object is not currently active, which means that it is not currently updating any requests or waiting for any responses. The isUpdating Boolean will be used to determine whether the object is currently updating a request or waiting for a response from the Ajax engine. This property will be extremely useful when we have an application with numerous requests because we might need to decide whether to make a new request based on its value, or we might want to check it if a user is trying to exit the page while a request is in transit to warn him of any potential data loss. There are many other uses for this Boolean value, as we will discover when our application grows larger and has numerous active requests.

After we have our object instantiated and all its properties are initialized, we can create the rest of the methods it will contain. The methods we will be creating will help this object handle all of our Ajax requests and delegate the server-side responses to the correct callback methods. The method we will use the most throughout our web application is the Update method. This method will handle making all the requests and delegating all the responses to the appropriate callback methods. The object takes three parameters to provide maximum flexibility to our object's XHRs. The first parameter is called method because it represents the method in which we want to handle the requests. As we learned in Chapter 2, "The Request", there are three possible values for this parameter: GET, POST, and PUT. The second parameter is a called service. This parameter represents the key/value pair, XML, or any other type of data that we would like to pass to the server side to be saved to a database or used to retrieve specific data. The third is an optional parameter named callback. This parameter represents the callback method that other objects will register to use when making a request. This method can be located in any other object, as long as it is scoped properly during the request. If this parameter is not passed, we default to a callback parameter that we will create as part of the AjaxUpdater object next. Listing 14.2 shows how the Update method is constructed.

Listing 14.2. The Update Method in the AjaxUpdater (AjaxUpdater.js)

AjaxUpdater.Update = function(method , service, callback) {     if(callback == undefined || callback == "")     {         callback = AjaxUpdater.onResponse;     }     Ajax.makeRequest(method, service, callback);     AjaxUpdater.isUpdating = true; }

The first section of code in the Update method is an if statement, which checks for the callback parameter. We check to see if this value is undefined or an empty string. If it is, we set it to a default method named onResponse, which is a method that will exist in the AjaxUpdater object. When we are sure that we have a callback method set, we move on to make our XHR through the Ajax object. We already know how the engine handles XHRs at this pointthe only difference here is that we are encapsulating it into our new AjaxUpdater object and abstracting the Ajax object from the rest of our application. As I mentioned at the beginning of this section, the Ajax object also uses the Singleton pattern because we do not want multiple Ajax objects floating around a large web application because it would get very unwieldy. The XHR is made by directly calling the Ajax object's makeRequest method and passing it three parameters. The first parameter is the method in which we want to send the data, which we have passed to the Update method. The second parameter is the service parameter that we passed to the Update method, which contains an XML or server-side file and additional query strings. The last parameter is the callback method that was either passed to the Update method or set to the default response method in the if statement. This method will make an XHR according to the data we provide it and respond to the callback method we pass to it, regardless of where it is located in the application. As you can see, we are also setting the isUpdating Boolean from the initialize method to TRue based on the fact that a request is in progress when this method is invoked.

The onResponse method that we use as a default callback method is very simple and can be used for any default response that you would like; see Listing 14.3. In the example, I am simply using it as a way to reset the isUpdating Boolean back to false, but you could use it to display a default, custom loading message, and so on.

Listing 14.3. The onResponse Method in the AjaxUpdater (AjaxUpdater.js)

AjaxUpdater.onResponse = function() {     if(Ajax.checkReadyState('loading') == "OK")     {         AjaxUpdater.isUpdating = false;     } }

If we do not use this default callback method, we will need another way to set the isUpdating Boolean to false. I have decided to set this variable directly in the Ajax object's checkReadyState method. When the readyState of the response reaches level 4, we know that the response has completed and is no longer updating. Listing 14.4 shows an example of where to add this code to the existing method.

Listing 14.4. Updating the AjaxUpdater Status

Ajax.checkReadyState = function(_id) {     switch(this.request.readyState)     {         case 1:             document.getElementById(_id).innerHTML = 'Loading ...';             break;         case 2:             document.getElementById(_id).innerHTML = 'Loading ...';             break;         case 3:             document.getElementById(_id).innerHTML = 'Loading ...';             break;         case 4:             AjaxUpdater.isUpdating = false;             document.getElementById(_id).innerHTML = '';             return this.http.status(this.request.status);     } }

As you can see, this has been a simple addition to the object, but it will cover all of our responses in future requests.



Ajax for Web Application Developers
Ajax for Web Application Developers
ISBN: 0672329123
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2007
Pages: 129
Authors: Kris Hadlock

Similar book on Amazon

flylib.com © 2008-2017.
If you may any questions please contact us: flylib@qtcs.net