Too often, project managers take a linear view of projects. The mere act of building a schedule, for example, suggests linearity . In addition, many of them focus on the tangible elements and ignore the importance of those subtle elements that affect an entire project, such as sponsors. Gardner and Gadeken see the value of taking an integrated approach.
Effective project leaders consider both the tangible and intangible factors and integrate the two. Again, take the example of building a schedule. Not only is it influenced by time and sequence, but also by the motivation of team members and external forces, e.g., the market and international conditions. Project leaders see such interrelationships and assess their impacts, positive and negative.
Failure to take such an integrated view can have serious consequences. Project managers may overlook key risks. They may act in a way that has serious ramifications , not necessarily up front but later. In the end, they embrace shortsightedness and react , not respond, towards their environment.