The CM process defines the sequence of activities that must be performed in support of the CM mechanisms. As with most activities in project management, the first stage in the CM process at Infosys is planning identifying those items that need to be under CM (known as configuration items), locations to store them, procedures for change control, and so on. The project manager or the configuration controller (CC) of the project prepares this plan. Then the process must be executed, perhaps by deploying a tool (the use of which also must be planned). Finally, because any CM plan requires discipline on the part of the project personnel in terms of maintaining versions, storing items in proper locations, and making changes properly, monitoring the status of the configuration items and performing CM audits are therefore other activities in the CM process. This chapter discusses these three activities of the CM process at Infosys.

9.2.1 Planning and Setting Up Configuration Management

Planning for configuration management involves identifying the configuration items and specifying the procedures to be used for controlling and implementing changes to them. Identifying configuration items is a fundamental activity in any type of CM.2,3,4 Typical examples of configuration items include requirements specifications, design documents, source code, test plans, test scripts, test procedures, test data, standards used in the project (such as coding standards and design standards), the acceptance plan, documents such as the CM plan and the project plan, user documentation such as the user manual, and documents such as the training material, contract documents (including support tools such as a compiler or in-house tools), quality records (review records, test records), and CM records (release records, status tracking records). Any customer-supplied products or purchased items that will be part of the delivery (called "included software product") are also configuration items.

During planning, the types of items that come under the aegis of CM are identified, but a detailed list of items is not prepared. This omission reflects the fact that some items may not be known during CM planning (which occurs at the beginning of the project). To facilitate proper naming of configuration items, the naming conventions for CM items are established during the CM planning stages. In addition to naming standards, project managers must plan version numbering. When a configuration item is changed, the old item is not replaced with the new copy; instead, the old copy is maintained and a new one is created. This approach results in multiple versions of an item, so policies for version number assignment are needed. If a CM tool is being used, sometimes the tool handles the version numbering. Otherwise, it must be explicitly handled in the project.

During planning, the project manager must decide how to maintain the state of a program. One way of collecting items in different states is to create separate directories for them. All items in a certain state reside in the directory for that state. When the state of a program changes, that program is moved from the directory for the old state to the directory for the new state. This approach is a general one and does not require the use of any tool to maintain the state information. If a CM tool is available, however, the directory structure needed for managing the states of programs depends on the tool. During the planning phase, project managers must set the directory structure employed for managing the states, keeping in mind the requirements of the CM tool, if any.

The configuration controller or the project manager does the CM planning. It is begun only when the project has been initiated and the operating environment and requirements specifications are clearly documented. The activities in this stage include the following:

         Identify configuration items, including customer-supplied and purchased items.

         Define a naming and numbering scheme for the configuration items.

         Define the directory structure needed for CM.

         Define access restrictions.

         Define change control procedures.

         Identify and define the responsibility and authority of the CC or Configuration Control Board (CCB).

         Define a method for tracking the status of configuration items.

         Define a backup procedure.

         Define a reconciliation procedure, if needed.

         Define a release procedure.

         Define an archival procedure.

         Identify points at which the configuration items will be moved to the baseline.

The output of this phase is the CM plan. The CC is responsible for the implementation of the CM plan. Depending on the size of the system under development, the CC's role may be a part-time or a full-time job. The CC can also be responsible for managing the release, archiving the release, retrieving and releasing appropriate versions when required, and more.

In certain cases when there are large teams or when two or more teams or groups are involved in the development of the same or different portions of the software or interfacing systems it may be necessary to have a CCB. This board includes representatives from each of the teams. A CCB (or a CC) is considered essential for CM,3 and the CM plan must clearly define the roles and responsibilities of the CC or CCB. These duties also depend on the type of file system and tools being used.

As noted earlier, CM requires that access to some items in some states remain restricted. For example, the programmers' access and right to modify a program in the baseline must be limited. Planning activities must therefore specify the access rights of the CC, the project manager, and the developers.

Policies and procedures for change control are also established during planning. This includes controlling normal changes that take place during the life cycle as well as changes that are driven by requirement changes. Normal changes are generally managed through a library mechanism and directory structure. Changes due to requirement change requests, which may necessitate that many programs be changed, are frequently tracked through a spreadsheet that lists all items that must be changed as well as the directory for each item (thereby giving its state).

If project managers allow concurrent updates to programs, they must specify reconciliation procedures. Concurrent updates are sometimes necessary. For example, suppose a high-priority change request comes in at the same time that another change request is being implemented. Clearly, the new change request cannot be put on hold until the first one is finished. Similarly, if problems occur in the working system while a change request is being implemented, then changes must be made immediately to ensure that the system can continue to function. For such situations, reconciliation procedures are needed.

One possible procedure is to state that the differences between the original version and the new versions will be examined, and the changes in the version having fewer changes will be merged in the other version. If the changes affect different parts of the program, merging is straightforward; some CM tools readily support this capability. Otherwise, the programmer must review the overlap and then accommodate both changes.

All elements of the plan are documented in the CM plan. Later in this chapter we give the CM plan for the ACIC project.

9.2.2 Perform Configuration Control

Although configuration control activities are undertaken during the execution phase of the project, we discuss them here along with other aspects of CM. Two main configuration control activities are performed: one that deals with managing the state transitions of programs (and documents), and one that deals with managing the change requests that must be implemented.

State transition management involves moving the items from one directory to another when the state changes and then creating versions when changes are made.

Frequently, tools are used to manage the states and versions of items and access to them. Many CM tools employ the check-in/check-out procedure for controlling access and handling version control. The basic idea behind this approach is as follows. A program is considered to be in a controlled environment when it is in any state in which others can use it. Once a program is in the controlled environment, it cannot be modified, even by the original author, without proper authorization, because others may be using it. To make an approved change, the developer must check the program out of the controlled environment. Checking out essentially implies making a copy of the item without destroying the earlier version, and making a note that the item has been checked out.

An item is modified after it has been checked out. The modifications must then be reflected in the controlled environment so that others have the benefit of the new version and so that the change request (which may have forced the changes) can be truly implemented. Because other team members may be using the items, some checks are done to ensure that the changed item is suitable before it is checked back in. When an item is checked back into the controlled environment, the older copy is not destroyed; instead, a new version is created. Often, only the CC or the project leader can check items in. This limitation makes it possible to roll back the changes if the need arises.

To provide information about changes that have been made, project managers can opt to keep a modification log in the program source itself. This log essentially identifies the start and end of a change and includes a reference to the change request that prompted it.

All these tasks checking in, checking out, version maintenance, and creation of a modification log can be handled through the use of proper CM tools. Various tools are available that perform many aspects of this CM library function.

To implement requirement changes, which in turn trigger changes to configuration items, a change request is first analyzed by performing an impact analysis (discussed in Chapter 3). This analysis determines the programs and documents that need to be changed and the cost and schedule implications of making the change. Once the change is approved by the project leader and the CC, all programs and documents identified in the impact analysis must be changed appropriately. The following activities are part of implementing a change request:

         Accept the change request (with impact analysis).

         Set up a tracking mechanism.

         Check out configuration items that need to be changed.

         Perform the changes.

         Check in the configuration items.

         Take the item through its life cycle.

A spreadsheet-based mechanism is frequently used for tracking the status of change requests. For each change request, a spreadsheet is created that lists all programs being changed and their status. To implement a change, the CC or CCB assigns modifications to different items as tasks to members of the team, who check the items out so as to make these changes. After a team member makes a change, the changed program (or document) can be viewed as a new program that must go through different states (representing the life cycle of the program) before it can become part of the final in-operation system. Once all altered programs and their associated documents reach the baseline (after following their life cycle), the change request is considered to be fully implemented.

9.2.3 Status Monitoring and Audits

A configuration item can exist in one of several states. The set of possible states varies according to whether the item is a program or a document and the type of CM tools being used. It is important to accurately represent the state of each item because state-related mistakes can lead to problems. For example, if a program has not been unit tested but is moved to the state "ready for release," it can cause problems. Similarly, if the system fails to reflect the fact that a program has been checked out from the baseline to implement a change, the software might be delivered without the change. Thus, when a requirement change request is implemented, it is also important that the mechanisms used to capture the state accurately represent the state.

If projects use a mechanism based on a directory structure to represent the state of a program, mistakes are possible. This type of mechanism requires that the programs be moved properly from one directory to another when their state changes and that the change of state be reflected in the master table that maintains the states of the various items. To minimize mistakes and catch any errors early, projects must perform regular status checking of the configuration items. A report can be produced about the discrepancies, and all such discrepancies must be resolved.

In addition to checking the status of the items, projects must check the status of change requests. To accomplish this goal, change requests that have been received since the last CM status monitoring operation are examined. For each change request, the state of the item as mentioned in the change request records is compared to the actual state. Checks can also be done to ensure that all modified items go through their full life cycle (that is, the state diagram) before they are incorporated in the baseline.

Finally, projects can perform a configuration audit. As in other audits, the main focus here is to ensure that the CM process of the project is indeed being followed. The baseline for the system can also be audited to ensure that its integrity is not being violated and that items are moved to and from the baseline in a manner consistent with the CM plans.

The project's configuration controller generally conducts the CM audits. After a CM audit, a report is usually issued that lists what needs to be done to keep the CM activities consistent with the CM plan. Table 9.1 shows an example of the CM audit report for the ACIC project (whose CM plan is given later in this chapter). As you can see, in addition to looking at the process, the CM audit focuses on the status and location of the configuration items.

Table 9.1. CM Audit Report for the ACIC Project

Sequence Number



Complete By


Mails to be logged in to the Messages/User folder


06 Aug 2000


Reviewed sequence diagrams to be moved under VSS


06 Aug 2000


CM plan to be updated with the changed directory structure


05 Aug 2000


Completed sequence diagrams to be moved from users' area to the review area


06 Aug 2000


Update VSS to reflect the modifications in the storage structure


06 Aug 2000


ProjectDocs subfolder in Users folder to be cleaned up


06 Aug 2000


Software Project Management in Practice
Linux Annoyances for Geeks: Getting the Most Flexible System in the World Just the Way You Want It
ISBN: 0596008015
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2005
Pages: 83
Authors: Michael Jang

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