Appendix C. Commands and Flags


This appendix provides a list of many (but certainly not all) Unix commands and programs as well as many of the related command-line flags.

In general, flags offer a thorough selection of options for programs that operate exclusively from command-line input, as well as an overview of the functionality for many other programs. Please keep in mind, however, that command flags only touch the surface of the capabilities of interactive programs (like pico, vi, links, or pine) or particularly complex programs that rely on special expressions (such as grep or TR) or that use multiple files or sources for information (such as procmail).

Table C.1 should provide you with a brief reminder and starting point for learning more about these Unix commands. While the flags we've included here work on our systems, they will likely vary somewhat on different systems, different Unix versions or with different shells. Check your local man pages for specifics.

Table C.1. Commands and Flags

COMMAND/FLAG

DESCRIPTION

alias

Use to create command aliases.

at

Use to schedule, examine, or delete jobs for queued execution.

-V

Displays version information.

-q queue

Specifies queue to use (as a letter). Higher letters are nicer.

-m

Specifies mail notification to user when job has completed.

-f file

Reads job from file.

-l

Lists queues, just like atq.

-d

Deletes scheduled jobs, just like atrm.

atq

Use to show queues of scheduled jobs.

-q queue

Specifies queue to use (as a letter).

atrm

Use to remove a job from the queue.

-q queue

Specifies queue to use (as a letter).

awk

Use to manipulate files as databases.

-F fieldseparator

Specifies field separator.

-v variable=value

Sets variable to value.

-f program -file

Specifies file or files containing awk program source.

--help

Prints help information.

--version

Prints version information.

--

Specifies end of option list.

bash

Use the efficient, user-friendly shell bash.

-c string

Reads commands from string.

-i

Makes the shell interactive, as opposed to noninteractive, as in a shell script.

-s

Specifies that additional options, beyond those given, should be read from standard input.

-, --

Indicates the end of options and stops further option processing.

--norc

Specifies not to read ~/.bashrc.

--noprofile

Specifies not to read systemwide or individual configuration files.

--rcfile file

Specifies alternative configuration file.

--version

Displays bash version number.

--login

Specifies to start bash as a login shell.

--posix

Specifies Posix compliance, which helps make anything more portable from system to system.

batch

Use to schedule jobs for low system loads.

bg

Use to move a job to the background.

cal

Use to display a calendar.

-j

Displays Julian dates with days numbered through the year from January 1.

-y

Displays the current year's calendar.

month year

Specifies month (1 to 12) and year (1 to 9999).

cat

Use to send text to standard output, usually the screen.

-b, --number-nonblank

Specifies to number all nonblank output lines.

-n, --number

Specifies to number all output lines.

-s, --squeeze-blank

Specifies to replace adjacent blank lines with a single blank line.

-v, --show-nonprinting

Specifies to display control characters with "^" preceding them.

-A, --show-all

Specifies to show all control characters.

-E, --show-ends

Specifies to display a "$" at the end of each line.

-T, --show-tabs

Specifies to display tab characters as "^I".

--help

Displays a help message.

--version

Displays the version number.

cd

Use to change the working directory.

chgrp

Use to change the group ownership of files.

-c, --changes

Specifies to list files whose ownership actually changes.

-f, --silent, --quiet

Suppresses error messages for files that cannot be changed.

-v, --verbose

Specifies to describe changed ownership.

-R, --recursive

Specifies to recursively change ownership of directories and contents.

--help

Displays help message.

--version

Displays version information.

chmod

Use to change the access permissions of files.

-c, --changes

Specifies to list files whose permissions actually change.

-f, --silent, --quiet

Suppresses error messages.

-v, --verbose

Specifies to describe changed permissions.

-R, --recursive

Specifies to recursively change permissions of directories and contents.

--help

Displays help message.

--version

Displays version information.

chown

Use to change the user and group ownership of files.

-c, --changes

Specifies to list files whose ownership actually changes.

-f, --silent, --quiet

Suppresses error messages for files that cannot be changed.

-v, --verbose

Specifies to describe changed ownership.

-R, --recursive

Specifies to recursively change ownership of directories and contents.

--help

Displays help message.

--version

Displays version information.

chsh

Use to change your login shell.

-s, --shell

Specifies the new login shell.

-l, --list-shells

Displays the shells in /etc/shells.

-u, --help

Prints a help message.

--version

Prints version information.

cmp

Use to compare two files.

-l

Displays the byte number (which starting byte in the file) in decimal and the differing bytes in octal for each difference.

-s

Displays nothing for differing files except exit status.

compress

Use to compress and expand archives.

-c

Specifies that compress/uncompress write to standard output (usually your screen) and leave files unchanged.

-r

Specifies to recursively process directories.

-V

Displays version information.

cp

Use to copy files or directories.

-a, --archive

Specifies to preserve file structure and attributes.

-b, --backup

Specifies to make backups of files before overwriting.

-d, --no-dereference

Specifies to copy symbolic links as symbolic links rather than the files that they point to.

-f, --force

Specifies to overwrite all existing destination files.

-i, --interactive

Requires prompting before overwriting.

-l, --link

Specifies to make hard links instead of copies of files.

-P, --parents

Completes destination filenames by appending the source filename to the target directory name.

-p, --preserve

Specifies to preserve the original file characteristics, including permissions and ownership.

-r

Specifies to copy directories recursively.

-s, --symbolic-link

Specifies to make symbolic links instead of copies of files.

-u, --update

Specifies not to overwrite newer files.

-v, --verbose

Displays filenames before copying.

-x, --one-file-system

Restricts action to a single file system.

-R, --recursive

Specifies to copy directories recursively.

--help

Prints a help message.

--version

Prints version information.

-S, --suffix backup-suffix

Specifies a suffix for backup files.

crontab

Use to maintain crontab files.

-l

Displays current crontab.

-r

Removes current crontab.

-e

Opens crontab in default editor.

df

Use to display information about free disk space.

-a, --all

Specifies that all file systems, including special ones (e.g. CDROM, MSDOS), should be processed.

-i, --inodes

Displays inode (disk element) usage information.

-k, --kilobytes

Displays sizes in 1 KB blocks instead of 512-byte blocks.

-h

Provides file sizes in human-readable format.

-P, --portability

Uses Posix standard output format.

-T, --print-type

Displays type of each file system.

-t, --type=fstype

Displays only named file system types.

-x, --exclude-type=fstype

Displays only non-named file system types.

--help

Prints help information.

--version

Prints version information.

diff

Use to display differences between text files.

-b

Specifies to ignore trailing blanks (spaces and tabs) and consider other blanks equivalent.

-i

Specifies case-insensitive comparisons.

-t

Specifies to expand tab characters to spaces in output.

-w

Specifies to ignore all blanks.

-c

Specifies a listing of differences with three lines of context.

-C number

Specifies a listing of differences with number lines of context.

-e

Specifies output of a script for the ed editor to re-create the second file from the first.

-f

Specifies output of a script to create the first file from the second. This does not work with ed.

-h

Specifies fast and not necessarily complete comparison.

-n

Specifies output of a script to create the first file from the second along with a total of changed lines for each command.

-D string

Outputs combined version of first and second files with C preprocessor controls to compile as the first or the second file.

-r

Specifies that diff should recursively process subdirectories common to both given directories.

-s

Outputs names of identical (not different) files.

-S name

Begins comparison within a directory with the specified filename.

dig

Use to look up IP numbers or domain names.

-b ip-address

Specifies to set the source IP address of the query.

-f filename

Specifies to read lookup requests from a file (filename).

-p portnumber

Specifies a port number to use instead of the standard 53.

-t type

Specifies the query type.

-x

Specifies reverse lookups (addresses to names).

du

Use to display disk usage information.

-a, --all

Displays information for all files.

-b, --bytes

Displays sizes in bytes.

-c, --total

Displays totals for all arguments.

-k, --kilobytes

Displays sizes in kilobytes.

-h, --human-readable

Provides file sizes in human-readable format.

-l, --count-links

Displays sizes of all files, including linked files counted elsewhere.

-s, --summarize

Displays only totals for each argument.

-x, --one-file-system

Specifies not to process directories on other file systems.

-L, --dereference

Displays space used by linked file or directory, not just space used by link.

-S, --separate-dirs

Counts directories separately.

--help

Prints help information.

--version

Prints version information.

elm

Use to send and receive mail.

-a

Specifies arrow cursor.

-c

Expands specified aliases and exits.

-d level

Specifies debugging output.

-f folder

Specifies folder to read instead of incoming mail folder.

-h, -?

Displays help message.

-i file

Read named file into message editor.

-m

Disables menu.

-s subj

Specifies subject for mail messages.

-v

Displays version information.

-z

Specifies not to start elm if no mail is present.

emacs

Use to edit files.

file

Specifies name of file to edit.

+number

Specifies to go to the specified line number.

-q

Specifies not to load an initialization file.

-u user

Specifies to load users's initialization file.

-t file

Specifies to use file as the terminal.

expr

Use to evaluate expressions.

--help

Specifies to display help information.

--version

Specifies to display version information.

fg

Use to move a job to the foreground.

file

Use to determine file type.

-m list

Specifies alternative list of files with magic numbers (helping to indicate file type).

-z

Attempts to look into compressed files.

-b

Specifies brief output mode.

-c

Checks magic file.

-f file

Specifies to read names of the files to be examined from file.

-L

Specifies to follow symbolic links.

find

Use to find files in the Unix system.

-daystart

Specifies to measure all times starting today, not 24 hours ago.

-depth

Specifies to process directory contents before the directory.

-follow

Specifies to follow symbolic links.

-help, --help

Prints a help message.

-maxdepth levels

Specifies how many levels below starting directory level to descend.

-mindepth levels

Specifies how many levels below starting directory level to start processing.

-mount, -xdev

Specifies not to descend directories on other file systems.

-noleaf

Specifies not to optimize for Unix systems, which is needed for CD-ROM directories, for example.

--version

Prints version information.

-amin n

Finds files accessed n minutes ago.

-anewer file

Finds files accessed more recently than they were modified.

-atime n

Finds files accessed n days ago.

-cmin n

Finds files whose status was changed n minutes ago.

-cnewer file

Finds files whose status was changed more recently than the file was modified.

-ctime n

Finds files whose status was changed n days ago.

-empty

Finds files that are empty.

-fstype type

Finds files on file systems of specified type.

-gid n

Finds files with numeric group ID of n.

-group gname

Finds files with group name of gname or corresponding group ID.

-ilname pattern

Finds files that are symbolic links with pattern text in the name, case-insensitive.

-iname pattern

Finds files with pattern in the name, case-insensitive.

-inum n

Finds files with inode number n.

-ipath pattern

Finds files with pattern in the path, case-insensitive.

-iregex pattern

Finds files with regular expression pattern in name, case-insensitive.

-links n

Finds files with n links.

-lname pattern

Finds files that are symbolic links with pattern in the name.

-mmin n

Finds files last modified n minutes ago.

-mtime n

Finds files last modified n days ago.

-name pattern

Finds files with name of pattern.

-newer file

Finds files modified more recently than file.

-nouser

Finds files with no user name corresponding to the numeric userid.

-nogroup

Finds files with no group name corresponding to the numeric group ID.

-path pattern

Finds files with paths matching pattern.

-regex pattern

Finds files with regular expression pattern in name, case-sensitive.

-size n[bckw]

Finds files using n blocks, bytes, kilobytes, or words, respectively, of space.

-type type

Finds files of type type, where b is block (buffered) special, c is character (unbuffered) special, d is directory, p is named pipe (FIFO), f is regular file, l is symbolic link, or s is socket.

-uid n

Finds files with numeric userid of n.

-used n

Finds files last accessed n days after status changed.

-user uname

Finds files owned by userid or numeric id user ID.

-exec command \;

Executes command for each found file.

-fprint file

Prints full filename into file.

-ok command \;

Executes command with confirmation for each found file.

-print

Prints results to standard output.

finger

Use to display information about users.

-s

Displays the login name, real name, terminal name and write status, idle time, login time, office location, and office phone number.

-l

Specifies multiple-line format with information from -s option plus user's home directory, home phone number, login shell, mail status, and the contents of the .plan, .project, and .forward files.

-p

Prevents -l from displaying contents of .plan and .project files.

-m

Disables matching user names.

fmt

Use to format files.

-c, --crown-margin

Specifies to preserve indent of first two lines.

-p, --prefix=chars

Specifies to combine lines with chars at the beginning.

-s, --split-only

Specifies to split long lines, but not to combine short ones.

-t, --tagged-paragraph

Specifies that the indent of the first line differs from the next.

-u, --uniform-spacing

Specifies to ensure one space between words, two after sentences.

-w, --width=n

Specifies a maximum line width (default of 75 chars).

--help

Specifies to display a usage message.

--version

Specifies to display version information.

ftp

Use to put files in or get files from FTP (File Transfer Protocol) archives.

-v

Specifies verbose output of responses and statistics.

-n

Restricts automatic log in.

-i

Turns off interactive prompting during multiple file transfers.

-d

Enables debugging output.

-g

Disables wildcards ("globbing").

grep

Use to display lines matching a given pattern.

-n

Displays matches with n lines before and after matching lines.

-A n, --after-context=n

Displays matches with n lines after matching lines.

-B n, --before-context=n

Displays matches with n lines before matching lines.

-C, --context

Displays matches with two lines of surrounding context.

--version

Displays version information.

-c, --count

Displays count of matches for each file.

-e pattern, --regexp=

Specifies pattern explicitly.

-f file, --file=file

Reads patterns from file.

-h, --no-filename

Specifies not to display filenames in output.

-i, --ignore-case

Searches without regard to case.

-L, --files-without-match

Prints name of first nonmatching file.

-l, --files-with-matches

Prints name of first matching file.

-n, --line-number

Displays output line numbers.

-q, --quiet

Suppresses output and stops scanning on first match.

-s, --no messages

Suppresses error messages.

-v, --invert-match

Inverts matching to select opposite files.

-w, --word-regexp

Finds only matches for whole words.

-x, --line-regexp

Finds only matches for the whole line.

gzip

Use to compress (gzip) or expand files.

-a -ascii

Specifies to convert ends of lines in ASCII text mode to conform to Unix conventions.

-c --stdout --to-stdout

Sends output to standard output while maintaining original files unchanged.

-d --decompress
-uncompress

Uncompresses files.

-f -force

Forces compression or decompression.

-h -help

Displays help message.

-l -list

Lists information about compressed files.

--verbose

Displays additional information about archive files.

-L -license

Displays the gzip license.

-n --no-name

Specifies not to save the original filename and time.

-N -name

Specifies to always save the original filename and time-stamp information when compressing.

-q -quiet

Suppresses all warnings.

-r -recursive

Specifies to descend subdirectories.

-S .suf --suffix .suf

Specifies alternative suffixes.

-t -test

Tests compressed-file integrity.

-v -verbose

Displays name and percentage reductions for each file processed.

-V -version

Displays version information.

head

Use to output the first part of files.

-c, --bytes n[b,k,m]

Displays first n bytes of file, in b (512-byte blocks), k (1 KB blocks), or m (1 MB blocks).

-n N, --lines n

Displays first n lines of a file.

-q, --quiet, --silent

Specifies not to display filenames.

-v, --verbose

Displays filename.

--help

Displays help message.

--version

Displays version information.

id

Use to display real and effective userids and group IDs.

-g, --group

Displays only group ID.

-G, --groups

Displays only supplementary groups.

--help

Displays help message.

-n, --name

Displays user or group name, not number.

-r, --real

Displays real, not effective, userid or group ID.

-u, --user

Displays only userid.

--version

Displays version information.

jobs

Use to display list of jobs under control.

-l

Displays additional information (long listing) for jobs.

-p

Displays job process IDs.

-n

Displays jobs that have stopped or exited since notification. Only in ksh.

kill

Use to terminate a process.

-s

Specifies kill signal to send.

-l

Displays a list of signal names.

less

Use to page through files; similar to more.

-?, --help

Displays a command summary.

-a

Specifies to start searches below visible display.

-bn

Specifies number of buffers for each file.

-B

Specifies automatic buffer allocation.

-c

Specifies not to scroll, but rather to paint each screen from the top.

-C

Specifies not to scroll, but rather to clear and display new text.

-d

Suppresses error messages for dumb terminals.

-e

Specifies to automatically exit if you move down after hitting the end of the file.

-E

Specifies to automatically exit when you hit the end of the file.

-f

Forces all files to be opened.

-g

Specifies to highlight only last found string.

-G

Specifies no highlighting of found strings.

-hn

Specifies maximum number (n) of lines to scroll backward.

-i

Specifies case-insensitive searches except when search string contains capital letters.

-I

Specifies case-insensitive searches always.

-jn

Specifies a line on the screen where a target line should be located.

-k filename

Specifies to open and interpret filename as a lesskey file.

-m

Specifies verbose prompting, displaying percentage into the file viewed.

-M

Specifies even more verbose prompting.

-n

Suppresses line numbers.

-N

Specifies line number for each displayed line.

-ofilename

Tells less to copy input to filename as it is viewed.

-Ofilename

Tells less to copy input to filename as it is viewed and overwrite without confirmation.

-ppattern

Specifies to start display at first occurrence of pattern.

-q

Specifies quiet operation and only rings bell on certain errors.

-Q

Specifies totally quiet operation and never rings bell.

-r

Specifies to display control characters directly, even if display problems result.

-s

Compresses consecutive blank lines into a single blank line.

-S

Specifies that long lines should be chopped off, not wrapped.

-u

Specifies that backspaces and carriage returns should be sent to the terminal.

-U

Specifies that backspaces, tabs, and carriage returns should be treated as control characters.

-V, --version

Displays the version number.

-w

Specifies that blank lines, not tilde (~) represent lines after the end of the file.

-xn

Sets tab stops every n columns.

-X

Disables termcap initialization strings.

-yn

Specifies maximum number of lines to scroll.

-n

Specifies the scrolling window size as n.

-"

Specifies filename quoting character.

--

Indicates end of options.

links

Use to browse the Web in character-only mode, but with tables and frames.

-g

Specifies to run in graphics mode, on an appropriate terminal.

-async-dns n

Specifies to look up domain names as needed (0) or preemptively (1).

-max-connections n

Specifies the maximum number of concurrent Web connections.

-max-connections-to-host n

Specifies the maximum number of concurrent connections to a specific host.

-retries n

Specifies the number of retries to retrieve a Web page.

-receive-timeout n

Specifies the length (in seconds) of the timeout when retrieving a Web page.

-unrestartable-receive

Specifies the timeout on nonrestartable connections.

-timeout n

 

-format-cache-size n

Specifies the number of Web pages to cache for quicker retrieval.

-memory-cache-size n

Specifies the amount of cache memory in kilobytes.

-http-proxy name:n

Specifies the name and port number of the HTTP proxy, if needed.

-ftp-proxy name:n

Specifies the name and port number of the FTP proxy, if needed.

-download-dir path

Specifies the default download directory.

-anonymous

Specifies to restrict capabilities to run in an anonymous account.

-no-connect

Specifies to run links as a separate process instead of within an existing process.

-version

Specifies to display the version number.

-help

Specifies to print help information.

ln

Use to make links between files.

-b, --backup

Backs up files before removing them.

-f, --force

Overwrites destination files.

-i, --interactive

Prompts before overwriting files.

-n, --no-dereference

Attempts to replace symbolic links.

-s, --symbolic

Specifies to make symbolic links when possible.

-v, --verbose

Specifies to display filenames before linking.

--help

Prints a help message.

--version

Prints version information.

-S, --suffix backup-suffix

Specifies suffix for backup files.

-V, --version-control

Specifies version control as numbered, existing, or simple, as with cp.

locate

Use to find files with a specific string in their names or paths.

-u

Specifies to create locate database starting at the root directory.

-U path

Specifies to create locate database starting at path.

-e dir, dir, ...

Specifies to exclude directories from the locate database.

-f fstype

Specifies to exclude files on named file system types from the database.

-c

Specifies to process /etc/updatedb.conf file when updating the database.

-l n

Specifies the security level as 0 (no checking, faster), or 1 (checking, slower).

-i

Specifies to do a case-insensitive search.

-q

Specifies to use quiet mode and suppress all error messages.

-n n

Specifies to limit the amount of results shown to n.

-r regex, --regexp=regex

Specifies to search the database using a regular expression.

-o name, --output=name

Specifies the database to create.

-d path, --database=path

Specifies the path of databases to search in.

-h, --help

Specifies to print help information.

-v, --verbose

Specifies to use verbose mode when creating database.

-V, --version

Specifies to display the version number.

look

Use to look up words in the system dictionary.

-d

Specifies to use dictionary (alphanumeric) character set and order.

-f

Specifies to use case-insensitive search.

-a

Specifies to use the alternate dictionary /usr/share/dict/web2.

-t

Specifies the end of the string to compare.

lp

Use to print files.

-c

Specifies to copy file to spool directory before printing.

-d name

Specifies to print files to the printer name.

-i n

Specifies an existing job number n to modify.

-m

Specifies to send email when the job is completed.

-n copies

Specifies the number of copies to print.

-q priority

Specifies the job priority from 1 to 50 (highest).

-s

Specifies not to report the resulting job IDs.

-t name

Specifies the name for the job being submitted.

-H handling

Specifies immediate, hold, resume, or hh:mm to determine when the job will be printed.

-P page-list

Specifies which pages to print.

ls

Use to list directory contents.

-a, --all

Lists all files.

-b, --escape

Prints octal codes for nongraphic characters using backslash sequences.

-c, --time=ctime, --time=status

Sorts according to status change time, not modification time.

-d, --directory

Lists directory names, not contents.

-f

Does not sort directory contents.

--full-time

Provides full, not abbreviated time listings.

-g

Displays filename, file permissions, number of hard links, group, size, and time.

-h

Provides file sizes in human-readable format.

-i, --inode

Displays index number of each file.

-k, --kilobytes

Displays file sizes in kilobytes.

-l, --format=long, --format=verbose

Displays filename, file permissions, number of hard links, owner, group, size in bytes, and time.

-m, --format=commas

Displays names separated by commas.

-n, --numeric-uid-gid

Displays numeric userid and group ID.

-p, -F

Displays extra character for each filename to show the file type.

-q, --hide-control-chars

Displays question marks rather than nongraphic characters.

-r, --reverse

Sorts names in reverse order.

-s, --size

Displays file sizes in 1 KB blocks.

-t, --sort=time

Sorts directory contents by modification time, newest first.

-u, --time=atime, --time=access, --time=use

Sorts names by last access time instead of the modification time.

-x, --format=across, --format=horizontal

Displays names in columns, sorted horizontally.

-A, --almost-all

Lists all names except for "." and "..".

-B, --ignore-backups

Does not display names that end with "~".

-C, --format=vertical

Displays names in columns, sorted vertically.

-G, --no-group

Does not display group information.

-L, --dereference

Lists names of symbolic links instead of the link contents.

-N, --literal

Does not quote names.

-Q, --quote-name

Quotes names in double quotes and nongraphic characters in C syntax.

-R, --recursive

Displays the contents of all directories recursively.

-S, --sort=size

Sorts names by file size, largest first.

-U, --sort=none

Does not sort names.

-X, --sort=extension

Sorts names alphabetically by file extension.

-1, --format=single-column

Lists one file per line.

-w, --width n

Sets display to n columns wide.

-T, --tabsize n

Sets tabs to n columns wide.

-I, --ignore pattern

Does not display names matching pattern.

--color, --colour, --color=yes, --colour=yes

Displays the names in color depending on the type of file and terminal characteristics.

--color=tty, --colour=tty

Displays names in color only if standard output is a terminal.

--color=no, --colour=no

Disables color display of names.

--help

Displays help message.

--version

Displays version information.

lynx

Use to browse the Web.

-

Specifies to take arguments from standard input.

-anonymous

Specifes anonymous account.

-assume_charset=MIMEname

Specifies default character set.

-assume_local_charset= MIMEname

Specifies character set for local files.

-assume_unrec_charset= MIMEname

Specifies character set to use if remote character set is not recognizable.

 

-auth=ID:PASSWD

Specifies authorization ID and password for protected documents.

-base

Specifies HTML BASE tag to use when dumping source code.

-blink

Specifies high-intensity background colors for color mode if possible.

-book

Specifies bookmark page as initial file.

-buried_news

Specifies automatic conversion of embedded URLs to links in Netnews.

-cache=n

Specifies to cache n documents in memory.

-case

Specifies case-sensitive searching within pages.

-cfg=file

Specifies alternative lynx configuration file.

-child

Specifies no save to disk and quick exit with in first document.

-color

Specifies color mode, if possible.

-cookies

Toggles handling of cookies.

-core

Toggles core dumps on crashes.

-crawl traversal

Specifies to output each browsed page to a file.

-dump

Specifies to dump formatted output of specified page to standard output.

-editor=editor

Enables editing with specified editor.

-emacskeys

Enables emacs-style key movement.

-enable_scrollback

Toggles scrollback when supported by communications programs.

-error_file=FILE

Specifies where to save error code.

-force_html

Specifies that the start document be considered HTML.

-force_secure

Toggles security flag for SSL cookies.

-from

Toggles use of From headers.

-ftp

Specifies no FTP access.

-get_data

Retrieves form data from standard input and dumps results.

-head

Requests MIME headers.

-help

Displays help message.

-hiddenlinks= [

Specifies handling of hidden links.

 

-historical

Toggles use of > or --> as comment terminator.

-homepage=URL

Sets home page URL for session.

-image_links

Toggles display of links for all images.

-index=URL

Sets the default index file to the specified URL.

-ismap

Toggles presentation of links for client-side image maps.

-link=NUMBER

Specifies starting number for files crawled.

-localhost

Specifies only browsing on local host.

-locexec

Enables local program execution from local files.

-mime_header

Displays MIME header with document source.

-minimal

Toggles minimal or valid comment parsing.

-newschunksize=n

Specifies n articles in chunked news listings.

-newsmaxchunk=n

Specifies maximum number of news articles before chunking.

-nobrowse

Disables directory browsing.

-nocc

Disables prompts for user copies of sent mail.

-nocolor

Disables color mode.

-noexec

Disables local program execution.

-nofilereferer

Disables Referrer headers for file URLs.

-nolist

Disables link listings in formatted text output (dumps).

-nolog

Disables mailing error messages to document owners.

-nopause

Disables pauses on status messages.

-noprint

Disables printing.

-noredir

Disables automatic redirection.

-noreferer

Disables Referrer headers for all URLs.

-nosocks

Disables SOCKS proxy use.

-nostatus

Disables retrieval status messages.

-number_links

Numbers links.

-pauth=ID:PASSWD

Sets ID and password for a protected proxy server.

-popup

Toggles handling of single-choice SELECT options as pop-up windows or as lists of radio buttons.

-post_data

Sends form data from standard input with POST dump results.

-preparsed

Specifies that HTML source be preparsed and reformatted when viewed.

-print

Enables printing.

-pseudo_inlines

Toggles pseudo-ALT text for inline images with no ALT string.

-raw

Toggles default setting of 8-bit character translations or CJK mode for the initial character set.

-realm

Specifies access only to URLs in initial domain.

-reload

Specifies to empty proxy server cache and reload document.

-resubmit_posts

Toggles forced resubmissions of forms when the documents they returned are revisited.

-rlogin

Disables rlogin commands.

-selective

Restricts directory browsing to those specified with .www_browsable.

-show_cursor

Specifies cursor to be shown at start of current link.

-source

Sends output as HTML source to standard output.

-telnet

Disables Telnet commands.

-term=TERM

Specifies terminal type for lynx.

-tlog

Toggles lynx TRacing log.

-TRace

Enables WWW trace mode.

-traversal

Follows links from start file.

-underscore

Toggles use of underline in dumps.

-useragent=Name

Specifies alternative lynx User-Agent header name.

-validate

Accepts only HTTP URLs for validation.

-version

Displays version information.

-vikeys

Enables vi-like key movement.

-width=n

Specifies number of columns for dump formatting.

man

Use to display online manual pages.

-M path

Specifies the directories to search for man pages.

-P pager

Specifies which pager (more or less) to use.

-S section_list

Specifies list of manual sections to search.

-a

Specifies to display all matching man pages, not just the default first one.

-d

Specifies not to display man page; rather, display debugging information.

-f

Provides what is information.

-h

Prints help message.

-k

Searches for string in all man pages.

-m system

Specifies alternate man pages for system.

section, -s section

Specifies to display man page from the given section.

-w

Specifies not to display man pages; rather, print the path of the files.

-W

Specifies not to display man mages; rather, print the filenames without additional information.

mail

Use to send and receive mail.

-v

Specifies verbose mode and displays delivery details.

-i

Specifies to ignore interrupt signals.

-I

Specifies interactive mode even if input is not from a terminal.

-n

Disables mail.rc reading when starting.

-N

Disables initial display of message headers when reading mail.

-s subject

Specifies subject on command line.

-c addresses

Specifies addresses for carbon copies.

-b addresses

Specifies addresses for blind carbon copies.

-f file

Reads contents of file for processing and returns undeleted messages to this file.

mkdir

Use to make directories.

-m, --mode mode

Sets the mode of created directories as with chmod.

-p, --parents

Makes directories and any necessary parent directories.

--help

Displays help message.

--version

Displays version information.

more

Use to view files a screen at a time.

-num

Specifies number of lines onscreen.

-d

Specifies prompting and no bell on errors.

-l

Specifies not to pause after a in the file.

-f

Specifies to count logical lines rather than screen lines.

-p

Specifies not to scroll, but rather to clear and display new text.

-c

Specifies not to scroll, but rather to paint each screen from the top.

-s

Specifies to squeeze multiple blank lines together.

-u

Specifies to suppress underlining.

+/string

Specifies a string to find and start at for displaying the file.

+num

Specifies to start at line number num.

mutt

Use a small but very powerful text-based program for email.

-a file

Specifies to attach a file to your message.

-b address

Specifies a blind-carbon-copy (BCC) recipient.

-c address

Specifies a carbon-copy (CC) recipient.

-e command

Specifies a configuration command to be run after initialization files.

-f mailbox

Specifies which mailbox to load.

-F mutTRc

Specifies an initialization file to read instead of ~/.muttrc.

-h

Specifies to display help information.

-H draft

Specifies a draft file to use for creating a message.

-i include

Specifies a file to include in a message.

-m type

Specifies a default mailbox type.

-n

Specifies to ignore the system configuration file.

-p

Specifies to resume a postponed message.

-R

Specifies to open a mailbox in read-only mode.

-s subject

Specifies the subject of the message.

-v

Specifies to display version information.

-x

Specifies to emulate mailx compose mode.

-y

Specifies to start with a listing of all mailboxes specified.

-z

Specifies not to start if there are no messages, when used with -f.

-Z

Specifies to open the first mailbox specified that contains new mail.

mv

Use to rename or move files.

-b, --backup

Specifies to make backups of files before removal.

-f, --force

Specifies to overwrite all existing destination files.

-i, --interactive

Requires prompting before overwriting.

-v, --verbose

Displays filenames before moving.

--help

Prints a help message.

--version

Prints version information.

-S, --suffix backup-suffix

Specifies suffix for backup files.

nice

Use to run a program with a different priority.

-n adjustment, -adjustment,--adjustment=adjustment

Adds adjustment number to initial priority.

--help

Displays help message.

--version

Displays version information.

passwd

Use to set a password for the system.

pico

Use for user-friendly text editing.

+n

Starts pico with the cursor located n lines into the file.

-d

Specifies that the key rubs out the character the cursor is on rather than the character to its left.

-e

Enables filename completion.

-f

Specifies to use function keys for commands.

-j

Specifies that goto commands to indicate directories are allowed.

-k

Specifies that "Cut Text" removes characters from the cursor position to the end of the line.

-nn

Enables mail notification every n seconds.

-o dir

Specifies operating directory.

-rn

Specifies column n for right margin of justify command.

-t

Sets tool mode for when pico is the default editor in other programs.

-v

Specifies view-only.

-w

Disables word wrap.

-x

Disables menu.

-z

Allows suspension of pico.

pine

Use to read news and email.

-d debug-level

Displays diagnostic information at levels from 0 (none) to 9 (complete).

-f folder

Specifies to open folder instead of in-box.

-F file

Opens specified file with pine.

-h

Displays brief help message.

-i

Specifies to start in folder index.

-I keystrokes

Specifies initial set of keystrokes to execute on startup.

-k

Specifies to use function keys for commands.

-n number

Specifies to start with given message number.

-o

Opens first folder as read-only.

-p config-file

Specifies configuration file to use instead of default personal configuration file.

-P config-file

Specifies configuration file to use instead of systemwide configuration file.

-r

Requires demo mode.

-z

Allows eventual suspension of pine process.

-conf

Outputs a new copy of systemwide configuration file.

-pinerc file

Outputs new pinerc configuration file.

-sort order

Specifies sort order in folders as arrival, subject, from, date, size, orderedsubj, thread, score, to, cc, or reverse.

ping

Use to see if a specific host is reachable.

-c count

Specifies number of responses to receive before stopping.

-d

Specifies SO_DEBUG option.

-f

Specifies flood ping (for system administrators only).

-i wait

Specifies how many seconds to wait between packets.

-l preload

Specifies initial flurry of packets before reverting to normal behavior; for system administrators only.

-n

Specifies not to look up domain names.

-p pattern

Specifies content for packets to diagnose data-dependent problems.

-q

Specifies quiet output with only initial and ending summary information displayed.

-r

Specifies to ignore routing and send directly to host on attached network.

-s packetsize

Specifies size of packet to send in bytes.

-v

Specifies verbose output and lists all received packets.

pgrep

Use to look up processes based on name or other characteristics.

-d string

Specifies the string used to delimit each process ID output.

-f

Specifies to match against full path.

-g pgrp,...

Specifies to match only processes under the specified process group IDs.

-G gid,...

Specifies to match only processes whose real group ID is listed.

-l

Specifies to list the process name as well as the process ID.

-n

Specifies to list only the newest matching process.

-P ppid,...

Specifies to match only processes whose parent process ID is listed.

-s sid,...

Specifies to match only processes whose process session ID is listed.

-t term,...

Specifies to match only processes whose controlling terminal is listed.

-u euid,...

Specifies to match only processes whose effective user ID is listed.

-U uid,...

Specifies to match only processes whose real user ID is listed.

-v

Specifies to match the opposite of the characteristics given.

-x

Specifies to match only exactly.

pkill

Use to send a kill signal to processes based on name or other characteristics.

-f

Specifies to match against full path.

-g pgrp,...

Specifies to match only processes under the specified process group IDs.

-G gid,...

Specifies to match only processes whose real group ID is listed.

-n

Specifies to list only the newest matching process.

-P ppid,...

Specifies to match only processes whose parent process ID is listed.

-s sid,...

Specifies to match only processes whose process session ID is listed.

-t term,...

Specifies to match only processes whose controlling terminal is listed.

-u euid,...

Specifies to match only processes whose effective user ID is listed.

-U uid,...

Specifies to match only processes whose real user ID is listed.

-v

Specifies to match the opposite of the characteristics given.

-x

Specifies to match only exactly.

-signal

Specifies the signal (numeric or by name) to send to each matched process.

procmail

Use to process incoming email.

-v

Specifies to display version information.

-p

Specifies to preserve existing environment.

-t

Specifies to retry failed deliveries later.

-f name

Specifies to regenerate the From line that separates messages with name.

-o

Specifies to override fake From lines.

-Y

Specifies to ignore any Content-Length: fields.

-a argument

Specifies arguments to pass to procmail.

-d recipient ...

Specifies delivery mode.

-m

Specifies that procmail should act as a general-purpose mail filter.

ps

Use to report process status (note that ps arguments work with or without a -, and warn you not to use - in the future).

-l

Specifies long format.

-j

Specifies jobs format.

-s

Specifies signal format.

-v

Specifies vm (virtual memory) format.

-m

Displays thread information.

-H

Specifies "forest" tree format.

-f

Show full listing.

-a

Displays processes of other users on the same terminal.

-x

Displays processes without controlling terminal (daemons).

-S

Displays add child CPU time and page faults.

-w

Specifies wide output and does not truncate command lines.

-h

Disables header display.

-r

Shows running processes only.

-n

Specifies numeric output for user and wchan fields.

-txx

Specifies only processes with controlling tty xx.

-pids

Lists only specified processes.

--help

Displays help message.

--version

Displays version information.

pr

Use to convert and reformat files for printing or display.

-n, --columns=n

Specifies to create n columns across the page.

-c, --show-control-chars

Specifies to use hat notation (^G) and octal backslash notation.

-d, --double-space

Specifies to double space the output.

-D, --date-format=FORMAT

Specifies to use FORMAT for the header date.

-F, -f, --form-feed

Specifies to use form feeds instead of newlines to separate pages.

-h header, --header=header

Specifies to use a centered header instead of filename in page header.

-t, --omit-header

Specifies to omit page headers and footers.

-T, --omit-pagination

Specifies to omit page headers, footers, and all pagination.

-v, --show-nonprinting

Specifies to use octal backslash notation to display nonprinting characters.

-W w, --page-width=w

Specifies that page width be w (72 default) characters.

--help

Specifies to display help message.

--version

Specifies to display version information.

pwd

Use to display name of current working directory.

--help

Displays help message.

--version

Displays version information.

quota

Use to display disk usage and limits.

-g

Displays group quotas for the executing user's group.

-v

Displays quotas on file systems where no storage is allocated.

-q

Displays only information for file systems over quota.

renice

Use to change the priority (niceness) of jobs.

-g

Specifies to force parameters to be interpreted as process group IDs.

-u

Specifies to force parameters to be interpreted as user names.

-p

Specifies to require parameters to be process IDs.

rm

Use to remove files.

-f, --force

Specifies to overwrite all existing destination files.

-i, --interactive

Requires prompting before overwriting.

-R, --recursive

Specifies to copy directories recursively.

-v, --verbose

Displays filenames before moving.

--help

Displays a help message.

--version

Displays version information.

reset

Use to reset a terminal session to normal behavior.

-q

Specifies to display the terminal type only.

-e a

Specifies to set the erase character to the given character.

-I

Specifies not to send initialization strings to the terminal.

-Q

Specifies not to display values for erase, interrupt, and line kill characters.

-V

Specifies to display the version number.

-i a

Specifies to set the interrupt character to the given character.

-k a

Specifies to set the line kill character to the given character.

-m

Specifies to map a port type to a terminal type.

-r

Specifies to display the terminal type to standard error.

-s

Specifies to display the initialization commands.

rmdir

Use to remove empty directories.

-p, --parents

Specifies to remove any parent directories listed, if they are empty after the specified files are removed.

--help

Displays a help message.

--version

Displays version information.

rsync

Use to copy files and synchronize directories.

-v, --verbose

Specifies to increase verbosity.

-q, --quiet

Specifies to decrease verbosity.

-c, --checksum

Specifies to calculate a checksum for files, not just check dates.

-a, --archive

Specifies to use archive mode.

-r, --recursive

Specifies to recursively copy.

-R, --relative

Specifies to use relative path names.

-b, --backup

Specifies to make backups with the default ~ suffix.

--backup-dir

Specifies to use this backup directory.

--suffix=string

Specifies to change backup suffix to string.

-u, --update

Specifies to update only and not overwrite newer files.

-l, --links

Specifies to copy symlinks as symlinks.

-L, --copy-links

Specifies to copy the associated file for symlinks.

--copy-unsafe-links

Specifies to copy links outside the source directory tree.

--safe-links

Specifies to ignore links outside the destination directory tree.

-H, --hard-links

Specifies to preserve hard links.

-p, --perms

Specifies to preserve permissions.

-o, --owner

Specifies to preserve owner, for use by root only.

-g, --group

Specifies to preserve group.

-D, --devices

Specifies to preserve devices, for use by root only.

-t, --times

Specifies to preserve times.

-S, --sparse

Specifies to handle sparse files efficiently.

-n, --dry-run

Specifies to show what would have been transferred, but not actually transfer.

-W, --whole-file

Specifies to copy whole files without making incremental checks.

--no-whole-file

Specifies not to copy whole files without checking.

-x, --one-file-system

Specifies not to cross file system boundaries.

-B, --block-size=SIZE

Specifies the checksum block size (default 700).

-e, --rsh=COMMAND

Specifies the rsh replacement command (probably ssh).

--rsync-path=PATH

Specifies the path to rsync on the remote machine.

-C, --cvs-exclude

Specifies to autoignore files in the same way CVS does.

--existing

Specifies to update only files that already exist.

--ignore-existing

Specifies to ignore files that already exist on the receiving side.

--delete

Specifies to delete files that don't exist on the sending side.

--delete-excluded

Specifies to also delete excluded files on the receiving side.

--delete-after

Specifies to delete after transferring, not before.

--ignore-errors

Specifies to delete even if there are I/O errors.

--max-delete=NUM

Specifies not to delete more than NUM files.

--partial

Specifies to keep partially transferred files.

--force

Specifies to force deletion of directories even if not empty.

--numeric-ids

Specifies to set permissions with numeric ids on target.

--timeout=n

Specifies to set I/O timeout in seconds.

-I, --ignore-times

Specifies to copy even files that match in length and time.

--size-only

Specifies to copy files only if file sizes differ.

--modify-window=n

Specifies range of time (n seconds) to consider equivalent.

-T --temp-dir=path

Specifies to create temporary files in directory path.

--compare-dest=DIR

Specifies to compare destination files relative to path.

-z, --compress

Specifies to compress files when transferring.

--exclude=string

Specifies to exclude files matching string.

--exclude-from=file

Specifies to exclude patterns listed in file.

--include=string

Specifies to include files matching string.

--include-from=file

Specifies to include patterns listed in file.

--version

Specifies to display version number.

--daemon

Specifies to run as an rsync daemon.

--no-detach

Specifies not to detach from the parent.

--address=ADDRESS

Specifies to bind to the specified address.

--config=file

Specifies an alternate rsyncd.conf file.

--port=PORT

Specifies an alternate rsyncd port number.

--blocking-io

Specifies to use blocking I/O for the remote shell.

--no-blocking-io

Specifies to turn off --blocking-io.

--stats

Specifies to show some file transfer statistics.

--progress

Specifies to show progress during transfer.

--log-format=format

Specifies to log file transfers using specified format.

--password-file=file

Specifies to get password from file.

--bwlimit=n

Specifies to limit I/O bandwidth to n KBps.

--read-batch=string

Specifies to read batch fileset starting with string.

--write-batch=string

Specifies to write batch fileset starting with string.

-h, --help

Specifies to display help information.

sed

Use for processing and editing files in batch mode.

-e

Specifies edit commands to follow as the next argument.

-f

Specifies edit commands to be taken from named file or files.

-n

Suppresses default output.

set

Use to set or view the values of variables.

setenv

Use to change or view the value of an environment variable (csh).

screen

Use to manage multiple virtual screens in a physical window.

-a

Specifies to include all capabilities in each window.

-A

Specifies to adapt the sizes of all windows to the size of the current terminal.

-c file

Specifies to override the default configuration file (~/.screenrc) with file.

-d,-D

Specifies to detach another running screen from the controlling terminal.

-d -r

Specifies to reattach a session, after detaching it if necessary.

-d -R

Specifies to reattach a session, after detaching or creating it first if necessary.

-d -RR

Specifies to reattach a session, after detaching or creating it if necessary, and to use the first session if multiple sessions are available.

-D -r

Specifies to reattach a session, after detaching and logging out remotely if necessary.

-D -R

Specifies to attach immediately, after notifying other users.

-D -RR

Specifies to attach immediately, after doing anything necessary to other sessions.

-e xy

Specifies the command character (default is Aa), specified as ^Aa.

-f, -fn, -fa

Specifies flow-control settings to off, on, or automatic.

-h n

Specifies the size of the history as n lines.

-l, -ln

Specifies to turn login mode on or off.

-ls, -list

Specifies to display list of existing screen sessions.

-m

Specifies to force creation of a new session.

-d -m

Specifies to start screen in detached mode.

-D -m

Specifies to start screen in detached mode, in existing process.

-q

Specifies to suppress display error messages and exit codes.

-r

Specifies to resume a detached screen session.

-R

Specifies to attempt to resume the first available detached screen session it finds.

-s string

Specifies the default shell as string.

-S name

Specifies to use name as the name for the new session.

-t name

Specifies the title for the default shell or specified program.

-v

Specifies to display the version number.

-wipe

Specifies to remove destroyed sessions.

-x

Specifies to attach to a session in multidisplay mode.

-X

Specifies to send the specified command to a running screen session.

ssh

Use to securely log in to and run commands on a remote system.

-a

Specifies not to forward the authentication agent connection.

-A

Specifies to forward the authentication agent connection.

-b bind_address

Specifies the interface to transmit from if multiple interfaces are available.

-c blowfish|3des|des

Specifies the encrpytion method to use.

-e ch|^ch|none

Specifies the escape character for sessions with a pty (default: ~).

-f

Specifies for ssh to go to the background before the command runs.

-g

Specifies that remote hosts can connect to local forwarded ports.

-i identity_file

Specifies the file from which to read the identify key.

-l login_name

Specifies the user name to log in as on the remote machine.

-n

Specifies to ignore standard input.

-N

Specifies not to execute a remote command.

-o option

Specifies to give options as presented in configuration file.

-p port

Specifies the port to connect to on the remote host.

-P

Specifies a nonprivileged port (<1024) for outgoing connections.

-q

Specifies that warning and diagnostic messages should be suppressed.

-s

Specifies to request invocation of a subsystem on the remote system.

-t

Specifies to allocate a pseudo-tty.

-T

Specifies not to allocate a pseudo-tty.

-v

Specifies to provide verbose output.

-x

Specifies to disable X11 forwarding.

-X

Specifies to enable X11 forwarding.

-C

Specifies to compress all data for transmission.

-F configfile

Specifies an alternative configuration file.

-L port:host:hostport

Specifies port forwarding from local to remote sides.

-R port:host:hostport

Specifies port forwarding from remote to local sides.

-D port

Specifies dynamic port forwarding from local to remote sides.

-1

Specifies to use only protocol version 1.

-2

Specifies to use only protocol version 2.

-4

Specifies to use only IPv4 addresses.

-6

Specifies to use only IPv6 addresses.

split

Use to split files into smaller parts.

-b, --bytes=n

Specifies to put n bytes in each output file (use k for kilobytes, m for megabytes).

-C, --line-bytes=n

Specifies to put no more than n bytes of lines in each output file.

-l, --lines=n

Specifies to put n lines into each output file.

--verbose

Specifies to provide verbose output.

--help

Specifies to display help information.

--version

Specifies to display version information.

sort

Use to sort text files by line.

-c

Checks to see if file is already sorted.

-m

Merges sorted files together.

-b

Ignores extra spaces at the beginning of each line.

-d

Sorts by ignoring everything but letters, digits, and blanks.

-f

Sorts without case sensitivity.

-M

Sorts by month, recognizing three-character month abbreviations.

-n

Sorts numerically.

-r

Reverses result order.

-o output-file

Sends output to specified file instead of standard output.

-t separator

Uses indicated character as field separator.

-u

Displays only one of the matching lines.

--help

Displays help information.

--version

Displays version information.

su otherid

Use to substitute otherid for current userid.

-c command, --command=command

Runs specified command as other user.

--help

Displays help information.

-, -l, --login

Specifies to start as login shell.

-m, -p, --preserve-environment

Specifies not to change environment variables from current settings.

-s, --shell shell

Uses the specified shell instead of the default.

--version

Displays program version.

sudo

Use to execute a command as another user.

-V

Specifies to display the version number.

-l

Specifies to list the available and forbidden commands for the issuing user.

-L

Specifies to list configurable default parameters.

-h

Specifies to display a help message.

-v

Specifies to update the timestamp and extend the timeout.

-k

Specifies to set the timeout to a past time, forcing revalidation.

-K

Specifies to remove the timestamp for a current user.

-b

Specifies to run the specified command in the background.

-p

Specifies to replace the default password prompt with a custom prompt.

-u user

Specifies user, under whose id the command will run.

-s

Specifies to use the specified (default) shell.

-H

Specifies to change the $HOME environment variable to the target user.

-P

Specifies to preserve the user's group ID when running the command.

-S

Specifies to read password from standard input.

--

Specifies to stop processing command-line options.

-

Specifies to force a login shell.

tail

Use to output the last part of a file.

-c --bytes n[b,k,m]

Displays last n bytes of file, in b (512-byte), k (1 KB), or m (1 MB) blocks.

-f, --follow

Specifies to keep running and trying to read more from end of file.

-l, -n N,--lines N

Displays last N lines of file.

-q, --quiet, --silent

Specifies not to display filenames.

-v, --verbose

Specifies to always display filenames.

--help

Displays help message.

--version

Displays version information.

talk

Use to talk to another user.

tar

Use to create tar archives.

-A, --catenate, --concatenate

Specifies to append tar files to an archive.

-c, --create

Creates a new archive.

-d, --diff, --compare

Identifies differences between archive and file system.

--delete

Removes files from the archive.

-r, --append

Appends files to the archive.

-t, --list

Lists contents of the archive.

-u, --update

Updates archive with newer files.

-x, --exTRact, --get

Extracts files from archives.

--atime-preserve

Specifies not to change access times.

-b, --block-size n

Specifies block size of nx512 bytes.

-C, --directory DIR

Changes to specified directory.

--checkpoint

Displays directory names while processing.

-f, --file

Uses specified file or device.

--force-local

Forces local archive file regardless of filename.

-h, --dereference

Processes linked files, not symbolic links.

-i, --ignore-zeros

Specifies to ignore zeros in archives (and not to interpret as EOF).

-k, --keep-old-files

Specifies that old files should be retained, not overwritten.

-K, --starting-file file

Starts at file file in the archive.

-l, --one-file-system

Specifies to remain in current file system.

-m, --modification-time

Specifies not to extract the file modification time.

-M, --multi-volume

Specifies to process as multivolume archive.

-N, --after-date date, --newer date

Stores files newer than date.

-o, --old-archive, --portability

Specifies old archive format.

-O, --to-stdout

Specifies to extract files to standard output.

-p, --same-permissions, --preserve-permissions

Specifies to extract all permissions data.

-P, --absolute-paths

Specifies to maintain absolute paths.

--remove-files

Specifies to remove files that have been added to archive.

-s, --same-order, --preserve-order

Specifies list of filenames to match archive.

--same-owner

Specifies to extract files with same ownership.

-T, --files-from file

Retrieves names of files to extract or create from file file.

--totals

Displays total bytes of created files.

-v, --verbose

Displays verbose information about processed files.

-V, --label name

Creates archive with volume name of name.

--version

Displays version information.

-w, --interactive, --confirmation

Requires confirmation for actions.

-W, --verify

Verifies information in archive after creating archive.

--exclude file

Specifies to exclude file from archive.

-X, --exclude-from file

Specifies to exclude files listed in file from archive.

-Z, --compress, --uncompress

Specifies to compress or uncompress the archive.

-z, --gzip, --ungzip

Specifies to process the archive with gzip.

--use-compress-program

Specifies name of compression program as program.

tee

Use to read from standard input and write to standard output and files.

-a, --append

Appends to specified files instead of overwriting.

--help

Prints help information.

-i, --ignore-interrupts

Specifies to ignore interrupt signals.

--version

Prints version information.

telnet

Use to connect to and use remote computers.

-8

Specifies 8-bit operation, which is not the telnet default.

-E

Disables the escape character.

-L

Specifies 8-bit operation on output.

-a

Attempts automatic log in with the current user name.

-d

Enables debugging output.

-r

Specifies rlogin emulation.

-e character

Specifies the escape character to control command-mode access.

-l user

Specifies the user for remote log in.

-n tracefile

Starts tracing connection to TRacefile.

tidy

Use to validate, correct, and clean up HTML files.

-config file

Specifies to set options from file.

-indent, -i

Specifies to indent contents of elements.

-omit, -o

Specifies to omit optional endtags.

-wrap n

Specifies to wrap output at column n.

-upper, -u

Specifies to output tags in uppercase.

-clean, -c

Specifies to replace formatting tags with CSS-style properties.

-raw

Specifies to output characters with values higher than 127 unchanged.

-ascii

Specifies to use Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) character set for input, and US ASCII character set for output.

-latin1

Specifies to use Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) character set for both input and output.

-iso2022

Specifies to use ISO 2022 character set for both input and output.

-utf8

Specifies to use UTF-8 character set for both input and output.

-mac

Specifies to use MacRoman character set for input.

-numeric, -n

Specifies to output numeric rather than named entities.

-modify, -m

Specifies to modify original files in place.

-errors, -e

Specifies to only show errors without modifying the original file.

-quiet, -q

Specifies to suppress extra output.

-f file

Specifies to write errors to file.

-xml

Specifies that input is well-formed XML.

-asxml

Specifies to convert HTML to well-formed XML.

-slides

Specifies to break file into slides based on <H2> elements.

-help, -h

Specifies to display a help message.

--configuration-option

Specifies to set any configurable option to value.

time

Use to time a job.

tin

Use to read Usenet news.

-c

Creates or updates index for listed groups, marking all as read.

-f file

Specifies file to use for newsrc data.

-h

Displays help information.

-H

Displays introduction to tin.

-I dir

Specifies directory to hold newsgroup index files.

-m dir

Specifies mailbox directory to use.

-M user

Mails unread articles to user.

-n

Specifies to load only active, subscribed groups.

-q

Specifies startup without checking for new newsgroups.

-P

Purges all articles that do not exist. Time-consuming, particularly on a slow connection.

-r

Specifies remote news reading from nntpserver.

-s dir

Saves articles to directory specified.

-S

Saves unread articles for later reading with -R option.

-u

Creates and updates index files for all groups.

-U

Starts tin in background to update index files while reading news.

-v

Specifies verbose mode for some commands.

-w

Allows quick posting.

-z

Specifies to start tin only with new or unread news.

-Z

Checks for new or unread news.

touch

Use to change file times and create empty files.

-a, --time=atime, --time=access, --time=use

Changes access time only.

-c, --no-create

Specifies not to create files that do not already exist.

-d, --date time

Updates files with given (not current) time.

-m, --time=mtime, --time=

Changes modification time only.

-r, --reference file

Updates files with time of reference file.

-t [[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[.ss]

Specifies time argument for setting time.

--help

Displays help message.

--version

Displays version information.

tr

Use to translate or delete characters.

--help

Specifies to display help message.

--version

Specifies to display version information.

traceroute

Use to identify the route packets take to a network host.

-f

Specifies initial time-to-live used in the first probe.

-F

Specifies "don't fragment" setting for probes.

-d

Enables socket-level debugging.

-g

Specifies a source route gateway.

-i

Specifies a network interface to use for probes.

-I

Specifies ICMP ECHO instead of UDP datagrams.

-m

Specifies maximum number of hops to use.

-n

Specifies not to look up domain names for addresses.

-p

Sets base UDP port number for probes.

-r

Specifies to ignore routing and send directly to host on attached network.

-s

Specifies IP address as source for probe.

-v

Specifies verbose output and lists all received packets.

-w

Specifies the number of seconds to wait for a response to a probe.

umask

Use to set the file creation mask.

unalias

Use to remove aliases from the list.

-a

Removes all alias definitions.

uname

Use to display system information.

-m, --machine

Displays the machine or hardware type.

-n, --nodename

Displays the node or host name.

-r, --release

Displays the operating system release number.

-s, --sysname

Displays the operating system name.

-v

Displays the operating system version.

-a, --all

Displays all the above information.

--help

Displays help information.

--version

Displays version information.

uniq

Use to remove duplicate lines from a sorted list.

-u, --unique

Outputs only unique lines.

-d, --repeated

Outputs only duplicate lines.

-c, --count

Outputs number of occurences of each line followed by the text of each line.

-number, -f, --skip-fields=

Specifies number of fields to ignore before checking for uniqueness.

+number, -s, --skip-chars=

Specifies number of characters to skip before checking for uniqueness.

-w, --check-chars=number

Specifies number of characters to compare.

--help

Prints help information.

--version

Prints version information.

units

Use to convert from one kind of unit to another.

-c, --check

Specifies to check that the units data file is valid.

--check-verbose

Specifies to check that the units data file is valid, with verbose output.

-o format, --output-format

Specifies the format for numeric output (in printf syntax).

-f filename, --file

Specifies to use filename as the units data file.

-h, --help

Specifies to display a help message.

-q, --quiet, --silent

Specifies quiet output and suppression of prompts.

-s, --strict

Specifies not to convert to reciprocal units.

-v, --verbose

Specifies more verbose output.

-V, --version

Specifies to display version number.

unzip

Use to manipulate and extract compressed files in a zip file.

-f

Specifies to extract only files newer than those on disk.

-l

Lists archive files in short format.

-p

Extracts files to standard output.

-t

Tests archive files for accuracy and completeness.

-T

Sets the timestamp to the same as the newest file in the archive.

-u

Updates existing files from the archive and creates new files as needed.

-v

Displays verbose or diagnostic version information.

-z

Displays archive comments.

-j

Junks paths and puts all files in the current directory.

-n

Specifies never to overwrite existing files.

-o

Overwrites existing files without prompting.

-P password

Requires password to decrypt zip file entries.

-q

Performs operations quietly, without displaying most status information.

-qq

Performs operations even more quietly.

uudecode

Use to decode a file created by uuencode.

-o file

Directs output to file.

uuencode

Use to encode a binary file.

-m

Specifies MIME (Base 64) encoding.

vacation

Use to reply to mail automatically.

-I

Initializes .vacation.db file and starts vacation.

-a alias

Specifies alias for vacation user, so that mail sent to that alias generates a reply.

-j

Specifies to always reply, regardless of To: or CC: addressing.

-tn

Specifies the number of days between repeat replies to the same sender.

-r

Specifies to use the "Reply-To:" header if available.

-?

Displays a short help message.

vi

Use for powerful text editing.

-s

Specifies no interactive feedback.

-l

Specifies LISP program editing setup.

-L

Lists names of files saved after crashes.

-R

Forces read-only mode.

-r filename

Recovers filename edit file saved after a crash.

-t tag

Starts editor with cursor at tag position.

-V

Specifies verbose output with input echoed to standard error.

-x

Specifies encryption option like that of ex and prompts for a key.

-wn

Specifies default window size.

-x

Specifies encryption option like that of ex and prompts for a key, assuming all text is encrypted.

+command, -c command

Starts editor and executes specified command.

w

Use to show who is logged on and what they are doing.

-h

Disables header.

-n

Ignores user name for current process and CPU times.

-s

Specifies short format, omitting log in, JCPU, and PCPU times.

-f

Toggles display of remote host name.

-V

Displays version information.

watch

Use to execute a program repeatedly with full-screen output.

-h, --help

Specifies to display a help message.

-v, --version

Specifies to display version number.

-n=n, --interval

Specifies to override the default 2-second interval with n.

-d, --differences

Specifies to display differences between successive updates.

--cumulative

Specifies to keep all changes highlighted.

wc

Use to count the number of bytes, words, and lines in a file.

-c, --bytes, --chars

Displays only byte counts.

-w, --words

Displays only word counts.

-l, --lines

Displays only newline counts.

--help

Displays help message.

--version

Displays version information.

wget

Use to download files or entire Web sites.

-V, --version

Specifies to display the version number.

-h, --help

Specifies to display a help message.

-b, --background

Specifies to start as a background process.

-e command, --execute

Specifies to execute command at end of startup process.

-o logfile, --output-file=

Specifies to log all messages to the specified file.

-a logfile, --append-output=

Specifies to append all messages to the specified file.

-d, --debug,

Specifies to display debugging information.

-q, --quiet

Specifies to suppress output.

-v, --verbose

Specifies to provide verbose output (the default setting).

-nv, --non-verbose

Specifies to provide nonverbose, nonquiet output.

-i file, --input-file=

Specifies to read URLs from the file given.

-F --force-html

Specifies to force input to be treated as an HTML file.

-B URL, --base=URL

Specifies to prepend URL to relative links in specified file.

-t n, --TRies=n

Specifies number of retries. Use 0 for infinite.

-O file, --output-document=

Specifies to concatenate all documents as file or - for standard output.

-nc --no-clobber

Specifies to not destroy a file of the same name as the file being downloaded.

-c --continue

Specifies to continue getting a partially downloaded file.

--progress=type

Specifies type of the progress indicator as "dot" and "bar".

-N --timestamping

Specifies to enable time stamps.

-S --server-response

Specifies to print the headers and responses sent by servers.

--spider

Specifies to verify pages but not download them.

-T seconds --timeout=seconds

Specifies length of the read timeout in seconds.

--limit-rate=n

Specifies to limit the download speed to n bytes (or kilobytes with k, or megabytes with m) per second.

-w n --wait=n

Specifies to wait the specified number (n) of seconds between retrievals.

--waitretry=n

Specifies interval to wait before retrying failed downloads.

--random-wait

Specifies to wait random intervals between requests.

-Y on/off, --proxy=on/off

Specifies to turn proxy support on or off.

-Q quota --quota=quota

Specifies the download quota (in b, k, or m) for automatic retrieval.

-nd --no-directories

Specifies not to create a hierarchy of directories on recursive retrieval.

-x --force-directories

Specifies always to create a hierarchy of directories on recursive retrieval.

-nH --no-host-directories

Specifies not to create host name-prefixed directories.

--cut-dirs=number

Specifies to ignore (flatten) specific numbers of directory levels.

-P prefix --directory-prefix=

Specifies directory prefix to use.

-E --html-extension

Specifies to append .html to filenames.

--http-user=user --http-passwd=

Specifies the user name user and password password for an HTTP server.

-C on/off --cache=on/off

Specifies to avoid or use server-side caching.

--cookies=on/off

Specifies to use or disable cookies.

--load-cookies file

Specifies to load cookies from file before the first retrieval.

--save-cookies file

Specifies to save cookies to file at the end of the session.

--ignore-length

Specifies to ignore "Content-Length" headers.

--header=additional-header

Specifies to define an additional-header to be passed to the HTTP servers.

--proxy-user=user proxy-passwd=

Specifies the user name user and password password for authentication on a proxy server.

--referer=url

Specifies to include "Referer: url" header in HTTP request.

-s --save-headers

Specifies to save the headers sent by the HTTP server to the file.

-U agent-string --user-agent=

Specifies agent-string to send to the HTTP server.

-nr --dont-remove-listing

Specifies not to remove the temporary listing files generated by FTP retrievals.

-g on/off --glob=on/off

Specifies to turn FTP globbing (wildcard use) on or off.

--passive-ftp

Specifies to use the passive FTP retrieval method for use behind firewalls.

--retr-symlinks

Specifies to retrieve files pointed to by symbolic links.

-r --recursive

Specifies to turn on recursive retrieving.

-l depth --level=depth

Specifies the maximum depth for recursive retrieval.

--delete-after

Specifies to delete files downloaded, as soon as they're retrieved.

-k --convert-links

Specifies to convert the links in the document for local viewing.

-K --backup-converted

Specifies to back up the original version with a .orig suffix.

-m --mirror

Specifies to turn on options suitable for mirroring.

-p --page-requisites

Specifies to download all required files to display a page.

-A acclist --accept acclist -R rejlist

Specifies lists of filename patterns to accept or reject.

-D domain-list --domains=

Specifies domains to be followed.

--exclude-domains domain-list

Specifies the domains that are not to be followed.

--follow-ftp

Specifies to follow FTP links from HTML documents.

--follow-tags=list

Specifies to use list for tags that indicate links.

-G list --ignore-tags=list

Specifies to ignore listed tags for indication of links.

-H --span-hosts

Specifies to recursively retrieve from multiple hosts.

-L --relative

Specifies to follow relative links only.

-I list --include-directories=

Specifies a list (with wildcards) of directories to follow when downloading.

-X list --exclude-directories=

Specifies a list (with wildcards) of directories to exclude when downloading.

-np --no-parent

Specifies not to download from the parent directory.

whereis

Use to find information about the specified file.

-b

Specifies to search only for binary files.

-m

Specifies to search only for man pages.

-s

Specifies to search only for source files.

-u

Specifies to search for unusual entries, which are files with fewer than one binary, man, and source entry.

-B

Specifies to change or limit where whereis searches for binaries.

-M

Specifies to change or limit where whereis searches for man pages.

-S

Specifies to change or limit where whereis searches for source files.

-f

Specifies to end the directory list and start the filename list for use with the -B, -M, or -S options.

who

Use to display information about who is logged onto the system.

-m

Specifies "me", as in "who am I?".

-q, --count

Displays login names and total number of logged on users.

-i, -u, --idle

Displays idle time.

-H, --heading

Displays column headings.

-w, -T, --mesg, --writable

Displays user message status.

--help

Displays a help message.

--version

Displays version information.

write

Use to send a message to another user.

ydecode

Use to decode yencoded files.

yencode

Use to encode files with the yEnc algorithm.

zsh

Use the flexible, powerful Z shell.

-c

Specifies to take the first argument as a command to execute.

-i

Specifies to force an interactive shell.

-s

Specifies to force shell to read commands on standard input.

--version

Specifies to print the version number.

--help

Specifies to print help information.

zip

Use to create a zip-format file archive.

-A

Accommodates a self-extracting executable archive.

-b path

Specifies a path for the temporary files.

-c

Provides one-line comments for each file in the archive.

-d

Deletes entries from an archive.

-D

Specifies not to create entries in the zip archive for directories.

-e

Encrypts the contents of the zip archive using a password.

-f

Freshens an existing entry in the archive if the new file has been modified more recently than the version in the zip archive.

-F

Fixes the zip archive.

-g

Appends to the specified archive.

-h

Displays help information.

-i files

Includes only specified files.

-j

Junks path name and stores only filename.

-J

Junks prepended data (for self-extracting archives) from the archive.

-l

Translates Unix text files to MS-DOS text files.

-ll

Translates MS-DOS text files to Unix text files.

-L

Displays the zip license.

-m

Moves specified files into the archive and deletes originals.

-n suffixes

Specifies not to compress files with the given suffixes.

-o

Sets the modification time of the zip archive to that of oldest of the files in the archive.

-q

Specifies quiet mode to eliminate messages and prompts.

-r

Includes files and directories recursively.

-t mmddyyyy

Ignores files modified before the given date.

-T

Tests the new archive and reverts to the old archive if errors are found.

-u

Updates an existing entry in the archive only if the existing file has been changed more recently than the copy in the archive.

-v

Specifies verbose mode to print diagnostic and version information.

-x files

Excludes the specified files.

-z

Requires a multiline comment for the entire archive.

-@

Gets a list of input files from standard input.





Unix(c) Visual Quickstart Guide
UNIX, Third Edition
ISBN: 0321442458
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2006
Pages: 251

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