Used on switches to mean "ON." The "OFF" setting is "O," (the letter coming after N.)
Abbreviation for Installation and Maintenance.
Installation and Repair. The telephone company department responsible for these jobs. I&R refers to a person's job area, a department, or tools and test gear made for I&R.
ISDN Call Forwarding.
ISDN Call Forwarding Don't Answer.
ISDN Call Forwarding Don't Answer Incoming Only.
ISDN Call Forwarding Interface Busy.
ISDN Call Forwarding Interface Busy Incoming Only.
ISDN Call Forwarding IntraGroup only.
ISDN Call Forwarding Incoming Only.
ISDN Call Forwarding over Private Facilities.
ISDN Call Forwarding Variable.
ISDN Call Forwarding Variable facilities for Customer Groups.
ISDN Calling Number Information Services.
Internet Commerce. Same as e-commerce. Basically it refers to people buying stuff via the Internet or the World Wide Web.
Internet-based Electronic Data Interchange.
Interim European Telecommunications Standard.
ISDN Hold Capability.
A telephone system feature. If I put someone on hold at my phone, all the other phones which have the same line appearing on them will start flashing ” indicating that the call is on hold.
Isochronous Media Access Control. An FDDI-II term . See FDDI-II.
i-Mode (meaning Internet-Mode) is a proprietary cell phone service from NTT DoCoMo in Japan that was launched on February 22, 1999 and lets its users access over 40,000 information and Internet services from their cell phones. Services include mobile banking, email, news, stock updates, telephone directory, downloadable ring tones, restaurant guides, ticket reservations and a wide variety of entertainment offerings, including games and downloadable cartoons. i-Mode services are linked directly to the DoCoMo i- Mode portal Web site and can be accessed by pushing the cell phone's dedicated i-Mode portal Web site and can be accessed by pushing the cell phone's dedicated i-Mode button. Several things contribute to i-Mode's incredible success (its users number in the tens of millions) ” the breadth of the offerings, the fact that users are only charged for the amount of information they retrieve, and not for how long they are online, and, most importantly, an enlightened approach by NTT DoCoMo to revenue sharing and collection. i-Mode is based on packet data transmission technology. NTT DoCoMo's i-mode network structure not only provides access to i-mode and i-mode-compatible content through phones, through the Internet, and access through dedicated leased-line circuit for added security. i-Modem web sites are written in CWML (Compact Wireless Markup Language), a stripped-down version of HTML (HyperText Markup Language) that is similar to WML (Wireless Markup Language) used in WAP (Wireless Access Protocol). Transmission between the i-Mode cell site and the cell phone or other device is via packet mode, with the packets being 128 octets (i.e., bytes) in length. See also WAP and WML. In America, AT&T Wireless, in which NTT DoCoMo owns shares, introduced a i-Mode knockoff, which it calls mMode (without the hyphen). www.NTTDoCoMo.com.
Inverse Multiplexer. See Inverse Multiplexer.
An alliance of ISPs (Internet Service Providers) and IAPs (Internet Access Providers) to provide roaming capabilities for travelers. Based on proprietary standards, roamers are authenticated before being afforded Internet access. Usage is cross-billed through the I-PASS clearinghouse, with fees being set by each ISP for use of its facilities by roamers. I-PASS includes over 100 member ISPs in approximately 150 countries , and includes over 1,000 POPs (Points of Presence). I-PASS competes with GRIC (Global Reach Internet Connection). The IETF's Roamops working group is developing a standard for roaming, as well. See also GRIC and Roamops.
ITU-T recommendations on standards for ISDN services, ISDN networks, user -network interfaces, and internetwork and maintenance principals.
Shows a user which line the phone is connected to when the receiver is off-hook. It does this by illuminating a small light below that line button. Most key sets and PBX sets have I-Use buttons . Most of the newer two-line phones do also.
An acronym for the Information SuperHighway, that nebulous concept which refers to interconnected telecommunications channels snaking their way into every household, every company, every college, every university in the world. Essentially, the Information SuperHighway is a fancy term for the nation's phone network overlaid with heavy data communications ability.
ITU-T description of the general "bearer" services offered by ISDN networks, including both packet-switched and frame relay data services.
ITU-T Specifications for Traffic Measurement.
B-ISDN ATM Layer Specification.
B-ISDN ATM Layer (AAL) Functional Description.
B-ISDN ATM Layer (AAL) Specification.
Basic rate physical layer interface defined for ISDN. The ITU-T Layer 1 specification for the ISDN BRI S/T-interface, which consists of four wires. I.430 specifies ASI line coding. The beginning and end of each frame is marked with deliberate bi-polar violations. Each BRI frame is forty-eight bits in length including the bi-polar violations; and repeated 4,000 times per second for a total line rate of 192 Kb/s in each direction. The point-to- point limit is one kilometer. the passive bus is limited to about 10 meters .
Primary rate physical layer interface defined for ISDN. The ITU-T Recommendation for Layer 1 of the ISDN PRI. Specifies operation on North American T-1 at 1.544 megabits per second (23B+D) or European E-1 at 2.048 megabits per second (30B+D).
Primary Rate Access, which provides thirty 64 kbit/s traffic- bearing lines, plus 64 kbit/s lines for call-management and signalling information.
ITU-T Recommendation for B-ISDN User-network Interface.
The ITU-T specification, commonly known as Q.920, which describes the general network aspects of the LAPD protocol (also known as DSS1).
The ITU-T specification describing the general network aspects of the ISDN D channel Layer 3 protocol.
Infrared Data Association. See Infrared.
Bit in IEEE 802 MAC address field distinguishing between individual and group addresses.
Input/Output. See the following definitions and, most importantly, InfiniBand.
When a computer systems spend much of its time waiting for peripherals like the hard disk or video display, it is said to be I/O bound. If your computer is I/O Bound, going to a faster CPU (like a 386 or 486) might make little perceived difference. What you need is a faster hard disk or faster video card, etc.
Equipment forming part of the input/output system of a computer.
Provides communications between the central processor and the I/O devices.
An input/output device, which is a piece of hardware used for providing information to and receiving information from the computer, for example, a disk drive, which transfers information in one of two directions, depending on the situation. Some input devices, such as keyboards, can be used only for input; some output devices (such as a printer or a monitor) can be used for output. Most of these devices require installation of device drivers.
IRP. Data structures that drivers use to communicate with each other.
Inter-Integrated Circuit, with I2C actually meaning "I^2C" as in "I Squared C." A bidirectional, two-wire , serial bus specification developed in the early 1980's by Philips Semiconductors to provide a communications link between integrated circuits for audio and video (e.g., TV sets and VCRs) equipment. I2C now extends to a wide variety of computer peripherals such as keyboards, mice, printers, and monitors . I2C is a multi-master bus, meaning that multiple masters can initiate data transfers over the shared bus, with a arbitration mechanism determining which master has priority at any given time.
One version of Intel's '386 family of microprocessors. The i386SL's special feature is that it can be slowed to 0 megahertz and still maintain register integrity (memory) practically indefinitely. This results in significant power savings for computers ( especially laptops) that advantage of this feature.
Name of the programmable video processor family from Intel.
Internet Appliance. See Internet Appliance.
International Alphabet No. 5.
Internet Architecture Board, formed in 1981 by the Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). A policy setting and decision-review board for the TCP/IP-based Internet. The IAB supervises the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Internet Research Task Force (IRTF), and serves as the technology advisory group to the Internet Society (ISOC). The IAB included researchers such as Vint Cerf and Robert Kahn, who had created the TCP/IP protocol that became the universal language of the Internet. See also DARPA, Internet Architecture Board, IETF, IRTF, ISOC, and TCP/IP.
Integrated Access Device. A device which supports voice, data and video information streams over a single, high-capacity (i.e. broadband) circuit. A piece of equipment used to combine multiple services (ISDN, frame relay, Internet Protocol, DSL, ATM, T-1/E-1, FT- 1/E-1). By combining services, a single line can replace multiple access lines. IADs allow service providers and end-users to scale their services as they need. According to literature on them, broadband integrated access devices enable you to connect to the Internet and access multiple phone lines over a single wire. Small and medium- sized businesses already use IADs on T-1 and SDSL lines. Homes will use IADs with ADSL to access the Internet and provide advanced phone service from competing providers without busy signals, and without running more wires. Some companies are actually making "Integrated Software on Silicon" which combines a DSL modem, a digital signal processor for voice telephone, and microprocessors for network protocols and higher-level software into a single chip, along with the network protocols and routing software that runs on those chips.
Internet Addiction Disorder. I found this on the Internet (where else?): "A growing number of men are losing friends , family, and jobs, and sometimes all touch with reality through an addiction to the Internet, an Italian psychiatrist warned recently. Professor Tonino Cantelmi, University of Rome, told a conference he has studied 24 cases of certifiable "Internet Addiction Disorder" (IAD), a condition with symptoms of spending up to 10 hours online and a physical fallout of uncontrollable shaking hands and memory loss." Only 10 hours?
See International Ad Hoc Committee.
Intel Architecture Labs, home of the ISA Bus, Plug and Play, Universal Serial Bus and other PC "advances" designed to sell more Intel products.
See Immediate Action Limit.
Initial Address Message. In SS7 networks, a message sent in the forward direction as part of the ISUP (ISDN User Part) call set-up protocol. The IAM is a mandatory message which initiates seizure of an outgoing circuit and which transmits address and other information relating to the routing and handling of a call. Included in the IAM is Calling Number Identification (CNI), also known as Calling Line Identification (CLI). CNI is the telephone number of the calling party, which is sent to the called party for identification purposes. Many carriers also support Caller Name, which transmits the name of the calling party along with the originating telephone number. It's interesting that part of the IAM is my identification, as in "I am. See also CNI, Common Channel Signaling, ISDN, ISUP, and SS7.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. IANA is responsible for assignment of unique Internet parameters (e.g., TCP port numbers, and ARP hardware types), and managing domain names . It also was responsible for administration and assignment of IP (Internet Protocol) numbers within the geographic areas of North America, South America, the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa; on December 22, 1997, that responsibility was shifted to ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers). For full details see Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. See also ARIN.
IntrAOffice SONET Signal. Standard SONET signal used within an Operating Company central office, remote site, or similar location.
Internet Access Provider. An IAP provides companies and individuals with a way to get onto the Internet and thus the World Wide Web, or the Web for short. You typically access that IAP by having your computer dial them on a phone number (local or long distance) or access them on a dedicated, full-time connection, such as a DSL or a T-1 line. IAPs come in two flavors. There are the OLS ” the online services such as American Online, Prodigy and the Microsoft Network, which offer access to the Internet, various services (such as instant messaging) and their own proprietary content ” such as stock quotes, personal financial tools, advice for expectant mothers, etc. And there are the Internet Service Providers which offer few services apart from access to the Internet and email. Typically they offer very little in the way of content.
Internetwork Address Sub-Group: A range of internetwork layer addresses summarized in an internetwork layer routing protocol.
Initial Billing Company. The company that bills the IXC in a meet point billing arrangement. Opposite of SBC.
The Integrated Building Distribution Network (IBDN) is an unshielded twisted pair/fiber optic based structured wiring system based on the EIA\TIA 568 wiring standard. IBDN is a creation of Northern Telecom. IBDN is an open wiring system meaning that it can support any standards based data or voice application available today on unshielded twisted pair horizontal wiring.
A ITU-T X.25 packet-switched network operated in Spain by the Spanish government.
Initial Binary Load.
International Business Machines. Also known affectionately as I've Been Moved, International Big Mother, Itty Bitty Machines, It's Better Manually, along with others not suitable for printing (but used in the back of better computer rooms all across the North American continent ). IBM is powerful in some parts of the computer industry. This is why many of the IBM terms in this book are described as how IBM defines them.
Graphics standard introduced by IBM with 1,024 x 768 resolution. Many current monitors are 8514/A-compatible. 8514/A is also called XGA, or eXtended Graphics Array, which is IBM's high-resolution extension to its VGA adapter. It provides a resolution of 1,024 horizontally x 768 vertically, yielding 786,432 possible bits of information on one screen, more than two and a half times what is possible with VGA.
IBM's specification for the kind of cable to be used in connection its products.
The IBM PC was first introduced in the summer of 1981. It came with a 16- bit Intel 8088 processor and no hard drive.
A local area network using star wiring architecture of two pair cabling to each location ” one pair from the hub to the workstation and one pair from the workstation back to the hub to continue the ring. The IBM 8228 Multiple Access Unit (MAU) will support communications for eight PCs (workstations). Up to 33 IBM 8228 MAUs may be connected together into a single ring, supporting up to 260 data devices. MAU to MAU connection is accomplished with data connectors equipped with Type 1 cables from a MAU's RO (Ring Out) connection to the next MAU's RI (Ring In). The final MAU's RO connects back to the initial MAU's RI to complete the ring. See also Token Passing and Token Ring.
Interim Billed Number Database.
In- Band On-Channel is the terrestrial digital radio format from a company called iBiquity Digital. This radio format has a novel technology for replacing traditional AM and FM radio broadcasting with more robust digital signals. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has officially endorsed IBOC. It has agreed to let local radio operators begin broadcasting in the new IBOC format. As the Economist wrote, "It seemed only a matter of time before car owners , equipped with an IBOC radio, would be free to enjoy stunning CD-quality local programming as they cruised America's highways and byways. Meanwhile, radio broadcasters across the country would offer ancillary data (such as promotions for movie and concert tickets, or personalised share-price tickers) by piggybacking the information on the IBOC signal. iBiquity had even started to persuade radio stations to spend tens of thousands of dollars to upgrade their broadcasting equipment for the new digital signals. Then along came Motorola, with a digital-radio chipset called Symphony, to spoil the fun. Both devices turn crackly analog broadcasting into pristine digital radio. But the similarities end there. The iBiquity scheme involves a tuner built to receive a digital bit- stream from a broadcaster transmitting a signal using the IBOC format. In contrast, the Symphony chipset takes an ordinary analog AM or FM signal and pumps it through its powerful digital processor to enhance the sound and boost reception significantly. Symphony costs the broadcaster nothing, and consumers next to ” and the average listener can barely hear the difference between the two digital forms of AM or FM radio reception. Symphony has some big advantages. To create CD-quality music, it uses not only hardware (its 24-bit signal processor is similar to those found in home-theatre equipment with fancy surround-sound features) but also a software engine. The built-in software, which lets users upgrade or customise the radio with third-party applications, can generate noise- cancelling signals to eliminate engine hum and other stray sounds. It can also pick up neighbouring stations more accurately than conventional tuners and thus avoid interference. The 'spectrum buffer' required by the FCC to stop adjacent stations interfering with each other could be cut in half, says John Hansen of Motorola. That could double the number of possible stations in the AM/FM bands. To confuse matters, or to enhance our radio listening pleasures, there are now two companies broadcasting radio from satellite. One is called XM Radio and the other is called Sirius."
Bellcore spec 54019, which covers specs on delivering fractional T-1.
Intelligent Battery System. A conventional battery system interfaces to its host product and charger through a power and perhaps a simple sensor port. An intelligent battery system has state sequential intelligence, memory, and a data communications protocol to the conventional battery sensor package. Thee IBS additions allow sensor data, events and memory access to take place between the battery pack and the host device and charger.
International Business Systems.
INTELSAT Business Service.
ISBU is a two-wire digital UNE capable of ISDN BRI, i.e. basic rate at 144kbps. IBSU is the circuit identifier for a 2-wire designed ISDN Capable Loop. It typically looks like 09.IBSU.150634, where 09 is the state and 150634 is simply the circuit's number, i.e. the next available incremented number. Verizon and others use this. See ISDN.
Integrated Business eXchange. Another name for a PBX. This is also the name
InteCom uses for their PBX family. InteCom is now owned by Matra, a French company.
Intercom, as in speaking between two phones inside a business.
Intermediate Cross-connect. An interconnect point within backbone wiring. for example, the interconnection between the main cross-connect and telecommunications closet or between the building entrance facility and the main cross-connect.
Interexchange Carrier. Also (and more commonly) called IXC.
Integrated Circuit Dynamic Random Access Memory.
A Verizon definition. The connection between a Verizon access tandem and another service provider's switching entity/Point of Interface for the purpose of carrying the provider's traffic to and from an InterExchange Carrier.
International Communications Association. ICA is the biggest trade association of the largest corporate telecommunications users ” the people whose companies spend the most. ICA was founded in 1949 as the National Committee of Communications Supervisors. On behalf of its members , the ICA works to influence the FCC, Congress, and other regulatory and law-making bodies on issues of national telecom and information distribution issues. www.icanet.com.
iCal. Internet Calendaring and Scheduling Core Object Specification is a specification from the Internet Engineering Task Force designed to allow people to share and coordinate their appointment calendar over the Internet. At the heart of iCalendar is the Time Zone Calendar Component, a protocol that accounts for different time zones. As a result, users of a typical day planner can schedule appointments with users in other time zones and with other calendaring programs. The iCalendar spec is the foundation for four new specifications. iTIP is the iCalendar Transport Independent Interoperability Protocol, which details how calendaring systems use iCalendar objects to interoperate and defines a message protocol for finding free time or searching to-do lists. iMIP is the iCalendar Message Based Interoperability Protocol which addresses defines interoperability among calendaring systems piggybacked on Internet email using MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension). iRIP is the iCalendar Real Time Interoperability Protocol that addresses the how diverse scheduling systems query each other in real time. Client Access Protocol (CAP) allows any calendaring client to access information from heterogeneous back-end systems. iCalendar is replacing an older specification called vCalendar. See vCalendar. www.ietf.org.
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (www.icann.org) is a non-profit, international organization established by the United States government in 1998 to oversee various technical coordination issues for the Internnet globally. ICANN has broad authority to reform and administer the present system of issuing Internet addresses, including adding new Top Level Domains, like biz, as in www.mycompany.biz. Officially, ICANN coordinates the assignment of globally unique identifiers that allow the Internet to function. Specifically, those identifiers include Internet domain names, Internet Protocol (IP) address numbers, and protocol parameters and port numbers. ICANN also coordinates the stable operation of the Internet's root server system. Previously and by an accident of history (in that the ARPANet was the precursor to today's Internet) a U.S. company held what amounted to a sanctioned monopoly on the business of assigning these names. Network Solutions of Herndon, Va., maintained the master databases that map Internet names to their real, numeric IP addresses. (For example, www.informationweek.com is mapped to the real address of 126.96.36.199.) To correct that situation, the Clinton Administration authorized a nonprofit body "to take over responsibility for the IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and root server system management functions now performed under U.S. government contract." The idea was to open up registration to multiple competing companies; to get the Internet, as a new kind of industry, to start maintaining and policing itself; and to provide some redundancy that's absent in today's all-the-domain-names-in-one-company's- basket approach. The nonprofit body set up to do this was the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). About 100 registrars have been certified, thereby ending the monopoly. Coordination domain name assignment is through the Shared Registry System (SRS), which ensures that duplicate domain names are not assigned. In the event of a dispute over a domain name, the matter is referred to the CPR Institute for Dispute Resolution under the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP). See also Internet and TLD.
Internet Content Adaptation Protocol. Point-to-point protocol between cache servers and network-based applications.
International Call Control API.
Individual Case Basis. A service arrangement in which the regulations, rates and charges are developed based on the specific circumstances of the customer's situation. General tariffs which apply to the vast unwashed customer base do not apply in this case. The price is negotiated between the company (i.e. the phone company) and the customer.
Interexchange Carrier Compatibility Forum.
International Code Designator. A 2-byte field of the 20-byte NSAP (Network Service Access Point) address, the ICD is used to identify an international organization. NSAP and ICD are used in a variety of networks, including ATM. The British Standards Institution is the registration authority for the International Code Designator. See also BSI.
Information Content and Exchange. An emerging protocol in the form of a XML (eXtensible Markup Language) application, ICE is designed to facilitate the automation of content syndication on the World Wide Web. The ICE architecture is intended to define business rules that would support data (e.g., user profile) exchange among partner sites. Such data can then be processed , loaded into a repository and resold under the user interface of the licensee. For example, ICE would allow a review of a book, movie or theater production to be licensed to multiple Web site hosts . A kill date would automatically kill the content across all sites on a specified date.
Insulated Cable Engineers Association.
Internet Connection Firewall. A firewall is a security system ” hardware and/or software ” that acts as a protective boundary between a network (which may be your PC only or it may be your PC and your families PCs on a local area network ” and the outside world. Windows XP includes something called Internet Connection Firewall software Microsoft says you can use to restrict what information is communicated between the Internet and you and/or your network. You may be connected to the Internet via a cable modem, a DSL modem, or a dial-up modem. You should not enable Internet Connection Firewall on virtual private networking (VPN) connections, which are typically used to securely log in to a corporate network. You should not enable ICF on client computers that are part of a large company or school network with a server-client structure. ICF will interfere with file and printer sharing in these scenarios. It's very easy to enable the Microsoft's software ICF. Poking around on Network/Properties/Advanced tab will lead you to a screen that talks about the ICF. Simply select Protect my computer or network, and then click OK. The Windows XP firewall is now enabled. My personal preference is for separate firewall hardware, not just a software solution. But I'm probably an old foggy.
International Computer Facsimile Association. The mission of this new organization is to create awareness of the benefits and uses of computer fax to increase worldwide market size .
Interexchange Carrier Interface. The interface between carrier networks that support SMDS.
See MAG Plan.
International Center for Information Technologies. A part of MCI.
Sticky Plastic Insulated Conductor. A gel-filled cable which is the only type recommended for direct burial , i.e., directly in the ground without any protective conduit system. As the gel is very sticky, working with "icky PIC" is a somewhat unpleasant experience.
See Integrated Call Management and/or Intelligent Call Management.
Internet Control Message Protocol. ICMP is a layer 3 protocol that is tightly integrated with the TCP/IP protocol suite. It allows routers to send error and control messages about packet processing on IP networks. For example, if a packet cannot reach its destination, an ICMP message is sent to the packet's source. Functions of ICMP include:
Reporting errors. An error message is sent when a packet cannot reach its destination.
Reporting congestion. ICMP messages report congestion when a router's buffer is full and is unable to properly forward packets. A source quench message is returned to the data source to slow down packet transmission. This is done sparingly to reduce the chance that ICMP messages will contribute to the congestion problem.
Relaying troubleshooting information. Troubleshooting information is relayed through ICMP's echo feature. The ping utility is based on this ability to send a packet roundtrip between two hosts.
Reporting time outs. ICMP reports timeouts when a packet's time-to-live (TTL) counter reaches zero and the packet is discarded.
Some common ICMP messages include:
Echo ” used by the ping utility to test the connection between two devices
Echo reply ” reply to a ping
Destination unreachable ” several reasons cause a destination to be unreachable (unavailable port, unknown network, etc.)
Source quench ” tells the data source to reduce its transmission rate
Redirect ” informs the source of a better route to the destination
Time exceeded ” sent when a packet's time-to-live reaches zero
Parameter problem ” sent when there is a problem with the IP header
Timestamp ” requests the last time a host touched a particular packet to determine delay
Timestamp reply ” reply to a time stamp request
Intel Comparative Microprocessor Performance Index. A test for measuring how fast microprocessors are.
An icon is a picture or symbol representing an object, task, command or choice you can select from a piece of software (e.g. a trash can for a deletion command).
The science of icons. A fancy name for talking about icons ” those little visual representations of objects, tasks or commands you find in Windows and other GUI (Graphical User Interface) programs and operating systems.
Intelligent Call Processing. The ability of the latest ACDs to intelligently route calls based on information provided by the caller, a database on callers and system parameters within the ACD such as volumes within agent groups and number of agents available.
Instituto das Communicacoes de Portugal (The Portuguese Institute of Communications).
Intelligent Call Processor. The name of an AT&T service. ICP allows users to directly link their customer premise equipment to its network for individual call processing based on customer-specific information.
Independent Communications Provider. An ICP is a switchless CLEC (Competitive Local Exchange Carrier). Multi-service, integrated access.
Integrated Communications Provider. A fancy name for a competitive local exchange carrier (CLEC) that has passed beyond being an "ordinary" CLEC, which tends to just rent incumbent LEC (ILEC) circuits, into one who builds his own circuits and has a more comprehensive sales and marketing strategy. I first saw this term in a marketing presentation by a Lucent executive. I'm not too sure he knew what the term meant , except that he felt better if he sold equipment to an ICP, not a CLEC. A company called Jetstream wrote about this:
Since the Telecommunications Act of 1996 opened the $100 billion local market to competition, more than 500 companies have registered to offer local voice and data telecommunications services in the U.S. These newly enfranchised Integrated Communications Providers (ICPs) have collectively raised more than $30 billion to fund construction of the local networks they'll need to operate as carriers, and the total continues to rise at an unprecedented rate.
To survive in this competitive arena, CLECs, DLECs, ILECs and IXCs are aggressively looking for new technologies that will let them serve their customers profitably with a differentiated range of communication services.
Integrated Communications Platform. A remotely managed telephone, messaging and data networking platform. The benefit of this system is it provides corporate users with a single point of contact for managing an office's entire communications infrastructure, including local and long distance voice, data, and Internet service.
Internet Cache Protocol. A protocol used by caches on proxy servers to query other caches on other proxy servers about Web objects in cached databases. ICP uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP), an application-layer extension of the TCP/IP protocol suite. See also Cache, Proxy, and UDP.
ICQ "I Seek You". A popular program that lets you find your friends and associates online on the Internet in real time. You send them messages, chat with them and send files in real time. The software and its user base was bought by AOL in 1998 for $287 million. www.icq.com. See also Instant Messaging.
Initial Cell Rate: An ABR service parameter, in cells /sec, that is the rate at which a source should send initially and after an idle period.
Internet Call Routing node. A Bellcore proposed device that would communicate with both the voice and data networks through the Signaling System 7. After a local telephone company's central office detects an incoming data call, the ICR would instruct the voice switch to reroute the connection to a data network through remote access gear, which would then send the data to the Internet.
See Interactive Call Setup.
Integrated Communications System. A Northern Telecom definition: A telecommunications based platform with advanced processing power and capacity that enables integration and orchestration of typical business equipment (telephones, fax, etc.) through open architecture interfaces, as in the Norstar-PLUS Modular ICS.
Intercompany Settlements. The financial settlements made between the LECs for collect type calls and third number calls. Processed by CATS and BEARS. ICSs are determined through CMDS and ITORP.
International Computer Security Association. Formerly the National Computer Security Association, founded in 1989. An independent organization which strives to improve security and confidence in global computing through awareness and certification of products, systems and people. www.ncsa.com.
Interexchange Customer Service Center.
The Information and Communications Technologies Standards Board.
The International Computer-Telephony Association (ICTA), based at Campus Box 350, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80302.
Integrity Check Value is a digest of a message which provides a high level of assurance that the message has not been tampered with. Also referred to as Message Authentication Code.
ID codes are used to restrict a caller's access type, access location, or calling privileges. ID codes can be either global or access/location specific.
It's some idiot's fault ” as ID-TEN-T rule. This definition contributed by Chuck Wogman, I.T. supervisor Pacific Monarch Resorts, Inc.
Pronounced ID-TEN-T. Do you ever get any of those weird error codes when an application fails? I do. Sometimes it's your fault. It's what the geeks refer to as an ID10T error. It's a joke. Look at it again. Makes you feel stupid, huh? See also Cockpit Problem and Idiot-Proof.
Integrated Data Access or Integrated Digital Access.
A new Digital Audio Broadcast technology that provides enhanced sound quality, improved reception and new data services for AM and FM radio.
International Dedicated Access Line.
Insulation Displacement Connection. A type of wire connection device in which the wire is "punched down" into a double metal holder and as it is the metal holders strip the insulation away from the wire, thus causing the electrical connection to be made. The alternate method of connecting wires is with a screw-down post. There are advantages and disadvantages to both systems. The IDC system, obviously, is faster and uses less space. But it requires a special tool. The screw system takes more time, but may produce a longer- lasting and stronger, more thorough (more of the wire exposed) electrical connection. The most common IDC wiring scheme is the 66-block, originally invented by Western Electric. See Punchdown Tool.
IDC Clips are a method of jack termination. They look like a modular jack with a mini 66-block attached to the back. They are usually more expensive than 110-type blocks but are easier to install. See IDC and Punch-Down Tool.
Independent Data Communications Manufacturers Association, a lobbying and education group based near Washington, DC.
Integrated Digital Communications System. A computer located in Sacramento, CA that connects IDTS controllers over a X.25 Packet Switched Network.
International Direct Distance Dialing. The capability to directly dial telephones in foreign countries from your own home or office telephone.
Installable Device Driver Server. A Dialogic term.
Integrated Drive Electronics. IDE is a hard disk drive standard interface for PCs. It appeared in 1989 as a low-cost answer to two other standard hard disk interfaces, ESDI and SCSI. The distinguishing feature of the IDE interface is that it incorporates the drive controller functions right on the drive. Instead of connecting to a controller card, an IDE drive attaches directly to the motherboard with a 40-pin connector. IDE drives offer a data transfer rate of three megabytes per second, which is not very fast. Several methods of data encryption can be used with the IDE interface, including MFM and RLL. Many laptops use IDE drives. IDE has a limit of 528 megabytes. Enhanced IDE drives, which appeared around 1994 to solve the problem that computers had gotten much faster and IDE wasn't keeping up, have a data transfer rate of between 11 and 13 megabytes per second and can handle drives of up 8.4 gigabyte. See Enhanced IDE.
Integrated Development Environment. A term for products such as Microsoft's Visual C++ and Borland's Delphi that combine a program editor, a compiler, a debugger, and other software development tools into one integrated software package. The first of the IDEs , Borland's Turbo Pascal changed the way programmers write code by allowing programs to be edited and compiled within the same application.
International Data Encryptions Algorithm. A secret key encryption algorithm developed by Dr. X. Lai and Professor J. Massey in Switzerland to replace DES.
Internet Development & Exchange Association, formed in 1995 and developed as part of a capstone MBA strategy project at West Virginia University to address the ever increasing competitive nature of the ISP market. Today, IDEA claims to be the largest trade association of independent Internet Service Providers (ISPs) in the world. www.auidea.org.
Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network. A wireless technology developed by Motorola, iDEN operates in the 800 MHz, 900 MHz and 1.5 GHz radio bands; the 900 MHz development is aimed at operators of digital Commercial Mobile Radio Service (CMRS), also known as ESMR (Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio). iDEN is a digital technology using a combination of VSELP (Vector Sum Excited Linear Prediction) and 16QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) for compression, and TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) over frequency channels of 25 kHz. Through a single proprietary handset, iDEN supports voice in the form of both dispatch radio and PSTN interconnection, numeric paging, SMS (Short Message Service) for text, data, and fax transmission. The iDEN system, developed by Motorola and used by Nextel, also adds a walkie-talkie feature to phones. See also ESMR, QAM, SMS, TDMA, and VSELP.
Automatic Number Identification (ANI) equipment in the originating office failed to identify the calling number. See ANI.
Same as AIOD. It's a PBX feature which provides identification of the PBX extension making the outward toll calls. This identification may be provided by automatic equipment or by attendant identification of the extension.
The name of a database object (table, view, index, procedure, trigger, column, default, or rule). An identifier can be from 1 to 30 characters long.
The "you are here arrow" on a map is called the IDEO locator.
Intermediate Distribution Frame.
A device, system, or software application that has a highly intuitive user interface can be so easy to operate correctly that even a person ignorant of its intricacies can do it. That's "idiot-proof." See also Cockpit Problem.
See Integrated Digital Loop Carrier.
Not being used but ready.
An SCSA term. A state of the SCbus or SCxbus Message Bus where no information is being transmitted and the bus line is pulled high.