Bibliography

Table of Contents


Index

Symbols

%OSPF-3-INTERNALERR error message, 332
%OSPF-3-NOBACKBONE error message, 332
%OSPF-3-NOCONNDB error message, 333
%OSPF-3-NOLSA error message, 333
%OSPF-3-NOMEMORY error message, 333
%OSPF-3-UNKNOWNSTATE error message, 335
%OSPF-4-BADLENGTH error message, 331
%OSPF-4-BADLSATYPE error message, 331
%OSPF-4-CONFLICTING_LSAID error message, 332
%OSPF-4-ERRRCV error message, 332
%OSPF-4-NONEIGHBOR error message, 333
%OSPF-4-NORTRID error message, 334
%OSPF-4-NOTREDIST4 error message, 335
%OSPF-4-NOTREDIST5 error message, 335
%OSPF-4-OSPFINTDOWN error message, 335
%OSPF-4-VIRTUAL_IN_NON_BACKBONE error message, 336
%OSPF-6-NOSRCPDB error message, 334
%OSPF-6-NOTREDIST1 error message, 334
%OSPF-6-NOTREDIST3 error message, 334
/16 (class B addressing), 58-59
/24 (class C addressing), 58-59

Numerics

128-bit addressing, see IPv6
2-Way state (OSPF neighbors), 260

A

ABRs (Area Border Routers), 171
areas
OSPF network design, 211, 213
see also areas
configuring, 386-387
inter-area summarization, 238-239
LSAs (Link State Advertisements), 168
virtual links, 226-227
Access Layer (hierarchical topology), 367
access lists, 622
dynamic, 626, 632
lock-and-key access, 627-630
redistribution loops, preventing, 272-273
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), 562
accessing
CCO (Cisco Connection Online), 503-505
MIBs (Management Information Bases), 572
networks, SNMP, 611-613
accuracy, as design goal, 86
active hubs, 63
adaptability, as design goal, 359-360
Address Resolution Protocol, see ARP
addressing
bit splitting, 379
classes, default subnet masks, 49
design issues, 374-376, 378-381
IP (Internet Protocol)
address classes, quick reference chart, 43-45
address depletion, 52-53
address management, 114
assigning class C addresses to areas, 242-243
assigning private addresses to areas, 247
broadcast traffic, 47
calculating host quantities per address class, 45
CIDR (classless interdomain routing), 57-58
class A addresses, 41
class B addresses, 41
class C addresses, 42
class D addresses, 42
class E addresses, 42
classful routing, 54
classless routing, 55
dotted decimal notation, 40
first octet rule, 43, 46
hierarchical structure, 46
host addresses, 40
IPv6 (IP version 6), 52
network addresses, 40
prefixes, 59
routing, 65
subnet masking, 48-51
subnetting, 47-48
summarization, 53-54
supernets, 59
VLSM, 248-251
IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6), 707-708, 711-712
management, 114
OSPF areas, 223
selecting scheme, 375
VLSM (variable-length subnet masks), 379
adjacencies, building, 154
advertisements, 97
area-to-backbone, 241
backbone-to-area, 241-242
LSAs (Link-State Advertisements), 162
Autonomous System External LSAs, 169
database synchronization, 163
network LSAs, 167-168
operation, example, 169
packet types, 166-169
router LSAs, 167
summary LSAs, 168
agents, 539, 545
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), 690-691
responding to NMS requests, 552-553
aggregates, 59
Alarm groups (SNMPv2), 692
alarms (RMON), configuring, 703-704
algorithms
Dijkstra, 131, 205
example, 131-132
route recalculation, 209
MD5 (authentication), 599-600
routing
accuracy as design goal, 86
bandwidth metric, 94
centralized, 90
communication cost metric, 95
delay metric, 94
destination/metric associations, 84-85
destination/next hop associations, 84
destination/path associations, 85
distance vector, 92-93, 95-103
distributed, 90
dynamic, 89
flat, 90-91
flexibility as design goal, 88
hierarchical, 90-91
host-intelligent, 91-92
inter-domain, 92
intra-domain, 92
link state, 92-93, 104-112
load metric, 94
metrics, 93
MTU metric, 94
multi-path, 90
path determination, 84
rapid convergence as design goal, 87
reliability metric, 93-94
router-intelligent, 91-92
simplicity/low overhead as design goal, 86
single-path, 90
stability/robustness as design goal, 87
static, 89
SPF (Shortest Path First), 104, 204-207
switching, 85
aliases, OSPF protocol, 134
analyzing network design requirements, 362-366
anticipating network failure, 464-465
anycast addresses (IPv6), 713, 717-718
Application layer (OSI model), 12, 15
applications
email, applying to OSI model, 22, 24
interaction with upper layers (OSI model), 15
network management, 385
CiscoView, 536-538
CiscoWorks, 538
ConfigMaker, 539
application-wide data types (SMIs), 549
applying, 22, 24
access lists to interfaces, 625-626
subnet masks to IP addresses, 48-51
architecture, networks, 5-6
IPv6 addressing topology, 714-715
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), 689
agents, 690-691
managed devices, 690
MIB (Management Information Bases), 691
NMS (Network Management System), 690
area authentication command, 293
Area Border Routers, see ABRs
area default-cost command, 293-294
area nssa command, 296
area range command, 296
area stub command, 297
area virtual-link command, 298-300
area-id command, 294-295
areas, 174
addressing, 223
AS (Autonomous Systems), 173-174
backbone area, 175
class C addresses, assigning, 242-243
connecting to ABRs, 211, 213
designing, 175, 218-225, 227-233, 370, 372
backbone areas, 224-225
ensuring continuity, 222
non-stub areas, 219
physical proximity considerations, 221
reducing link instability, 221
tunable OSPF parameters, 222-223
enhancing performance, 221-223
inter-area summarization, 238-239
link-state databases, designing, 219
NSSAs (Not-So-Stubby Areas)
configuring, 398
implementing, 399
parameters, configuring, 397
partitions, designing, 220-221
performance, enhancing, 221-223
private IP addressing, 247
route summarization
area-to-backbone route advertisements, 241
backbone-to-area route advertisements, 241-242
configuring, 400
route types, 242
router density, 211
scalability, 216
stub areas, 176
normal stub areas, designing, 228-232
not-so-stubby areas, designing, 232-233
restrictions, 176
totally stubby areas, designing, 232
totally stubby areas, 177
traffic, controlling, 235-236
virtual links, 226-227
VLSM (variable-length subnet masks), router inter-operability, 252-253
area-to-backbone route advertisements, 241
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), 19
ARPANET, 69
AS (Autonomous Systems), areas, 173-174
addressing, 223
designing, 218-233
enhancing performance, 221-223
reducing unstable links, 221
route types, 242
router density, 211
ASBRs (Autonomous System Border Routers)
configuring, 172, 388
default routes, injecting into OSPF, 283, 285-286
external route summarization, 240-241
LSAs (link-state advertisements), 169
assessing need for security, 600
assigning
addresses
design considerations, 374-376, 378-381
subnetted networks, 47-48
VLSMs, 244-246
class C addresses to areas, 242-243
private IP addresses to areas, 247
Well Known Ports, 645-647
associations, 84
destination/metric, 84-85
destination/next hop, 84
destination/path, 85
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), 34
attacks, DoS (Denial of Service)
“smurf”, 595-596
TCP loopback , 594-595
TCP SYN, 596, 597
UDP diagnostic port, 598
attempt state (OSPF neigbhors), 259
auditing tools, 604
authentication, 397
MD5, 383, 599-600
neighbor router authentication, 617-618
standards, 616
Autonomous System Border Routers, see ASBRs
Autonomous System External LSAs (Link-State Advertisements), 169
Autonomous Systems, see AS
avoiding redistribution loops, 272-273

B

backbones (network), 91
areas, 175
virtual links, 226-227
characteristics, 227
designing for hierarchical topologies, 369
partitioning, 220
Backbone Routers, see BRs
backbone-to-area route advertisements, 241-242
back-off algorithm, 26
backup configuration files, 613
bandwidth
correlation to interface cost, 205-207
metrics, 94
requirements for OSPF networks, 218
banners, configuring unauthorized use notifications, 613
baselining, 9, 559
Basic Encoding Rules, see BERs
beacon frames, 27
“Bellman-Ford” algorithms, 92
BERs (Basic Encoding Rules), 550
bi-directional communication, 157
bits
/16 (class B addressing), 58-59
/24 (class C addressing), 58-59
splitting, 379
bit-wise subnetting, 246
Black, Dennis, 203
branches, MIB tree structure, 564
bridges, defined, 63
broadcasts
OSPF network configuration, 392
routing, 49-50
CIDR (classless interdomain routing), 51
traffic, 47
storms, 49
BRs (Backbone Routers), 173, 389
building
adjacencies, 154
IS-IS network topology database, 109
logical hierarchies, 113
OSPF networks
design guidelines, 209-210
neighbor relationships, 154
routing tables, 84
destination/metric associations, 84-85
destination/next hop associations, 84
destination/path associations, 85
shortest path tree, 207-208
business considerations
reactions to developing technologies, 8-9
selecting routing protocols, 117-119

C

calculating
ABR area quantities, 211, 213
CIDR prefixes, 62
host quantities per address class, 45
OSPF cost, 205-206
router memory requirements, 217
routers per area, 211
shortest path, 204-207
capacity planning, 9, 569-570
case studies
Adding New OSPF Routers to a Network, 179-182
Configuring RIP Networks, 120-121
Designing OSPF Frame Relay network, 411-426
Designing Router Firewall Architecture, 635-639, 641, 643-650
Dynamic IP Routing with Unnumbered Point-to-Point Subinterfaces, 182, 186
Implementing IPv6, 725
Netflow Switching, 680-683
Point-to-Multipoint Link Networks, 254, 256-259, 261-265
RIP and OSPF Redistribution, 336-348
Troubleshooting Networks, 74-77, 79-80
Troubleshooting OSPF, 506-526
CCO (Cisco Connection Online), 503-506
see also MIBs, accessing
centralized routing algorithms, 90
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, see CHAP
channel service units see CSU
CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol), security, 593-594
characteristics
non-stub areas, 219
ping, 488
stub areas, 175
TCP/IP routing protocols
OSPF, 71, 134-135
RIP, 71
virtual links, 227
see also physical characteristics
CIDR (classless interdomain routing), 52-53, 57-58
aggregates, 59
prefixes, calculating, 62
subnetting, restrictions, 51
translation table, 61
circuits, on-demand
designing, 286
OSPF configuration, 404-405
Cisco Systems
CCO, 503-505
keyboard commands, 733-734
MIBs (Management Information Bases)
structure, 560
support, 559-561
routers
configuration, 385-387, 410
multiple community support, 562
SNMP (Simple Network Routing Protocol)
version coexistence, 558
traps, implementation, 562
technical support, contacting, 500, 503-506
Web site, 135
CiscoView, 536-538
CiscoWorks, 538
class A addresses, 41
default subnet masks, 49
node address, 41
class B addresses, 41
default subnet masks, 49
host/subnet quantities, 44
network addresses, 41
class C addresses, 42
assigning to OSPF areas, 242-243
default subnet masks, 49
host/subnet quantities, 44-45
class D addresses, 42
class E addresses, 42
classes, calculating host quantities, 45
classful routing, 54
RIP (Routing Information Protocol), 95-96
specifications, 96
classless routing
interdomain, 51
VLSM (variable-length subnet masks), 55-57
clear text passwords, hiding, 609
client/server model, 6-7
gateways, 6-7
CLNS (Connectionless Network Systems), IS-IS configuration, 124
cluster controllers, 5
CMIP (Common Management Information Services), 696
coexistence, SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), 558
collisions, back-off algorithm, 26
commands, 207, 501
global configuration
ip ospf name-lookup, 311
logging buffered, 475
route-map, 323-324, 326
router ospf, 326
interface configuration
ip classless, 60
ip ospf authentication-key, 306
ip ospf cost, 307
ip ospf dead-interval, 223, 308
ip ospf demand-circuit, 309
ip ospf hello-interval, 223, 309
ip ospf message-digest-key, 310
ip ospf network, 312
ip ospf priority, 313
ip ospf retransmission-interval {seconds}, 223
ip ospf retransmit-interval, 313
ip ospf transmit-delay, 314, 223
ip policy route-map, 315
no ip source-route, 92
OSPF SHOW, 441-463
privileged EXEC
debug ip ospf adjacency, 480-481
debug ip ospf events, 481
debug ip ospf flood, 482-483
debug ip ospf lsa-generation, 483
debug ip ospf packet, 483-484
debug ip ospf spf, 485
debug ip routing, 485-487
route-map configuration
set level, 326
set metric, 327
set metric-type, 328
router configuration
enable secret, 599
area authentication, 293
area default-cost, 293-294
area nssa, 296
area range, 296
area stub, 297
area virtual-link, 298-300
area-id, 294-295
default-information originate, 301-302
default-metric, 303
distance, 303-304
distribute-list, 269
distribute-list out, 305
neighbor, 316
network area, 317
ospf auto-cost-determination, 318
ospf log-adj-changes, 318
passive-interface, 319
redistribute, 320, 322-323
summary-address, 329-330
term monitor, 195
timers spf, 330
SHOW OSPF
show ip ospf, 442-443
show ip ospf ?, 441-442
show ip ospf border-routers, 446-447
show ip ospf database, 447-449
show ip ospf database asbr-summary, 449-450
show ip ospf database database-summary, 456-457
show ip ospf database external, 450-452
show ip ospf database network, 452-453
show ip ospf database router, 454-455
show ip ospf database summary, 455-456
show ip ospf interface, 444-445
show ip ospf neighbor, 457-461
show ip ospf virtual-links, 227, 462-463
Common Management Information Services,
see CMIP
communication
between routing protocols, 119
bi-directional, 157
cost metric, 95
protocols, 68
routing update messages, 85
telecommuters, network support, 362
comparing
Integrated IS-IS and “ships -in-the-night” IS-IS, 108
public and private addressing schemes, 375
routing methods, 72
SNMP and RMON, 705-707
components
interaction, 65-66
network management systems, 539-540
ConfigMaker, 539
configuration files
backups, 613
passwords, 599-600
configuring
access lists, 622-626
alarms, 703-704
areas, 397
Cisco routers, 385-387, 410
ABRs, 386-387
ASBRs, 388
backbone routers, 389
DNS lookup, 402
extended pings, 492
IS-IS, 124
lock-and-key access, 629-630, 633
loopback addresses, 153
loopback interfaces, 391
mutual route redistribution, 280-282
NSSAs (Not-So-Stubby Areas), 398
OSPF
broadcast networks, 392
MIBs, 576-578
nonbroadcast networks, 393
parameters, 390
point-to-multipoint networks, 394-397
passwords, privileged mode, 608-609
RIP (Routing Information Protocol), 103
RMON, 702-703
routes
calculation timers, 390
maps, 271
summarization, 400
simplex interfaces, Ethernet, 389
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
inform requests, 563
traps, 563
timeout for unattended consoles, 608
traffic filters, 620-621
unauthorized use notifications, 613
connections, 65-66
conserving router memory, 217
consoles
ports, controlling access, 606
unattended, configuring timeouts, 608
constructing
OSPF networks, design guidelines, 209-210
routing tables, 84
destination/metric associations, 84-85
destination/next hop associations, 84
destination/path associations, 85
shortest path tree, 207-208
contacting technical support, 500, 503-506
context (wrappers), 556
continuity, ensuring for OSPF areas, 222
control information, OSI model layers, 20-21
controlling
access
to console ports, 606
to hardware, 604
to routers, virtual terminals, 607
areas, traffic, 235-236
intranets, 11
managed devices, 564
network growth, 9-10
redistribution, 271
convergence, 73, 115, 365-366
as routing algorithm design goal, 87
Dijkstra’s algorithm, 132
fault detection, 208
route recalculation, 209
converting IP addresses to Physical layer protocol address, 19
core dumps, obtaining, 502
Core Layer (hierarchical topology), 367
corporate intranets
managing, 534-540
technological advancements, 8
cost metric, calculating, 205-206
cost-effectiveness, as design goal, 360-361
CPU requirements, OSPF routers, 217
creating access lists, 624-626
crime, computer-related, statistics, 592
criteria
backbone areas, designing ,224-225
hierarchical networks, designing, 173
NetFlow Switching, 681
OSPF redistribution, 269
on-demand circuits, designing, 287
route summarization, 238
stub areas, designing, 228
CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Carrier Detect), 26
see also Ethernet
CSU (channel service units), 64
cut-through packet switching, 64

D

Data Link layer (OSI model), 20
bridges, 63
network component interaction, 65
switches, 63
data types, SMI (Structure of Management Information), 549
Database Description packets, see DD packets
databases
IS-IS, updating, 109
link-state, 104, 169
designing in areas, 219
OSPF network design considerations, 214-215
synchronization, 163, 165
see also LSAs
MIBs (Management Information Bases), OSPF-related tables, 575-576
datagrams
defined, 70
reassembling, 70
see also packets
data-link layer (OSI model)
standards, 12
DD packets (Database Description), 165
dead end areas, 227
dead timers, 208
debug commands, 477-487
debug ip ospf adjacency command, 480-481
debug ip ospf events command, 481
debug ip ospf flood command, 482-483
debug ip ospf lsa-generation command, 483
debug ip ospf packet command, 483-484
debug ip ospf spf command, 485
debug ip routing command, 485-487
decryption programs, 599
default routes, 72, 242
generating during redistribution, 400-402
injecting into OSPF, 283, 285-286
default subnet masks, 49
default-information originate command, 301-302
default-metric command, 303
defensive strategies
TCP SYN attacks, 597
TCP SYN DoS attacks, 596
UDP diagnostic port attacks, 598
delay metric, 94
deleting dynamic access lists, 632
density, routers per area, 211
depletion, IP addresses, 52-53
IPv6, 709
see also IP
deploying
MOSPF, 406-408
OSPF networks, 364, 382-383
financial costs, 366
protocol, 382-384
Designated Routers, see DRs
designing, 232-233
algorithms (routing)
accuracy, 86
flexibility, 88
rapid convergence, 87
simplicity/low overhead, 86
stability/robustness, 87
areas, 175, 218-225, 227-233, 370, 372
backbone areas, 224-225
ensuring continuity, 222
link-state database, 219
non-stub areas, 219
partitions, 220-221
physical proximity considerations, 221
reducing link instability, 221
stub areas, 227-228
tunable OSPF parameters, 222-223
networks
addressing, 374-376, 378-381
firewalls, 635-650
growth, managing, 384-385
hardware provisions, 381
hierarchical, 173
methodology, 362-385
protocol deployment, 382-384
requirements, analyzing, 362-366
security, 382-383
topology, developing, 366-370, 372-374
networks with VLSM (variable-length subnet masks), 57
on-demand circuits, 286
OSPF networks, 209-210
ABRs, connected areas, 211, 213
areas, calculating quantity, 214
comparing fully and partially meshed topologies, 214
DR, selecting, 214
link-state database, 214-215
neighbors, calculating quantity, 213
router density, 211
scalability, 216
topology, 210
see also methodology
network design
stub areas, 227-228
normal stub areas, 228-232
not-so-stubby areas, 232-233
totally stubby areas, 232
destination/metric associations, 84-85
destination/next hop associations, 84
destination/path associations, 85
detecting network topology changes, 208
developing technologies, network topology, 366-370, 372-374
development, 6
IPv6, 707-708
network management standards, 705-706
OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model, 13
OSPF, 6
RFCs (Requests for Comments), 135-150
RMON (Remote Monitoring), 696-698
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), 540-543, 688-689
SNMPv2, 691-692
SNMPv3, 694-695
TCP/IP protocol suite, 69
devices
bridges, 63
convergence, 73, 115
CSUs (channel service units), 64
Dijkstra’s algorithm, 132
distributed processing, 8
gateways, 63
host addresses, 40
hubs, 63
incorporating with IPv6 addressing, 710
interaction with OSI model, 65-66
managed, 546, 564
non-SNMP compatible, supporting, 545
packet switches, 64
routers, 49-50, 65
controlling access to virtual terminals, 607
domains, 91
DRs (Designated Routers), 155-156
IS (Intermediate System), 106
memory requirements, 216-217
peer encryption, 615
routing tables, 72
subinterfaces, 66-67
subnet masking, 50
routers of last resort, 89
switches, 63
TCP SYN attacks, vulnerability, 597
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), 375
diagnostic tools
extended pings, 491-493
ping, 488-493
trace command, 493-499
dialing on-demand, 287, 291
Digital Network Architecture, see DNA
Dijkstra, Edsger W., 131
Dijkstra’s algorithm, 104, 205
example, 131-132
route recalculation, 209
Web site, 131
disabling bandwidth-based metric calculation, 403-404
discontiguous subnets, 380
displaying messages logged to router buffer, 475
distance command, 303-304
distance vector protocols, 95
algorithms, 92-93
RIP (Routing Information Protocol), 95-103
configuring, 103
hold-down mechanism, 101
increasing stability, 99-101
packet format, 102-103
routing metric, 98
routing tables, 96-97
routing updates, 97-98
specifications, 96
split horizon, 99-100
split horizon with poison reverse, 100
timers, 99
distributed computing architecture, RMON1, 697-698
distributed database protocols, 130
distributed processing, 8
distributed routing algorithms, 90
distribute-list out command, 269, 305
Distribution Layer (hierarchical topology), 367
see also layers; OSI model;hierarchical networks
DNS (Domain Name System, lookup configuration, 402
documentation, CCO resources, 505-506
domains, 91, 271
see also redistribution
DoS (Denial of Service) attacks
smurf, 595-596
TCP loopback, 594-595
TCP SYN, 596
UDP diagnostic port attacks, 598
dotted decimal notation, 40
down state (OSPF neigbhors), 259
DRs (Designated Routers), 155-156, 214, 393
dynamic access lists, 626, 632
dynamic routing, 72, 89

E

E1 metrics, 234
E1 routes, 178, 273
E2 metrics, 234-235
E2 routes, 178, 273
elements (network), 539
email, applying to OSI model, 22, 24
enable secret command, password encryption, 599
enabling
OSPF on inter-area routers, 386
policy routing, 325-326
encapsulation, 22
encoding MIB objects
encryption, 598-600
engineers, Cisco technical support, contacting, 500-506
enhancements
RMON (Remote Monitoring)
RMON standard, 697
RMON2, 701
see also RMON2
SNMPv2, 692-693
ensuring area continuity, 222
error messages
%OSPF-3-INTERNALERR, 332
%OSPF-3-NOBACKBONE, 332
%OSPF-3-NOCONNDB, 333
%OSPF-3-NOLSA, 333
%OSPF-3-NOMEMORY, 333
%OSPF-3-UNKNOWNSTATE, 335
%OSPF-4-BADLENGTH, 331
%OSPF-4-BADLSATYPE, 331
%OSPF-4-CONFLICTING_LSAID, 332
%OSPF-4-ERRRCV, 332
%OSPF-4-NONEIGHBOR, 333
%OSPF-4-NORTRID, 334
%OSPF-4-NOTREDIST4, 335
%OSPF-4-NOTREDIST5, 335
%OSPF-4-OSPFINTDOWN, 335
%OSPF-4-VIRTUAL_IN_NON_BACKBONE, 336
%OSPF-6-NOSRCPDB, 334
%OSPF-6-NOTREDIST1, 334
%OSPF-6-NOTREDIST3, 334
threshold polling, 569
ES (End System), 106
establishing
baseline traffic, 559
Layer 2 sessions, 66
MIB threshold values, 569
Ethernet, 25-27
back-off algorithm, 26
recommended MIBs, 571
simplex interfaces, configuring, 389
Web page, 27
Event Groups (SNMPv2), 692
events (RMON), configuring, 703-704
evolution
networking archetypes, 4
OSPF, 130-131
RFCs, 135-150
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), 688-689
SNMPv2, 691-692
Exchange protocol, 160
exchange state (link-state database), 165
EXEC commands, show tech-support, 501
expanding
IP addressing scheme, class E addresses, 42
networks
capacity planning, 9
controlling growth, 9-10
Experimantal branch (MIBs), 564
Exstart state (link-state database), 164
extended pings, 491-493
extending network reach, 10-11
extensions
Cisco MIB, 559-561
IPv6 packet headers, 723-724
external metrics
E1, 234
E2, 234-235
external routes, 178, 242
redistribution, 273, 275-277
summarization, 240-241

F

Fast Ethernet, 25
fast-switching, 236
fault detection, 208-209
fault management techniques, Token Ring, 27
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Internetworking), 26, 28, 571
Fiber Distributed Data Internetworking
see FDDI
field definitions
Hello protocol packets, 158-160
IPv6 packet headers, 720-721
IS-IS packets, 106-107
RIP packets, 102-103
SNMP PDU (Protocol Data Unit), 556
files, 546-548
configuration
backup, 613
passwords, 599-600
MIBs, 564, 572
filtering
SNMP messages, 562
traffic, 620-621
access lists, 622-626
dynamic access lists, 626
lock-and-key access, 627-630
preventing redistribution loops, 272-273
financial costs, OSPF deployment, 366
firewalls
designing, case study, 635-650
protecting against TCP SYN attacks, 597
first octet rule, 43, 46
flat routing algorithms, 90-91
flexibility, as routing algorithm design goal, 88
Flooding protocol, 107, 161
Flow Labels field (IPv6 headers), 722-723
formatting
packets
IPv6, 720-721
IS-IS (Intermediate System-to- Intermediate System), 110-111
LSA (Link-State Advertisement), 162-163
RIP (Routing Information Protocol), 102-103
messages
SNMPv1, 555
SNMPv2, 556
formulas, calculating OSPF cost, 205-206
fragment header extension (IPv6), 723-724
Frame Relay, 30-31, 33
frame switches, 64
see also datagrams, packets
Frequently Asked Questions, 187-193
Chapter 6, 349-354
Chapter 9, 580-587
Chapter 10, 651-661
Chapter 12, 527-532, 726-732
FTAM (file transfer and access method), 12
FTP (File Transfer Protocol), accessing MIBs, 572
full state (link-state database), 165
fully-meshed topologies, comparing to partially-meshed, 214
functional environment, 150
adjacencies, 154
DRs (Designated Routers), 155-156
link-state database, 169
LSAs (Link-State Advertisements), 162
Autonomous System External LSAs, 169
database synchronization, 163, 165
network LSAs, 167-168
packet types, 166-169
router LSAs, 167
summary LSAs, 168
neighbors, 154
router identification, 152-153
functionality, as network design goal, 359

G

gateways, 6-7, 63
generating
default routes
during redistribution, 400-402
into OSPF, 283, 285-286
SYSLOG messages from routers, 475
GET command (SNMP), 550
GETBULK command (SNMP), 551
GETNEXT command (SNMP), 551
GETNEXTREQUEST command (NMS), 544
GETREQUEST command (NMS), 544
GETRESPONSE command (SNMP agents), 545
Gigabit Ethernet, 25
global configuration commands
ip ospf name-lookup, 311
logging buffered, 475
route-map, 323-324, 326
router ospf, 326
goals
IPv6 design, 711
SNMPv3 Working Group, 695
GUIs (graphical user-interfaces), CiscoView, 536-538

H

half duplex, defined, 390
hardware
distributed processing, 8
host addresses, 40
network design considerations, 381
headers, 20-21
IPv6, 720-721
extensions, 723-724
Flow Labels field, 722-723
Priority Classification field, 721-722
IS-IS packets, 111-112
payload, 22
Hello protocol, 107, 156-158
packets, 158
field definitions, 158-160
suppressing, 389, 404-405
hiding clear text passwords, 609
hierarchical networks, 367-368, 372-374
addressing, 46
algorithms, 90-91
areas
backbone areas, designing, 224-225, 369
designing, 218-233, 370, 372
ensuring continuity, 222
inter-area summarization, 238-239
link-state database, designing, 219
non-stub areas, designing, 219
partitions, designing, 220-221
reducing unstable links, 221
stub areas, designing, 227-228
traffic control, 235-236
tunable OSPF parameters, 222-223
IPv6, implementation, 710
IS-IS (Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System), 106
routing, 171, 177-178
structure, 46
hierarchical structure, MIBs, 565-566
history
networking, 4-7
OSI model, 13
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), 540-543
SNMPv2, 691-692
TCP/IP protocol suite, 69
hold-down mechanism, RIP, 101
hop count, RIP routing metric, 98
Hop-by-Hop headers (IPv6), 724
host addresses, 40
host-intelligent routing algorithms, 91-92
hubs, 63

I-K

identification, OSPF routers, 152-153
identifying potential network attackers, 601
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
standards, 802.3, requirements, 26
Web page, 13
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), OSPF RFCs (Request for Comments), 132-134
IGPs (Interior Gateway Protocols)
RIP (Routing Information Protocol), 96
see also RIP
IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
metrics, 271
redistributing into OSPF, 270-271
implementing
IPv6, 710-712, 725
MOSPF, 406-408
network security, 601-620
NSSAs (Not-So-Stubby Areas), 399
on-demand circuits, 286
OSPF
over on-demand circuits, 406
security, 382-383
VLSM (variable-length subnet masks), 251
INFORM command (SNMP), 551
inform requests, SNMP configuration, 563
init state (OSPF neighbors), 260
injecting default routes into OSPF, 283, 285-286
Integrated IS-IS (Intermediate System-to- Intermediate System), 105
comparing to “ships-in-the-night” IS-IS, 108
see also IS-IS
interaction between MIBs and SNMP, 567
inter-area routers, 177, 236, 242
enabling OSPF, 386
summarization, 238-239
traffic, controlling, 235-236
inter-domain routing algorithms, 92
interface configuration commands
ip ospf authentication-key, 306
ip ospf cost, 307
ip ospf dead-interval, 308
ip ospf demand-circuit, 309
ip ospf hello-interval, 309
ip ospf message-digest-key, 310
ip ospf network, 312
ip ospf priority, 313
ip ospf retransmit-interval, 313
ip ospf transmit-delay, 314
ip policy route-map, 315
interfaces
access lists, applying, 625-626
cost, 205-207
Ethernet simplex, configuring, 389
identifiers (IPv6), 715
loopback, configuring, 153, 391
parameters, configuring, 390
recommended MIBs, 571
split horizon, 67
status changes, 208
stress testing, 490
internal metrics, 234
Internal Routers, see IRs
Internet
characteristics, 4
CIDR (classless interdomain routing), 57-58
developing technologies, affect on business management style, 8-9
Internet Drafts
OSPF Address Resolution Advertisement Option, 666-667
OSPF for IPv6, 665-666
OSPF Multiple Area Links, 676-678
OSPF NSSA Option, 668-669
OSPF Opaque LSA, 670-671
OSPF Optimized Multipath, 678-679
OSPF Over ATM and Proxy PAR, 671-672
OSPF Standardization Report, 664
OSPFv2 DOI for ISAKMP, 668
Techniques in OSPF-Based Network Deployment, 673-676
Internet Network Information Center, see InterNIC
InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center), 40, 135
intra-area routing, 177, 242
intra-domain routing algorithms, 92
intranets, 4
characteristics, 4
controlling, 11
developments in, 8
LANs (Local Area Networks), 25-28
Ethernet, 26-27
FDDI (Fiber-Distributed Data Internetworks), 28
Token Ring, 27
topologies, 25-28
WANs (Wide Area Networks), 29-37
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), 34
Frame Relay, 30-31, 33
ISDN (Integrated Systems Digital Network), 35-37
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol), 34
SVCs (Switched Virtual Circuits), 33
IOS (Internetworking Operating System)
RMON configuration, 702-704
security weaknesses, 594
selecting features for deployment, 384
IP addressing, 114
address classes
calculating host quantities, 45
quick reference chart, 43-45
address depletion
IPv6, 709
areas, 223
address assignment, 247
summarization, 238-239
broadcast traffic, 47
CIDR (classless interdomain routing), 57-58
aggregates, 59
prefixes, calculating, 62
translation table, 61
class A addresses, 41
class B addresses, 41
class C addresses, 42
class D addresses, 42
class E addresses, 42
classful routing, 54
classless routing, 55
conversion to Physical layer protocol address, 19
depletion, 52-53
dotted decimal notation, 40
first octet rule, 43, 46
hierarchical structure, 46
host addresses, 40
network addresses, 40
/16 (Class B), 58-59
/24 (Class C), 58-59
node addresses, 41
octets, as routing decision criteria, 50-51
packets, 70
prefixes, 59
role in TCP/IP protocol suite, 70
routing, 65
subnetting, 47-48
masking, 48-51
restrictions, 51
VLSM, 55-57
summarization, 53-54
supernets, 59
VLSM, 248-251, 278-279
ip classless command, 60
ip ospf authentication-key command, 306
ip ospf cost command, 307
ip ospf dead interval {seconds} command, 223
ip ospf dead-interval command, 308
ip ospf demand-circuit command, 309
ip ospf hello-interval {seconds} command, 223
ip ospf hello-interval command, 309
ip ospf message-digest-key command, 310
ip ospf name-lookup command, 311
ip ospf network command, 312
ip ospf priority command, 313
ip ospf retransmission-interval {seconds} command, 223
ip ospf retransmit-interval command, 313
ip ospf transmit-delay {seconds} command, 223
ip ospf transmit-delay command, 314
ip policy route-map command, 315
IPng (IP next generation), 52
IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6), 52, 707-708
addressing, 711-712
address depletion, 709
devices, 710
topology, 714-715
anycast addresses, 717-718
design goals, 711
extensions (header), 723-724
headers
Flow Labels field, 722-723
Priority Classification field, 721-722
Hop-by-Hop headers, 724
implementating, 710-712
Local-Use addresses, 715-716
migrating from IPv4, 709, 716-717
multicast addresses, 718-719
packet headers, 720-724
unicast addresses, 715
IRs (Internal Routers), 171
IS (Intermediate Systems), 106
ISDN (Integrated Systems Digital Network), 35-37
IS-IS (Integrated Intermediate System-to- Intermediate System), 105-125
“ships-in-the-night” multiple protocol support, 108
address management, 114
flooding protocol, 107
Hello protocol, 107
metrics, 110
network topology database, 109
packets
field definitions, 106-107
formatting, 110-111
timers, 109
ISO (International Standards Organization), 14
OSI (Open Standards Interconnection), 13
component interaction, 65-66
lower layers, 18-20
upper layers, 15
Web site, 13
ITU-T standard (International Telecommunications Union- Telecommunications), 152
JTM (Job Transfer and Manipulation standard), 12
keyboard commands, 733-734

L

land.c program, 594-595
LANs (Local Area Networks), 25-28
connections, 65-66
Ethernet, 25-27
Fast Ethernet, 25
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Internetworking), 26, 28
Gigabit Ethernet, 25
managing, 534-540
switches, 64
Token Ring, 26-27
latency, networks, 361
layers, 15, 18-20
hierarchical topology, 367
OSI model
characteristics, 14
control information, 20-21
Data Link, 63
encapsulation, 22
headers, 22
network component interaction, 65-66
payload, 22
relationship between, 20
security, 593
standards and specifications, 12
trailers, 22
legislation, 8
Level 1 Routing, 106
Level 2 Routing, 106
links
defined, 161
instability, reducing, 221
virtual links, 226-227
Link-State Advertisements, see LSA
link-state database, 169
DD (Database Description) packets, 165
designing in areas, 219
memory requirements, 217
network design considerations, 214-215
synchronization, 161, 163, 165
link-state protocols , 104-112, 130
cost, modifying, 234
Flooding protocol, 107
Hello protocol, 107
IS-IS (Intermediate System-to- Intermediate System), 105-106
address management, 114
configuring, 124
header fields, 111-112
metrics, 110
packet formatting, 110-111
timers, 109
routing algorithms, 92-93
load balancing, 10, 209, 236-237, 365
load metric, 94
loading state (link-state database), 165
Local-Use addresses (IPv6), 715-716
lock-and-key access, 627-630, 633
logging SYSLOG messages, 469-475
to internal buffer, 475-476
to SYSLOG server, 476-477
logging buffered command, 475
logical hierarchies, building, 113
lookup (DNS names), configuring, 402
loopback addresses, configuring, 153
loopback interfaces, configuring, 391
loops, avoiding redistribution, 272-273
low overhead, as routing algorithm design goal, 86
lower layers (OSI model), 18-20
LSAs (Link State Advertisements), 169

M

MAC (Media Access Control), 20
mainframe/hosts network model, 5
manageability, as design goal, 360
managed devices, 546, 564, 690
managed objects, 539, 564-565
object IDs, 565-566
scalar, 565
tabular, 565
management (business), reactions to developing technologies, 8-9
management protocols, SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), 540-543
managing
IP addresses, 114
network expansion, 9-10
networks, 534-540
agents, 545
managed devices, 546, 564
managing systems, 563
MIBs, 546-548, 568-569
NMS (Network Management System), 544, 563
RMON (remote monitoring), 579
SNMPv2, 691-693
manifestations
network failure, 465-466
UDP diagnostic port attacks, 598
masking
VLSM, 248-251
see also IP addressing
match clauses, route map configuration, 271
maximum transfer unit, see MTU
MD5 authentication, 383, 599-600
meshed topologies, 367
messages
errors
%OSPF-3-INTERNALERR, 332
%OSPF-3-NOBACKBONE, 332
%OSPF-3-NOCONNDB, 333
%OSPF-3-NOLSA, 333
%OSPF-3-NOMEMORY, 333
%OSPF-3-UNKNOWNSTATE, 335
%OSPF-4-BADLENGTH, 331
%OSPF-4-BADLSATYPE, 331
%OSPF-4-CONFLICTING_LSAID, 332
%OSPF-4-ERRRCV, 332
%OSPF-4-NONEIGHBOR, 333
%OSPF-4-NORTRID, 334
%OSPF-4-NOTREDIST4, 335
%OSPF-4-NOTREDIST5, 335
%OSPF-4-OSPFINTDOWN, 335
%OSPF-4-VIRTUAL_IN_NON_BACKBONE, 336
%OSPF-6-NOSRCPDB, 334
%OSPF-6-NOTREDIST1, 334
%OSPF-6-NOTREDIST3, 334
routing updates, 85
SNMP, filtering, 562
SNMPv1, 555-556
SNMPv2, 556-557
SYSLOG
generating, 475
logging to internal buffer, 475-476
logging to SYSLOG server, 476-477
trap, 555
update redistribution, 268-269
wrappers, 556
methodologies
network design, 362-385
addressing, 374-376, 378-381
growth management, 384-385
hardware provisions, 381
protocol deployment, 382-384
requirements, analyzing, 362-366
topology, developing, 366-370, 372-374
troubleshooting, 465-469
metrics, 72, 93
bandwidth, 94
calculation, bandwidth-based, disabling, 403-404
communication cost, 95
delay, 94
E1, 234
E2, 234-235
IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol), 271
internal, 234
IS-IS (Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System), 110
load, 94
MTU (Maximum Transfer Unit), 94
reliability, 93-94
tuning, 222-223
Mgmt branch (MIBs), 564
MIBs (Management Information Bases), 539, 546-548, 564, 691
accessing, 572
Cisco, 559-561
data types, 549
interaction with SNMP, 567
managed objects, 564-565
monitor polling, 568-569
network management, 568-569
object IDs, 565-566
OIDs (object identifiers), 547
OSPF-related, 572-575
configuring OSPF, 576-578
tables, 575-576
performance polling, 569-570
proprietary, 543
recommendations for use, 570-571
RMON standard, 699-700
RMON2, 701-702
SMI (Structure of Management Information), 547-548
structure, 547
threshold polling, 569
migrating, IPv4 to IPv6, 709, 716-717
missing routes (routing table), troubleshooting, 197-201
models, network management, 541
modifying link-state cost, 234
monitor polling, 568-569
monitoring networks
performance, 10
statistics, 558-559
OSPF, 440-441
SHOW COMMANDs, 441-463
Moore’s Law, 4
MOSPF (Multicast OSPF), 406-408
MPRs (multi-protocol routers), 408-409
MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) metric, 94
multiaccess networks, 150
multicast addresses (IPv6), 713-714, 718-719
multicast OSPF, see MOSPF
multilayer switches, 64
multi-path routing algorithms, 90
multiple community strings, 562
multipoint subinterfaces, 68
multi-protocol routers, see MPRs
multi-vendor environments, as routing protocol selection criteria, 119
mutual route redistribution, 280-282

N

naming conventions, design goals, 374-381
NBMA (Nonbroadcast Multiaccess) networks, 151
DRs (Designated Routers), 155-156
Hello protocol operation, 157
OSPF configuration, 392
neighbor command, 316
neighbors
adjacencies, formation, 154
bi-directional communication, 157
discovery process, 154
router authentication, 617-618
troubleshooting, 193-196
NetFlow Switching, 680-683
network area command, 317
Network layer (OSI model), 19
network component interaction, 65
standards, 12
Network Management Framework, see NMF
Network Management Stations, see NMSs
networks
addressing, 40
Class A, 41
Class B, 41, 58-59
Class C, 42, 58-89
VLSM (variable-length subnet masks), 379
areas, 235-236
addressing, 223
AS (Autonomous Systems), 173-174
assigning private IP addresses, 247
backbone areas, designing, 224-225
configuring, 397
designing, 175, 218-225, 227-233
ensuring continuity, 222
link-state database, designing, 219
non-stub areas, designing, 219
partitions, designing, 220-221
reducing unstable links, 221
route types, 242
stub areas, designing, 227-233
tunable parameters, 222-223
VLSMs (variable-length subnet masks), 244-246
backbones, partitioning, 220
bridges, 63
broadcast, OSPF configuration, 392
broadcast storms, 49
capacity planning, 9
centralized routing, 90
characteristics, 4
client/server model, 6-7
component interaction with OSI model, 65-66
defined, 63
designing, 209-210
addressing, 374-376, 378-381
growth management, 384-385
hardware provisions, 381
methodology, 362-385
protocol deployment, 382-384
requirements, analyzing, 362-366
topology, developing, 210, 366-370, 372-374
devices, incorporating with IPv6 addressing, 710
distance vector protocols, 95-103
distributed routing, 90
dynamic routing, 89
elements, 539
expansion, controlling, 9-10, 384-385
extending reach, 10-11
external route summarization, 240-241
failure
symptoms, 465-466
troubleshooting, 464-465
flat routing, 90-91
gateways, 63
hardware
controlling physical access, 604
design considerations, 381
hierarchical
backbone, 369
designing, 173
routing, 90-91
topology, 367-368, 372-374
host-intelligent routing, 91-92
hubs, 63
inter-area summarization, 238-239
inter-domain routing, 92
interfaces, stress testing, 490
intra-domain routing, 92
intranet model
developments in, 8
intranets, 4, 11
LANs (Local Area Networks), 25-28
connections, 65-66
Ethernet, 26-27
FDDI, 28
switches, 64
Token Ring, 27
topologies, 25-28
link state protocols, 104-112
link state routing, 92-93
links
reliability, 93
virtual links, 226-227
load balancing, 10
logical hierarchies, building, 113
LSAs (Link-State Advertisements), 167-168
mainframe/hosts network model, 5
managing, 534-535, 540
agents, 545
CiscoView, 536-538
CiscoWorks, 538
ConfigMaker, 539
managed devices, 546
MIBs, 546-548, 568-569
models, 541
SNMPv2, 691-693
standards development, 705-706
meshed topologies, 367
MIBs (Management Information Bases)
accessing, 572
performance polling, 569-570
recommendations for use, 570-571
monitoring, 10
multiaccess, 150
multi-path routing, 90
NBMA (Nonbroadcast Multiaccess), 151
DRs (Designated Routers), 155-156
Hello protocol operation, 157
OSPF configuration, 392
nonbroadcast, OSPF configuration, 393
OSI model (Open Systems Interconnection)
applying to real-world experience, 22, 24
encapsulation, 22
layers, characteristics, 14
lower layers, 18-20
relationship between layers, 20
upper layers, 15
OSPF
ABRs, adjacencies, 211, 213
adaptability, 359-360
areas, calculating quantity, 214
areas, designing, 370, 372
backbone area, 175
bandwidth requirements, 218
convergence, 365-366
cost-effectiveness, 360-361
deploying, 364, 382-383
designing, 209-210
DR, selecting, 214
funcionality, 359
injecting defualt routes, 283, 285-286
link-state database considerations, 214-215
load balancing, 365
manageability, 360
monitoring, 440-441
neighbors, calculating quantity, 213
router identification, 152-153
routers per area, calculating, 211
scalability, 216, 359
security, 218
SHOW commands, 441-463
stub areas, 176
troubleshooting, 463-500
performance, baselining, 559
point-to-multipoint, OSPF configuration, 394-397
point-to-point, 150, 158
protocols, 68
redistribution, 268-269
avoiding loops, 272-273
external routes, 273, 275-277
IGRP into OSPF, 270-271
RIP into OSPF, 269-270
route maps, 271
reliability, 9
RIP (Routing Information Protocol), 95-103, 117
RMON (remote monitoring), 579
router-intelligent routing, 91-92
routers, 65
route recalculation, 209
route selection, 233-236
routing tables, 72
subinterfaces, 66-67
summarization, planning, 376-378
routing backbone, 91
security, 382-383, 592, 600
auditing tools, 604
configuring unauthorized use notifications, 613
data encryption, 615-616
identifying potential attackers, 601
lock-and-key access, 627-630, 633
password encryption, 599-600
privilege levels, 614
requirements, 601-615, 617-619
smurf attacks, 595-596
SNMP protocol, 606, 611-613
TCP loopback Denial of Service attacks, 594-595
TCP SYN attacks, 596-597
traffic filters, 620-626
UDP diagnostic port attacks, 598
vector routing, 92-93
single-path routing, 90
SNA (Simple Network Architecture), 5
split horizon, 67
static routing, 89
statistics, tracking, 558-559
subnet masking, 48-51
VLSM (variable-length subnet masks), 52-53, 55-57
see also IP addressing; subnetting
subnetting, 47-48
discontiguous subnets, 380
restrictions, 51
supernets, 59
telecommuter support, 362
topologies
comparing fully and partially meshed, 214
fault detection, 208
traffic
as design issue, 361
load balancing, 236-237
troubleshooting
methodology, 465-469
problem-solving model, 466-469
SYSLOG, 469-475
trace command, 493-499
WANs, 29-37
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), 34
costs, 361
Frame Relay, 30-31, 33
ISDN (Integrated Systems Digital Network), 35-37
multiple protocols, 361
packet switches, 64
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol), 34
SVCs (Switched Virtual Circuits), 33
see also intranets
NMF (Network Management Framework)
NMS (Network Management System), 544, 690
managed devices, 564
managed objects, 565
MIBs (Management Information Bases)
accessing, 572
recommendations for use, 570-571
monitoring, 568-569
performance polling, 569-570
SNMP (Simple Network Management Proto col), requests, 551-552
no ip source-route command, 92
node addresses, 41-42
nonbroadcast networks, OSPF configuration, 393
non-CIDR protocols, subnetting restrictions, 51
normal stub areas, designing, 228-232
not-so-stubby areas, designing, 232-233, 370, 372
Novell MPR (multi-protocol router), 409-410
NSSAs (not-so-stubby areas), 232-233
configuring, 398
implementing, 399

O

objects
IDs, 547, 565-566
managed, 564-565
obtaining
core dumps, 502
MIBs (Management Information Bases), 572
octets, 50-51
OIDs (object identifiers), 547
on-demand circuits
designing, 286-287
OSPF configuration, 404-405
Open Systems Interconnection, see OSI model
operational considerations, routing protocol selection, 112-114
optimal path
calculation, 204-207
selection, 233-236
OSI model, 11-12, 65-66
applying to real-world experience, 22, 24
history, 13
layers
characteristics, 14
control information, 20-21
encapsulation, 22
headers, 22
payload, 22
relationship between, 20
trailers, 22
layers, characteristics, 14
lower, 18-20
lower layers, 18-20
protocols, 25
security, 593
upper, 15
upper layers, 15
OSPF, 209-210, 234
ABRs (Area Border Routers), 171
aliases, 134
areas, 174-175, 218
ASBRs (Autonomous System Border Routers), 172
backbone area, 175
bandwidth requirements, 218
BRs (Backbone Routers), 173
characteristics, 71, 134-135
configuring with MIBs, 576-578
dead timers, 208
deploying, 382-383
development, 130-131
Exchange subprotocol, 160
external routes, 178
Flooding subprotocol, 161
functional environment, 150
Hello subprotocol, 156-160
hierarchical routing, 171
inter-area routing, 177
interface status changes, 208
intra-area routing, 177
IPv6, 665-666
IRs (Internal Routers), 171
link-state database, 169
synchronization, 161
load balancing, 209
metrics
bandwidth, 94
calculation, bandwidth-based , disabling, 403-404
communication cost, 95
delay, 94
E1, 234
E2, 234-235
internal, 234
load, 94
MTU (Maximum Transfer Unit), 94
reliability, 93-94
tuning, 222-223
MIBs, 572-576
Multicast OSPF, see MOSPF
neighbor router authentication, 617-620
network design
ABRs, connected areas, 211, 213
areas, calculating quantity, 214
DR, selecting, 214
neighbors, calculating quantity, 213
router density, 211
redistribution, 269
RFC 1131, OSPF Specification, 135
RFC 1245, OSPF Protocol Analysis, 135-136
RFC 1246, Experience with OSPF Protocol, 136-137
RFC 1247, OSPF Version 2, 137-138
RFC 1248, OSPF Version 2 Management Information Base, 139
RFC 1252, OSPF Version 2 Management Information Base, 139
RFC 1253, OSPF Version 2 Management Information Base, 139
RFC 1364, BGP OSPF Interaction, 139
RFC 1370, Applicability Statement for OSPF, 139-140
RFC 1371, Choosing a “Common IGP” for the Internet, 140-141
RFC 1403, BGP OSPF Interaction, 141
RFC 1583, OSPF Version 2, 141-142
RFC 1584, Multicast Extensions to OSPF, 142-143
RFC 1585, MOSPF, Analysis and Experience, 143
RFC 1586, Guidelines for Running OSPF over Frame Relay Networks, 144-145
RFC 1587, The OSPF NSSA Option, 145-147
RFC 1745, BGP4/IDRP for IP-OSPF Interaction, 147
RFC 1765,OSPF Database Overflow, 147-148
RFC 1793, Extending OSPF to Support Demand Circuits, 148
RFC 1850, OSPF Version 2 Management Information Base, 148-149
RFC 2178, OSPF Version 2, 149
RFC 2328, OSPF Version 2, 149
routers
CPU requirements, 217
identification, 152-153
loopback address, configuring, 153
LSA (Link-State Advertisements), 162-163
neighbors, 154
routes
selecting, 233-236
summarization, planning, 376-378
scalability, 216
security, 218
auditing tools, 604
data encryption, 615-616
firewalls, designing, 635-639, 641, 643-650
lock-and-key access, 627-630, 633
privilege levels, 614
requirements, 601-615, 617-619
smurf attacks, 595-596
SNMP protocol, 606
TCP loopback Denial of Service attacks, 594-595
TCP SYN attacks, 596-597
traffic filters, 620-626
UDP diagnostic port attacks, 598
SHOW commands, 441-463
Standardization Report, 664
stub areas, 176
topologies, comparing fully and partially meshed, 214
troubleshooting, 463-500
methodology, 465-469
SYSLOG, 469-475
trace command, 493-499
tunable parameters, 222-223
VLSM, 248-251
ospf auto-cost-determination command, 318
ospf log-adj-changes command, 318
overriding interfaces, default metrics, 207

P

packets
algorithms, switching, 85
beacon frames, 27
broadcast storms, 49
broadcast traffic, 47
CIDR (classless interdomain routing), 51
classful routing, 54
collisions, back-off algorithm, 26
DD (Database Description), 165
Exchange protocol, 160
Flooding protocol, 161
hello packets, suppressing, 404-405
Hello protocol, 158-160
IPv6, headers, 720-721
IS-IS
field definitions, 106-107
formatting, 110-111
header fields, 111-112
LSA (Link-State Advertisements), 162, 166-169
Autonomous System External LSAs, 169
link-state database synchronization, 163
network LSAs, 167-168
router LSAs, 167
summary LSAs, 168
MTU (Maximum Transfer Unit), 94
ping, 489
RIP format, 102-103
routing, 49-50
summarization, 54
switches, 64
tokens, 27
see also datagrams
pages, Web
Ethernet, 27
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), 13
ISO, 13
parameters, configuring
areas, 397
NSSAs (Not-So-Stubby Areas), 398
OSPF, 390
partially-meshed topologies, comparing to fully-meshed topologies, 214
parties, 540
partitions, designing, 220-221
passive hubs, 63
passive-interface command, 319
passwords
clear text, hiding, 609
encryption, 598-600
privileged mode, configuring, 608-609
paths
determination, 84
metrics, 72
optimal, calculation by SPF, 170
shortest, calculating, 204-207
virtual links, 226-227
payload, defined, 22
peer encrypting routers, 615
peering, OSI model layers, 20
performance
areas, enhancing, 221-223
baselining, 9, 559
devices, convergence, 73
load balancing, 236-237
networks, monitoring, 10
performance polling, 569-570
physical characteristics, networks
Multiaccess, 150
NBMA (Nonbroadcast Multiaccess), 151
Point-to-Point, 150
Physical layer (OSI model), 20
network component interaction, 65
standards, 12
ping, 488-493
extended, 491-493
interfaces, stress testing, 490
packets, timestamping, 489
planning route summarization, 376-378
PNNI Augmented Routing, see Proxy PAR protocol
point-to-multipoint networks, 152, 394-397
point-to-point networks, 150, 158
subinterfaces, 67
Point-to-Point Protocol, see PPP
poisoned reverse (split horizon), 100
policy routing, enabling, 325-326
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol), 34
prefixes (IP), 59
CIDR (classless interdomain routing), calculating, 62
length of, 55
IPv6 addresses, 713
Presentation layer (OSI model), 12, 15
preventing redistribution loops, 272-273
Priority Classification field (IPv6 headers), 721-722
private addressing, comparing to public addressing, 375
Private branch (MIBs), 564
privilege levels, network security, 614
privileged EXEC commands
debug ip ospf adjacency, 480-481
debug ip ospf events, 481
debug ip ospf flood, 482-483
debug ip ospf lsa-generation, 483
debug ip ospf packet, 483-484
debug ip ospf spf, 485
debug ip routing, 485-487
privileged mode, password configuration, 608-609
proactive network management, 535
probes, RMON, 698-700
problem-solving process, 466-469
Process ID, selecing, 386
programs
decryption, 599
email, applying to OSI model, 22, 24
land.c, as security threat, 594-595
promiscuous mode, RMON2, 703
proprietary MIBs, 543
see also MIBs
protocol suites
TCP/IP, 69
datagrams, reassembling, 70
protocols, 68
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), 19
CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol), 593-594
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), 375
distance vector, 95-103
distributed database, 130
IGRP, redistributing into OSPF, 270-271
IP, role in TCP/IP protocol suite, 70
see also IP addressing
link state, 104-112, 130
management protocols, 540
mutual route redistribution
non-CIDR, subnetting restrictions, 51
OSI (Open Systems Interconnection), 25
OSPF
aliases, 134
characteristics, 134-135
deploying, 382-384
evolution, 130-131
Exchange subprotocol, 160
Flooding subprotocol, 161
Hello subprotocol, 156-158
hierarchical routing, 171
link-state database, 169
MIBs, 572-575
neighbor router authentication, 617-620
Proxy PAR, 672
redistribution, 268-269
avoiding loops, 272-273
external routes, 273, 275-277
route maps, 271
RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
redistributing into OSPF, 269-270
see also RIP
SNA (Simple Network Architecture), 5
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), 540-543, 555-557
access lists, 562
agents, 545, 690-691
architecture, 689
coexistence, 558
comparing to RMON, 705-707
configuring network access, 611-613
development, 688-689
interaction with MIBs, 567
managed devices, 690
managed evices, 546
MIBs (Management Information Bases), 546-548, 691
NMS (Network Management System), 544, 690
operation definitions, 550-551
security, 606
traps, 562
SNMPv2, 691-693
operational enhancements, 692-693
parties, 540
SNMPv3, development, 694-695
TCP/IP protocol suite, 70
TCP (Transport Control Protocol), role in TCP/IP protocol suite, 69
IP (Internet Protocol), see IP addressing
VTP (Virtual Terminal Protocol), 12
see also routing protocols
proximity, area design considerations, 221
Proxy PAR protocol, 672
PSN (packet switch node), 64
public addressing, comparing to private, 375
Public Law 104-104, 8
public topology (IPv6), 714
publications, Internet Drafts
OSPF Address Resolution Advertisement Option, 666-667
OSPF for IPv6, 665-666
OSPF Multiple Area Links, 676-678
OSPF Opaque LSA, 670-671
OSPF Optimized Multipath, 678-679
OSPF Over ATM and Proxy PAR, 671-672
OSPF Standardization Report, 664
OSPFNSSA Option, 668-669
OSPFv2 DOI for ISAKMP, 668
Techniques in OSPF-Based Network Deployment, 673-676
see also RFCs

R

rapid convergence, as routing algorithm design goal, 87
RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol), 19
reactive network management, 535
reassembling datagrams, 70
recalculating routes, 209
redistribute command, 320, 322-323
redistribution, 119, 268-269, 383
configuring route summarization, 400
default routes, generating, 400-402
external routes, 273, 275-277
IGRP into OSPF, 270-271
loops, avoiding, 272-273
RIP into OSPF, 269-270
route maps, 271
VLSM (variable-length subnet masks), 278-279
see also mutual route redistribution
reducing
link instability, 221
memory requirements, 216-217
redundancy, backbone area design, 226
relationship between OSI model layers, 20
reliability
of networks, 361
metric, 93-94
reload traps, 562
reports, Internet Drafts
OSPF Address Resolution Advertisement Option, 666-667
OSPF for IPv6, 665-666
OSPF Multiple Area Links, 676-678
OSPF NSSA Option, 668-669
OSPF Opaque LSA, 670-671
OSPF Optimized Multipath, 678-679
OSPF Over ATM and Proxy PAR, 671-672
OSPF Standardization Report, 664
OSPFv2 DOI for ISAKMP, 668
Techniques in OSPF-Based Network Deployment, 673-676
see also RFCs
requests
NMS (Network Management System), 551-552
agent responses, 552-553
requirements, 287
areas, designing
backbone areas, 224-225
stub areas, 176, 228
dynamic access lists, implementing, 630-631
hierarchical network design, 173
Netflow Switching, 681
network design
analyzing, 362-366
security, 601-615, 617-619
redistribution, 269
RMON2, software, 702
route summarization, 238
routers
bandwidth, 218
CPU, 217
memory, 216-217
standards, 802.3, 26
restricting
RIP hop counts, 98
Telnet access to IP addresses, 609
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol, see RARP
RFC 1131, OSPF specification, 135
RFC 1245, OSPF protocol analysis, 135-136
RFC 1246, Experience with OSPF Protocol, 136-137
RFC 1247, OSPF Version 2, 137-138
RFC 1248, OSPF Version 2 Management Information Base, 139
RFC 1252, OSPF Version 2 Management Information Base, 139
RFC 1253, OSPF Version 2 Management Information Base, 139
RFC 1364, BGP OSPF Interaction, 139
RFC 1370, Applicability Statement for OSPF, 139-140
RFC 1371, Choosing a “Common IGP” for the Internet, 140-141
RFC 1403, BGP OSPF Interaction, 141
RFC 1583, OSPF Version 2, 141-142
RFC 1584, Multicast Extensions to OSPF, 142-143
RFC 1585, MOSPF, Analysis and Experience, 143
RFC 1586, Guidelines for Running OSPF over Frame Relay Networks, 144-145
RFC 1587, The OSPF NSSA Option, 145-147
RFC 1597, Address Allocation for Private Internets, 42
RFC 1745, BGP4/IDRP for IP-OSPF Interaction, 147
RFC 1765, OSPF Database Overflow, 147-148
RFC 1793, Extending OSPF to Support Demand Circuits, 148
RFC 1850, OSPF Version 2 Management Information Base, 148-149
RFC 2178, OSPF Version 2, 149
RFC 2328, OSPF Version 2, 149
RFC 903, RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) definition, 19
RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
configuring, 103
hold-down mechanism, 101
packet format, 102-103
redistributing into OSPF, 269-270
routing
metric, 98
tables, 96-97
updates, 97-98
scaling, 117
split horizon, 99
split horizon with poison reverse, 100
stability, increasing, 99-101
timers, 99
RMON (Remote Monitoring), 579, 696-698
alarms, configuring, 703-704
comparing to SNMP, 705-707
configuring, 702-703
MIBs (Management Information Bases), 699-700
probes, 698-700
version 2, 701
MIBs, 701-702
promiscuous mode, 703
software requirements, 702
robustness, as routing algorithm design goal, 87
rollover, 310
route maps, 271
routed protocols, 68
see also routing protocols
route-map command, 323-324, 326
route-map configuration commands
set level, 326
set metric, 327
set metric-type, 328
router configuration commands
area authentication, 293
area default-cost, 293-294
area nssa, 296
area range, 296
area stub, 297
area virtual-link, 298-300
area-id, 294-295
default-information originate, 301-302
default-metric, 303
distance, 303-304
distribute-list out, 305
neighbor, 316
network area, 317
ospf auto-cost-determination, 318
ospf log-adj-changes, 318
passive-interface, 319
redistribute, 320, 322-323
summary-address, 329-330
timers spf, 330
router of last resort, 89
router ospf command, 326
router-intelligent routing algorithms, 91-92
routers, see routing
routes, see routing
routing, 49-50, 65, 85
ABRs (Area Border Routers), 171
configuring, 386-387
inter-area summarization, 238-239
virtual links, 226-227
advertising, 97
algorithms
bandwidth metric, 94
centralized, 90
communication cost metric, 95
delay metric, 94
distance vector, 92-93
distributed, 90
dynamic, 89
flat, 90-91
hierarchical, 90-91
host-intelligent, 91-92
inter-domain, 92
intra-domain, 92
link-state, 92-93
load metric, 94
metrics, 93
MTU metric, 94
multi-path, 90
reliability metric, 93-94
router-intelligent, 91-92
single-path, 90
static, 89
ASBRs (Autonomous System Border Routers), 172
configuring, 388
external route summarization, 240-241
injecting default routes into OSPF, 283, 285-286
LSAs (link-state advertisements), 169
backbone, 91
configuring, 389
see also backbone routers
CIDR (classless interdomain routing), 52-53, 57-58
aggregates, 59
translation table, 61
Cisco Systems, multiple community support, 562
classful, 54
classless, 55-57
console ports, controlling access, 606
convergence, 73
core dumps, obtaining, 502
default, 72
domains, 91
DRs (Designated Routers), 155-156
dynamic, 72
external routes, redistribution, 273, 275-277
fast-switching, 236
gateways, 63
header extensions (IPv6), 723
hierarchical, 171, 177-178
areas, designing, 218-233
inter-area, 236, 177, 386
intra-area, 236, 177
IPv6 (IP version 6), 711-712
IS (Intermediate System), 106
load balancing, 236-237
logical hierarchies, building, 113
LSAs (Link-State Advertisements), 167
memory requirements (routers), 216-217
metrics
E1, 234
E2, 234-235
internal, 234
MPRs (multi-protocol routers), 408-409
neighbor router authentication, 617-618
optimal path, selecting, 72
OSPF
area interoperability, 252-253
BRs (Backbone Routers), 173
calculating area quantities, 214
calculating neighbor quantities, 213
configuring, 385-387, 410
CPU requirements, 217
DR, selecting, 214
identification, 152-153
IRs (Internal Routers), 171
loopback address, configuring, 153
LSAs (Link-State Advertisements), 162-163
neighbors, 154, 193-196
peer encryption, 615
redistribution, 268-269
IGRP into OSPF, 270-271
RIP into OSPF, 269-270
route maps, 271
VLSM, 278-279
routes
calculation timers, configuring, 390
recalculating, 209
selecting, 233-236
security, TACACS (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System), 610-611
static, 72
subinterfaces (routers), 66-67
multipoint, 68
point-to-point, 67
subnet masking, 50
summarization (routes), 53-54
area-to-backbone route advertisements, 241
backbone-to-area route advertisements, 241-242
classful routing, 54
classless routing, 55
configuring between areas, 400
external routes, 240-241
inter-area, 238-239
SYSLOG messages
generating, 475
logging to internal buffer, 475-476
logging to SYSLOG server, 476-477
troubleshooting (routers), trace command, 493-499
virtual terminals, controlling access, 607
see also policy routing; routing protocols; routing tables
routing protocols, 68, 84, 99-100
communicating, 119
convergence, 115
distance vector, 95-103
link state, 104-112
OSPF, characteristics, 71
path determination, 84
RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
characteristics, 71
configuring, 103
hold-down mechanism, 101
increasing stability, 99-101
packet format, 102-103
routing metric, 98
scaling, 117
split horizon with poison reverse, 100
timers, 99
routing tables, 72
security, 218
selecting
business considerations, 117-119
operational considerations, 112-114
technical considerations, 114-117
switching algorithms, 85
routing tables, 72, 96-97
building, 84
destination/metric associations, 84-85
destination/next hop associations, 84
destination/path associations, 85
CIDR, 58
memory requirements, 217
missing routes, troubleshooting, 197-201

S

scalability, 216, 359
as design goal, 359
RIP, 117
scalar objects, 565
security, 592, 600
CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol), 593-594
configuration files
backups, 613
networks
auditing tools, 604
data encryption, 615-616
design considerations, 382-383
firewalls, designing, 635-639, 641, 643-650
lock-and-key access, 627-630, 633
OSPF, 218
privilege levels, 614
requirements, 601-615, 617-619
smurf attacks, 595-596
SNMP protocol, 606
TCP loopback Denial of Service attacks, 594-595
TCP SYN attacks, 596-597
traffic filters, 620-626
UDP diagnostic port attacks, 598
OSI model, 593
passwords
clear text, hiding, 609
encryption, 598-600
privileged mode, configuring, 608-609
routers
access, controlling to console ports, 606
access, controlling to virtual terminals, 607
neighbor router authentication, 617-618
source routing, 92
TACACS (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System), 610-611
telnet, restricting access to IP addresses, 609
segments (network), areas, 174
see also areas
selecting
addressing scheme, 375
DR for OSPF network, 214
IOS features for deployment, 384
optimal routes
Process ID, 386
routes, 233-236
see also routing algorithms
routing protocols
business considerations, 117-119
operational considerations, 112-114
technical considerations, 114-117
serial interfaces
fault detection, 208
recommended MIBs, 571
stress testing, 490
serial lines, VLSM (variable-length subnet masks), 56
servers, 6
SYSLOG, logging messages, 476-477
see also hosts; networks
Session layer (OSI model), 12, 18
sessions (Layer 2), establishing, 66
SET command (SNMP), 551
set level command, 326
set metric command, 327
set metric-type command, 328
SETREQUEST command (NMS), 544
SGMP (Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol)
shortest path tree
building, 207-208
calculating shortest path, 204-207
see also Dijkstra algorithm; algorithms
show ip ospf ? command, 441-442
show ip ospf border-routers command, 446-447
show ip ospf command, 442-443
show ip ospf database asbr-summary command, 449-450
show ip ospf database command, 447-449
show ip ospf database-summary command, 456-457
show ip ospf database external command, 450-452
show ip ospf database network command, 452-453
show ip ospf database router command, 454-455
show ip ospf database summary command, 455-456
show ip ospf interface command, 444-445
show ip ospf neighbor command, 460-461
show ip ospf neighbor command, 459
show ip ospf neighbor command, 457-458
show ip ospf virtual-links command, 227, 462-463
SHOW OSPF commands, 441-463
show ip ospf, 442-443
show ip ospf ?, 441-442
show ip ospf border-routers, 446-447
show ip ospf database, 447-449
show ip ospf database asbr-summary, 449-450
show ip ospf database database-summary, 456-457
show ip ospf database external, 450-452
show ip ospf database network, 452-453
show ip ospf database router, 454-455
show ip ospf database summary, 455-456
show ip ospf interface, 444-445
show ip ospf neighbor, 457-461
show ip ospf virtual-links, 462-463
show tech-support command, 501
Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol, see SGMP
Simple Network Architecture, see SNA
simplex interfaces, configuring on Ethernet, 389
simplicity
as design goal, 361
as routing algorithm design goal, 86
single-path routing algorithms, 90
site routers, on-demand dialing, 287, 291
site topology (IPv6), 714
SMI (Structure of Management Information), 540, 547-548
data types, 549
“smurf” attacks, protecting against, 595-596
SNA (Simple Network Architecture), 5
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), 540-543
access lists, 562
agents, 545, 690-691
architecture, 689
coexistence, 558
comparing to RMON, 705-707
inform requests, configuring, 563
interaction with MIBs, 567
managed devices, 546, 690
MIBs, 546-548, 691
RMON standard, 699-700
RMON2 standard, 701-702
multiple community strings, 562
network access, configuring, 611-613
NMS (Network Management System), 544, 690
operation definitions, 550-551
requests
inform, 563
NMS, 551-552
responding to NMS requests, 552-553
security, 606
traps, 562-563
SNMPv1 messages, 555-556
see also SNMP
SNMPv2, 691-693
messages, 556-557
operational enhancements, 692-693
parties, 540
Web sites, 693
SNMPv3
development, 694-695
Web sites, 695-696
software
agents, 539
interaction with lower layers (OSI model), 18-20
IOS (Cisco Internetworking Operating System), security weaknesses, 594
network management
CiscoView, 536-538
CiscoWorks, 538
ConfigMaker, 539
NMS (Network Management System), 544
RMON (remote monitoring), requirements, 702
source routing, 92
specifications, RIP (Routing Information Protocol), 96
SPF algorithm, 104, 170
split horizon, 99-100
split-horizon, 67
stability
as routing algorithm design goal, 87
RIP (Routing Information Protocol), 99-101
stacks, TCP/IP protocol suite, 69
standards
802.3, requirements, 26
as routing protocol selection criteria, 118
authentication, 616
CMIP (Common Management Information Services and Protocols), 696
compatibility as design goal, 361
internetworking, TCP/IP protocol suite, 69
network management, development, 705-706
OSI model
application layer, 12
data-link layer, 12
network layer, 12
presentation layer, 12
session layer, 12
transport layer, 12
RMON (Remote Monitoring), 696-698
comparing to SNMP, 705-707
configuring, 702-703
RMON2, 701
states, link-state database, 164-165
static routing, 72, 89
statistics
networks
tracking, 558-559
storing, 543
security-related, 592
store-and-forward packet switching, 64
storing network statistics, 543
stress testing, interfaces, 490
structure
Cisco MIB, 560
MIBs, 547, 564
see also architecture
Structure of Management Information, see SMI
stub areas, 176, 227-228
designing, 227-233, 370, 372
normal stub areas, designing, 228-232
not-so-stubby areas, designing, 232-233
restrictions, 176
totally stubby areas, designing, 232
subinterfaces, 66-67
multipoint, 68
point-to-point, 67
subnet masking, 48-51
supernets, 59
VLSM (variable-length subnet mask), 52-57
area address assignment, 244-246
redistribution, 278-279
subnetting, 47-48
areas, 223
bit-wise, 246
CIDR (classless interdomain routing), 57-58
discontiguous subnets, 380
external route summarization, 240-241
restrictions, 51
see also areas
subprotocols (OSPF)
Exchange protocol, 160
Flooding protocol, 161
Hello, 156-160
summarization
defined, 238
planning for implementation, 376-378,
summary LSAs (Link-State Advertisements), 168
summary routes, 236
summary-address command, 329-330
supernets, 59
supporting non-SNMP compatible devices, 545
suppressing hello packets, 389, 404-405
SVCs (Switched Virtual Circuits), 33
switching
algorithms, 85
fast-switching, 236
LANs, 64
Netflow Switching, 680-683
packet switches, 64
symptoms, network failure, 465-466
synchronization
Flooding protocol, 161
link-state database, 163, 165
syntax notation, 539
SYSLOG, 469-475
system logging, see SYSLOG

T

tables
mapping, static routes, 89
OSPF-related MIBs, 575-576
tabular objects, 565
TACACS (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System), 610-611
TCP (Transport Control Protocol)
datagrams, 70
role in TCP/IP protocol suite, 69
SYN attacks, protecting against, 596-597
TCP/IP protocol suite, 69
datagrams, reassembling, 70
IP addressing
address classes, quick reference chart, 43-45
address depletion, 52-53
areas, 223
broadcast traffic, 47
calculating host quantities per address class, 45
CIDR (classless interdomain routing), 57-58
class A addresses, 41
class B addresses, 41
class C addresses, 42
class D addresses, 42
class E addresses, 42
classful routing, 54
classless routing, 55
dotted decimal notation, 40
first octet rule, 43, 46
hierarchical structure, 46
host addresses, 40
IP prefixes, 59
network addresses, 40
route summarization, 53-54
routing, 65
subnet masking, 48-51
subnetting, 47-48
supernets, 59
technical considerations, selecting routing protocols, 114-117
technical support
CCO (Cisco Connection Online), 503-506
contacting, 500, 503-506
techniques, addressing
bit splitting, 379
VLSM, 379
see also addressing; IP addressing
technologies
affect on business management style, 8-9
as routing protocol selection criteria, 119
IPv6, 707-708
address depletion, 709
addressing, 711-712
addressing topologies, 714-715
anycast addresses, 717-718
design goals, 711
devices, addressing, 710
Hop-by-Hop headers, 724
hierarchical networks, 710
implementing, 712
migrating from IPv4, 709, 716-717
multicast addresses, 718-719
packet headers, 720-721
link state, 104-105
RMON (Remote Monitoring), 579, 696-698
alarms, configuring, 703-704
comparing to SNMP, 705-707
configuring, 702-703
MIBs, 699-700
probes, 698-700
RMON2, 701-702
Telecommunications Act of 1996, 8
telecommuters, network support, 362
Telnet, restricting IP address access, 609
term monitor command, 195
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System, see TACACS
theories, hierarchical network design, 173
three-layered hierarchical design, 367-368
threshold polling, 569
timers
IS-IS protocol, 109
OSPF, dead timers, 208
RIP, 99
route calculation, configuring, 390
timers spf command, 330
timestamping, 489
Token Ring, 26-27
beacon frames, 27
fault management techniques, 27
recommended MIBs, 571
tokens, 27
tools (diagnostic), ping, 488-493
topologies
areas
backbone areas, 224-225
designing, 218-225, 227-233
ensuring continuity, 222
non-stub areas, 219
partitions, designing, 220-221
reducing unstable links, 221
stub areas, 227-233
tunable OSPF parameters, 222-223
convergence, 115
developing, 366-370, 372-374
fully-meshed, comparing to partially-meshed, 214
hierarchical, 367-368, 372-374
backbone, designing, 369
IPv6 addresses, 714-715
LANs(Local Area Networks), 25-28
Ethernet, 25-27
Fast Ethernet, 25
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Internetworking), 26-28
Gigabit Ethernet, 25
Token Ring, 26-27
meshed, 367
OSPF networks
areas, 174
AS (Autonomous Systems), 173
backbone area, 175
designing, 210
fault detection, 208
stub areas, 176
WANs (Wide Area Networks), 29-37
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), 34
Frame Relay, 30-31, 33
ISDN (Integrated Systems Digital Network), 35-37
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol), 34
SVCs (Switched Virtual Circuits), 33
totally stubby areas, 177
designing, 232, 370, 372
see also areas
trace command, 493-499
tracking networking statistics, 558-559
traffic
as design issue, 361
broadcast storms, 49
filtering, 620-621
access lists, 622-626
dynamic access lists, 626
lock-and-key access, 627-630
inter-area, controlling, 235-236
load balancing, 236-237
traffic control, 235-236
trailers, 20-21
translation table (CIDR), 61
Transport layer (OSI model), 18
standards, 12
see also OSI model
TRAP command (SNMP agents), 545, 551
traps, 562
messages, 555
SNMP configuration, 563
tree structure, MIBs, 564, 566
troubleshooting
diagnostic tools
ping, 488-493
trace command, 493-499
neighbor relationships, 193-196
networks
case study, 74-77, 79-80
failure, 464-465
methodology, 465-469
OSPF, 463-500
SYSLOG, 469-475
problem-solving model, 466-469
routing table, missing routes, 197-201
see also Cisco technical support
tty connection-closed traps, 562
tunable OSPF parameters, 222-223

U

UDP diagnostic port attacks, 598
unattended consoles, configuring timeout, 608
unauthorized use notifications, configuring, 613
unicast addresses (IPv6), 713, 715
UNIX, trace command, 493-499
unsecure protocols, 383
update messages
redistribution, 268-269
routing, 85
updating link-state changes, Flooding protocol, 161
upper layers (OSI model), 15
utilities, network management, 385
CiscoView, 536-538
CiscoWorks, 538
ConfigMaker, 539

V

variable-length subnet masks, see VLSM
virtual links, 226-227
virtual terminals, controlling access, 607
VLSM (variable-length subnet mask), 52-57, 248-251, 379
area address assignment, 244-246
implementing, 251
redistribution, 278-279
see also subnet masking
VTP (virtual terminal protocol), 12
vulnerabilities, security
networks, identifying, 603
Cisco IOS software, 594

W

WANs (Wide Area Networks), 29-37
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), 34
Frame Relay, 30-31, 33
ISDN (Integrated Systems Digital Network), 35-37
managing, 534-540
multiple protocols, 361
packet switches, 64
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol), 34
resources, costs, 361
SVCs (Switched Virtual Circuits), 33
Web sites, 27
Cisco Systems, 135
Dijkstra’s algorithm, 131
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), 13
InterNIC, 135
ISO (Internation Organization for Standardization), 13
Wandell & Golterman, 14
SNMP commands, 563
SNMPv2, 693
SNMPv3, 695-696
Well Known Ports, assigning, 645-647
Wide Area Network, see WANs
wrappers, 556
WWW (World Wide Web)
MIBs, accessing, 572


Table of Contents




OSPF Network Design Solutions
OSPF Network Design Solutions
ISBN: 1578700469
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 1998
Pages: 200
Authors: Tom Thomas

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