This chapter describes some new and improved utilities available under NetWare 4. In some cases, a group of NetWare 3 utilities has been consolidated into a single NetWare 4 utility. In other cases, bindery-based utilities have been replaced by NDS-aware equivalents. Many NDS-aware utilities have a bindery emulation mode and can be used with NetWare 3.x servers. NetWare 4 also offers support for international languages. Multiple language support was not available in NetWare 3.11, though it is available in NetWare 3.12.
NetWare 4.x utilities can be classified into the following broad categories:
Some of the command-line utilities have been consolidated into a single utility with options for different modes of operations. Others have been entirely replaced by newer utilities that deal with NDS services. An important example of the latter is the NetWare 3.x SYSCON utility. This has been replaced by NETADMIN. There is a SYSCON.BAT file in SYS:PUBLIC that contains a statement to print a message that you should use the NETADMIN utility instead of SYSCON.
Many of the utilities, such as NETADMIN, NETUSER, and the familiar PCONSOLE, are menu-driven. The menus are produced by using the extended ASCII character set that contains the line drawing characters. These menus are based on the popular C-Worthy interface.
NOTE: The /NAME option is used to specify the User object in the RIGHTS command.
A new set of utilities that provides a graphical-user interface (GUI) for MS Windows and OS/2's Presentation Manager has been introduced. The most important of these is the NetWare Administrator tool that is implemented by a program named NWADMIN.EXE. NetWare Administrator provides an easy way to depict the NDS tree structure graphically and carry out directory operations on the tree. Most network management tasks can be performed by NetWare Administrator. Another GUI utility of interest to NetWare 4.x users is the NetWare User implemented by NWUSER.EXE. This has a graphical interface to provide drive mapping, message sending, and other functions. When properly configured, this program can be conveniently invoked by using the F6 function key.
The utility changes are reviewed next in greater detail.
One of the most useful utilities in NetWare is the MAP command utility. The MAP command is used to provide a network drive or search drive mapping to a remote file system.
The MAP command syntax is essentially the same as in NetWare 3.x. Users of NetWare 3.x will feel at home using NetWare 4.x's MAP command, although additional capabilities and functions have been added.
With NetWare 4.x, a mapping can also be created by using the NDS name of the Volume object. For example, if you wanted to create a drive mapping H to the PUBLIC/BIN directory in the Volume object CN=FS1_VOL.OU=SALES.O=SCS, you would use the following MAP command:
MAP H: = .CN=FS1_VOL.OU=SALES.O=SCS:PUBLIC/BIN
The above MAP command shows that the complete name for the Volume object FS1_VOL is used. A typeless complete name can also be used, as follows, provided the Country container object is not part of the NDS path name.
MAP H: = .FS1_VOL.SALES.SCS:PUBLIC/BIN
The examples just given here use the complete name of the Volume object. Partial names can also be used. The examples shown next use partial typeless names for providing the same drive mapping from different contexts.
If the current context is OU=SALES.O=SCS, the following MAP command could be used:
MAP H: = FS1_VOL:PUBLIC/BIN
If current context is O=SCS, the following MAP command could be used:
MAP H: = FS1_VOL.SALES:PUBLIC/BIN
If current context is OU=LAB.OU=ENG.O=SCS, the following MAP command could be used:
MAP H: = FS1_VOL.SALES..:PUBLIC/BIN
If you want to make drive H a search drive, the following command can be issued:
MAP CHANGE H:
MAP C H:
Note that the "C" option is an abbreviation for the "Change" option.
The C option is called the Change option and makes the drive letter the last search drive. The same effect could have been achieved by using the following command to begin with:
MAP INS S16: = .CN=FS1_VOL.OU=SALES.O=SCS:PUBLIC/BIN
Using the C option saves some typing if you already have a drive mapping to a NetWare directory.
If the default server that you are logged in to is FS1, you can access the PUBLIC/BIN directory on the Volume object CN=VOL.OU=SALES.O=SCS using the following NetWare 3.x syntax:
MAP H: = VOL:PUBLIC/BIN
MAP H: = FS1/VOL:PUBLIC\BIN
These forms of mapping enable compatibility with NetWare 3.x mappings. This is particularly useful when login scripts are being upgraded from NetWare 3.x to NetWare 4.x. Using the Volume object names gives you flexibility in mapping to volumes that are in different contexts.
NOTE: You should practice using the Volume object names in MAP commands so that you are comfortable using them. One of the powerful capabilities of NetWare 4.x is that you can access Volume objects that are not physically attached to your departmental servers, provided, of course, you have access permission to that volume.
TIP: If you frequently access a Volume object that is in another context, it is preferable to define an alias to the Volume object in the container containing the User object definitions. This enables users in that context to access the Volume object using a simpler syntax.
Figure 15.1 shows the help obtained using the MAP /? command.
The NetWare 4.x FLAG utility consolidates the functions of the NetWare 3.x FLAG, FLAGDIR, and SMODE commands. A single FLAG utility can be used to change both the file and directory attributes, and also the search mode for executable files. The FLAG utility also enables you to change the owner of a directory or a file, and can be used on local drives.
The functions of the FLAG utility can also be performed by the FILER menu utility.
Figure 15.1 The MAP /? Help summary.
The NetWare 4.x NDIR utility consolidates the functions of the NetWare 3.x NDIR, LISTDIR, and VOLINFO commands. A single NDIR utility can be used to view file, directory, and volume information. To display volume information you must use the /VOL option.
F:\> NDIR /VOL Statistics for fixed volume NW4CS/SYS: Space statistics are in KB (1024 bytes). Total volume space: 1,296,384 100.00% Space used by 4,004 entries: 109,632 8.46% Deleted space not yet purgeable: 0 0.00% Space remaining on volume: 1,186,752 91.54% Space available to CN=Admin.O=ESL: 1,186,752 91.54% Maximum directory entries: 9,728 Available directory entries: 5,441 55.93% Space used if files were not compressed: 1,136 Space used by compressed files: 421 Space saved by compressing files: 715 62.94% Uncompressed space used: 109,659
Subdirectories can be viewed by using the /S option. In NetWare 3.x, the /SUB option had to be used with NDIR to view subdirectories. This led to inconsistencies with the DOS XCOPY command, which also uses the /S option. Use of a common /S option removes some of these inconistencies. Also, the /S option is used in NLIST to view subcontainers, and this usage is compatible with the /S option in NDIR that is used to view subdirectories.
To search for files that can be found on the search drives, use the /FI option. The following is an example of this usage:
F:\> NDIR P*.EXE /FI Searching for P*.EXE F:\PUBLIC partmgr.exe 400841 5-19-93 9:53:16 pconsole.exe 796026 5-19-93 18:02:18 printcon.exe 452401 5-26-93 10:32:24 printdef.exe 492880 6-01-93 10:55:18 psc.exe 289146 5-19-93 11:17:00 purge.exe 204727 5-19-93 9:45:25 Z:\PUBLIC partmgr.exe 400841 5-19-93 9:53:16 pconsole.exe 796026 5-19-93 18:02:18 printcon.exe 452401 5-26-93 10:32:24 printdef.exe 492880 6-01-93 10:55:18 psc.exe 289146 5-19-93 11:17:00 purge.exe 204727 5-19-93 9:45:25 C:\WINDOWS packager.exe 76480 3-10-92 3:10:00 pbrush.exe 183376 3-10-92 3:10:00 printman.exe 43248 3-10-92 3:10:00 progman.exe 115312 3-10-92 3:10:00 pifedit.exe 55168 3-10-92 3:10:00 C:\PCTCP ping.exe 22045 6-16-92 2:35:07 passwd.exe 8653 6-16-92 2:36:01 pop3.exe 31293 6-16-92 2:36:14 C:\BIN pe.exe 45241 7-04-92 15:21:12 pkcfg.exe 28570 2-01-93 2:04:08 pkzip.exe 42552 10-24-92 0:51:13 pkzipfix.exe 7687 2-01-93 2:04:08 prune.exe 6309 7-04-92 15:21:14 pkunzip.exe 28959 2-01-93 2:04:08 C:\DOS print.exe 15656 4-09-91 5:00:00 NDIR found 27 matching files.
NOTE: The NDIR /FI command is equivalent to the which command that is found on many Unix systems.
Another improvement is that NDIR also works with local drives. The NetWare 3.11 NDIR did not work with local drives. The following example shows the output of using NDIR on a local drive:
F:\> NDIR C:\ NDIR is searching the directory. Please wait... Files = Files contained in this path Size = Number of bytes in the file Last Update = Date file was last updated DOS Attr = DOS file attributes C:\BIN*.* Files Size Last Update DOS Attr AUTOEXEC.000 134 9-21-93 1:05p [RwA] AUTOEXEC.01 125 9-20-93 8:14p [RwA] AUTOEXEC.BAT 198 9-21-93 9:01p [RwA] AUTOEXEC.BNW 170 9-21-93 8:39p [RwA] AUTOEXEC.OLD 134 9-21-93 1:05p [RwA] COMMAND.COM 47,845 4-09-91 5:00a [RwA] CONFIG.000 103 9-20-93 9:08p [RwA] CONFIG.BNW 146 9-21-93 8:39p [RwA] CONFIG.OLD 103 9-20-93 9:08p [RwA] CONFIG.SYS 161 9-21-93 9:01p [RwA] IO.SYS 33,430 4-09-91 5:00a [RoSyHA] MSDOS.SYS 37,394 4-09-91 5:00a [RoSyHA] ZIP.BAT 107 9-21-93 12:58p [RwA] Directories = Directories contained in this path Created = Date directory was created C:\BIN*.* Directories Created BIN 9-20-93 6:21p CONFIG 9-20-93 9:34p DIAGNOSE 9-20-93 9:34p DOS 9-20-93 9:34p LANWATCH 9-20-93 9:34p LDE 9-20-93 9:34p LL5 9-20-93 9:34p LLINS 9-20-93 9:34p NW 9-20-93 6:26p NWCLIENT 9-21-93 8:56p PCTCP 9-20-93 9:34p SOSS 9-20-93 9:34p WINDOWS 9-21-93 8:37p 120,050 bytes 13 Files 13 Directories
Figures 15.2 through 15.8 show a summary of the NDIR command usage.
Figure 15.2 The NDIR /? Help summary.
Figure 15.3 The NDIR /? FOR Help.
Figure 15.4 The NDIR /? SORT Help menu.
Figure 15.5 The NDIR /? RES Help menu.
Figure 15.6 The NDIR /? AT Help menu.
Figure 15.7 The NDIR /? OPT Help menu.
Figure 15.8 The NDIR /? SYN Help menu.
The NetWare 4.x RIGHTS utility consolidates the functions of the NetWare 3.x RIGHTS, GRANT, REVOKE, REMOVE, and ALLOW commands. The RIGHTS util- ity includes a number of options to implement the functionality of the different NetWare 3.x commands.
The RIGHTS command enables you to:
Figures 15.9 through 15.13 show a summary of the RIGHTS command usage.
Figure 15.9 The RIGHTS /? Help summary.
Figure 15.10 The RIGHTS /? T summary.
Figure 15.11 The RIGHTS /? F summary.
Figure 15.12 The RIGHTS /? I summary.
Figure 15.13 The RIGHTS /? S summary.
To view the rights for User KSS in SYS:USERS/KSS directory, the command is
F:\>RIGHTS SYS:USERS/KSS NW4CS\SYS:USERS\KSS Your rights for this directory are: [ RWCE F ] Read from a file in a directory. (R) Write to a file in a directory. (W) Create subdirectories and files. (C) Erase directory and files. (E) Scan for files and directories. (F)
The preceding command is the same as the NetWare 3.x RIGHTS command, and works only if you are logged in as User KSS.
To set the rights for User KSS in SYS:USERS/KSS directory so that the User has all rights except Supervisor rights, the command follows:
F:\> RIGHTS SYS:USERS/KSS CRWEMFA /NAME=.KSS.CORP.SCS NW4CS\SYS:USERS Directories Rights KSS [ RWCEMFA]
Rights for one directory were changed for .KSS.CORP.SCS.
To assign all rights (SRWCEMFA) to SYS:USERS for User .KSS.CORP.SCS, you can use the command:
RIGHTS SYS:USERS/KSS ALL /NAME=.KSS.CORP.SCS
The preceding command is equivalent to the NetWare 3.x GRANT command.
To view the trustee assignments for a specified directory, such as SYS:USERS/KSS, use the command:
F:\> RIGHTS SYS:PUBLIC /T NW4CS\SYS:\PUBLIC
CN=KSS.OU=CORP.O=SCS [ R F ]
CN=Everyone.OU=CORP.O=ESL [ R F ]
OU=CORP.O=ESL [ R F ]
The preceding command is equivalent to the NetWare 3.x TLIST command. Please note that group EVERYONE is not a predefined group under NetWare 4.x. It appears in this example because the server was upgraded from NetWare 3.x to NetWare 4.x.
To see the rights that have been inherited for SYS:PUBLIC for the User KSS defined in container OU=CORP.O=SCS, use the command:
F:\>RIGHTS SYS:PUBLIC /NAME=.KSS.CORP.SCS /I Name= .KSS.CORP.SCS Path Rights NW4CS\SYS: Inherited Rights Filter: [ ] Inherits from above: [ ] Effective Rights = [ ] NW4CS\SYS:\PUBLIC
Inherited Rights Filter: [SRWCEMFA]
Inherits from above: [ ] KSS.CORP.SCS [ R F ] Effective Rights = [ R F ]
The /I option enables you to see inherited rights. It also shows you the sequence of steps for computing inherited rights.
The NetWare 4.x SEND utility consolidates the functions of the NetWare 3.x SEND, CASTON, and CASTOFF commands. The SEND utility includes a number of options to implement the functionality of the different NetWare 3.x commands.
Figures 15.14 and 15.15 show a summary of the SEND command usage.
Figure 15.14 The SEND /? Help summary.
Figure 15.15 The SEND /? Help summary--second screen.
The NetWare 3.x CASTOFF command has been replaced with the following options:
This is equivalent to the NetWare 3.x CASTOFF ALL. This will prevent messages from all users, including the server console, from being displayed on your screen.
To disable receipt of messages from all users except the server console (that is, allow messages from the server console only), use the following command:
This is equivalent to the NetWare 3.x CASTOFF command, which allows only messages from the server console to be received.
To set the send mode to a "poll" mode you can use the command:
With this command set, the user can poll the server at a later time to see if any messages are waiting for the user. To poll the server for broadcast messages, you can use the command:
Another change from NetWare 2.x and 3.x is that the SEND messages appear at the top of the screen instead of the bottom.
The NetWare 4.x menu utilities are based on C-Worthy libraries and a menu interface. They have the same look and feel as the NetWare 3.x menu utilities. One of the improvements that has been made is that context-sensitive help has been added. Whenever you highlight a new option, a comment line at the bottom of the screen changes to provide a brief explanation of what the option does. You can always press the F1 key to obtain more detailed help on the option.
Some of the menu utilities provide a bindery emulation mode. The function key F4 can be used to toggle between bindery emulation and NDS mode.
Table 15.1 summarizes some fundamental changes to the NetWare menu utilities.
TABLE 15.1 Menu Utility Changes
|NetWare 4.x Utility||NetWare 3.x Utilities That Are Replaced|
|FILER||FILER, SALVAGE, VOLINFO, DSPACE|
The NETADMIN utility was discussed in Chapter 6, "Creating Objects." It can be used for managing NDS objects. Figure 15.16 shows the NETADMIN main menu that appears when the NETADMIN utility is invoked. From NETADMIN's main menu, the following functions can be performed:
Figure 15.16 The NETADMIN main menu.
If "Manage objects" is selected, a list of objects and their classes appears as shown in figure 15.17. Highlighting a container object and pressing Enter changes your context to that container, and a list of objects and classes for the new con- tainer is displayed. Pressing Ins gives you a list of objects (see fig. 15.18) that you can create in a context. Pressing Del on a highlighted object gives you a choice of deleting that object.
Figure 15.17 The NETADMIN Manage objects.
Figure 15.18 The NETADMIN choice of objects.
Selecting "Manage according to search pattern" gives you the ability to enter a search pattern for an object (see fig. 15.19). The "Change context" option gives you the ability to change your current context. The current context is shown at the top of the screen. You can press the Ins key to navigate the NDS tree. Figure 15.20 shows the choice of container objects that can be navigated when the Ins key is pressed.
Figure 15.19 Entering a search pattern for an object.
Figure 15.20 NETADMIN choice of container objects to navigate for changing context.
NETUSER can be used to perform many of the command-line utility functions using a menu-driven utility. For users who are not accustomed to using the command line, this can be the most practical way of accomplishing some network-related tasks.
Some of the tasks that can be performed using NETUSER follow:
Figure 15.22 shows the main menu for NETUSER when the command NETUSER is run at a workstation.
Figure 15.21 The NETUSER main menu.
If the choice Printing is selected, a list of available ports that can be used to redirect the print job is displayed. Highlighting a printer port and pressing Enter gives you a choice of sending a print job or changing printers (see fig. 15.22). The printers must already have been mapped (redirected) to a network printer before you can send a print job. Figure 15.23 shows the actions that can be performed using a printer port.
Figure 15.22 The NETUSER - Selecting Printer option.
Figure 15.23 The NETUSER - Actions for a selected print port.
NOTE: If you change printers to an NDS Print object, the name of the default Queue object, not the name of the Printer object, appears in the NETUSER (grayed out) status box at the top.
The Messages option in the main menu gives you the ability to send messages to users and groups (see fig. 15.24). You can also set the status of Receive Messages to ON or OFF. The current receive message status is displayed on the top-half of the screen, and the option to set this value to is shown on the Message options screen.
Figure 15.24 The NETUSER - Messages option.
The Drives option in the main menu gives you the ability to perform network drive and search drive mappings. When you try to map a drive, you are also given the option to map root the drive (see fig. 15.25).
Figure 15.25 NETUSER - Choice of map rooting a drive.
The Attachments option in the main menu gives you the ability to attach to other servers (see fig. 15.26). You can attach to up to 50 servers. Pressing Ins gives you a list of any other NCP servers that you can connect to. The "Change Context" option enables you to select a new context. The current context is displayed at the top of the screen.
Figure 15.26 NETUSER - Attachments option.
The FILER utility combines the functions of the NetWare 3.x FILER, SALVAGE, DSPACE, and VOLINFO utilities.
FILER can be used to perform many of the file-, directory-, and volume-related tasks.
Some of the tasks that can be performed using FILER follow:
Figure 15.27 shows the main menu for FILER when the command FILER is run at a workstation.
Figure 15.27 The FILER main menu.
The "Manage files and directories" option in the main menu shows you a list of directories and files in the current directory (see fig. 15.28).
Figure 15.28 The FILER Directory contents.
The "Manage according to search pattern" option in the main menu gives you the ability to set search patterns for the files and directories to view (see fig. 15.29).
Figure 15.29 The FILER Manage according to search patterns.
The "Select current directory" option in the main menu gives you the ability to set the current directory (see fig. 15.30). The current path is displayed on the top of the screen.
Figure 15.30 The FILER Select current directory.
The "View volume information" option in the main menu gives you the ability to view statistics, features, date, and time information for a volume (see fig. 15.31). The volume information is shown in figures 15.32, 15.33, and 15.34.
Figure 15.31 The FILER View volume information.
Figure 15.32 The FILER Volume statistics screen.
Figure 15.33 The FILER Volume features screen.
Figure 15.34 The FILER Volume dates and times screen.
The "Salvage deleted files" option in the main menu gives you the ability to view/recover deleted files, salvage deleted directories, and set salvage options (see fig. 15.35). The "Purge deleted files" option in the main menu gives you the ability to set a file pattern for all files to be purged (see fig. 15.36).
Figure 15.35 The FILER Salvage deleted files options.
Figure 15.36 The FILER Purge deleted files options.
The "Set default filer options" option in the main menu gives you the ability to confirm deletions, confirm copy operations, and confirm overwrites (see fig. 15.37). It also enables you to specify whether file attributes should be preserved, and whether you should be notified if you are going to lose file attribute information when copying from one name space to another. NetWare 4.x allows the implementation of sparse files. Sparse files are common in database applications when a file might currently contain only a few of the total records that the file can contain. Because the valuable data is a small portion of the overall file size, a sparse representation of a file that occupies much less space can be designed. You can specify whether the files should be copied in their sparse format or not. You can also specify whether the compressed files should be copied in the compressed state or not.
Figure 15.37 The Filer settings screen.
NetWare GUI utilities are designed to run with Microsoft Windows and OS/2's Presentation Manager. They can be used to provide a graphical way for managing network resources. Because the NDS is organized as a directory information tree, a graphical representation can capture the geometry of the tree more easily than command-line or menu-driven utilities. The most important graphical tool is NetWare Administrator, which was described in Chapters 6. This can be used for managing NetWare resources that are represented as NDS objects in a directory information tree. The NetWare Administrator tool can also be used to manage files and directories in a volume (see fig. 15.38).
Figure 15.38 Accessing the NetWare file system with NetWare Administrator.
The NetWare User tool, implemented by the NWUSER.EXE program, can be used for the following functions. Many of these functions are similar to those provided by the menu utility NETUSER.
TIP: The NetWare User tool can be used for making drive connections, sending messages, server connections, printer connections, and NetWare settings.
NetWare 4.x includes support for international languages such as English, French, German, Spanish, and Italian. This means that help messages, utility menus, and help screens can be presented in the language of choice. The language help files for each of the utilities are placed in the directory SYS:PUBLIC\NLS. The default language for NetWare 4.x is English. For MS Windows support, a directory called \WINDOWS\NLS is created (if \WINDOWS is the installation directory for MS Windows). This directory contains the language support files.
If a language other than English is to be specified, you must set the environment variable NWLANGUAGE. This is done by entering the following at the command prompt or by placing this command in a batch file such as the AUTOEXEC.BAT file:
SET NWLANGUAGE=language1, language2, ...
where language1 is replaced by the first language, and language2 is replaced by the second language and will be used if support for the first language is not found.
NOTE: The NWLANGUAGE environment variable is set to specify laguages other than English.
The User object has a Language property. A user's preference for a language can also be supplied by setting the value of this property.
NetWare 4.x contains provisions for using alternate character sets for display purposes. These alternate character sets are supplied through code page definitions. Code page tables are represented using the unicode translation table. A unicode representation of a character is a 16-bit representation (defined by the Unicode Consortium) and allows for the use of 65,536 symbols, which can accommodate the most complex natural language that is in use today.
Care must be taken in creating NetWare filenames and directories using alternate code page tables. You might be unable to access these files from workstations that use a different code page table. If different code page tables are in use, you must use a character set that is common to all the code page tables.
TIP: DOS and OS/2 define code pages using a 256-character code page. If different workstations use different code page tables, the filenames that are created might not be accessible by a workstation using a different code page table. Try to use the same code page table in all the workstations, or restrict file/directory names to a common set of characters.
NetWare 4.x keeps translation information for Unicode in the following files:
This chapter summarized some of the new and improved client utilities available under NetWare 4. You learned about changes to the following:
You also learned about the new international language support available under NetWare 4 and NetWare 3.12.
© Copyright, Macmillan Computer Publishing. All rights reserved.