Is there a difference between using basic .NET types or native C++ types?
No, it's up to you as the developer as to which one you want to use. In the end, native C++ types resolve to the .NET Framework types.
Where are shared assemblies deployed?
The Global Assembly Cache.
How many files does an assembly represent?
An assembly can be a single file, such as an EXE or DLL, or it can be a combination of several files. An assembly doesn't have a limit to the number of files it may have.
What is the execution platform on which a .NET application runs?
The common language runtime or CLR.