Chapter 11: Global Rights to Names

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  1. Guidelines on Usenet Newsgroup Names, < >.

  2. Guidelines for Usenet Group Creation, January 31, 1997. See Hardy (1993) for a discussion of some of the controversies that arose over the formation of new toplevel domains in the Usenet name space.

  3. The following names are reserved at the second level and at all other levels within the TLD at which an ICANN-accredited registry operator makes registrations: .aso, .dnso, .icann, .internic, .pso, .afrinic, .apnic, .arin, .example, . gtldservers, .iab, .iana, .iana-servers, .iesg, .ietf, .irtf, .istf, .lacnic, .latnic, .rfc-editor, .ripe, .root-servers. The following names are reserved at the second level: .aero, .arpa, .biz, .com, .coop, .edu, .gov, .info, .int, .mil, .museum, .name, .net, .org, .pro.

  4. Sony Corp. of Am. v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417 (1984).

  5. The NIC handle is a short, unique alphanumeric code that a registry assigns to a domain name holder when the registrant registers a name. People who use different names might use the same NIC handle in the WHOIS record.

  6. The Paris Convention, Article 10 (1), states that its provision on seizure of goods traded across national boundaries shall apply to instances where false indications of the source of the goods or the identity of the producer are used. The Madrid (Indications of Source) Agreement broadens the application of the Paris convention to 'deceptive' indications of source. The Lisbon Agreement regulates 'appellations of origin,' requiring participating states to protect registered appellations against any 'usurpation or imitation.' Geographical indications are also covered by Articles 22 and 23 of the TRIPS Agreement.

  7. Christine Haight Farley, assistant professor of law, American University, Response to the Interim Report of the Second WIPO Internet Domain Name Process, Washington D.C. Regional Consultation, May 29, 2001.

  8. Letter from International Trademark Association to Francis Gurry, May 24, 2001, <>.

  9. Terry Allen, 'Squatting for Dollars: A Political Cybersquatter Makes Mischief, and a Few Dollars, by Registering Candidate Domain Names,' June 12, 2000, <>.

  10. A group of country music artists sued Jim Salmon, who registered around 450 personal names, in 1998. Jim Hu, 'Country Music Artists Sue over Domains,' CNET News, April 8, 1998.

  11. Julia Fiona Roberts -v- Russell Boyd, re: (WIPO case no. D2000-0210), and Daniel C Mario Jnr -v- Video Images Productions, re: (WIPO case no. D2000-0598), and several other cases recognized common law trademark rights in personal names and transferred domain name registrations to celebrities.

  12. In Bruce Springsteen -v- Jeff Burgar and Bruce Springsteen Club, re: (WIPO case no. D2000-1532), the majority holds that 'the users of the internet do not expect all sites bearing the name of celebrities or famous historical figures or politicians, to be authorized or in some way connected with the figure themselves.' In Jules I. Kendall -v- Donald Mayer, re: (WIPO case no. D2000-0868), the panelists unanimously permitted a relative of the golfer Skip Kendall to continue to use the name as the address of a Web site airing grievances about a personal debt.

  13. GAC, Principles for the Delegation and Administration of ccTLDs, February 23, 2000, Sec. 9.

  14. Letter from Robert Verrue, European Commission, to Mike Roberts, President of ICANN, December 1, 2000, <>.

  15. Kenneth Neil Cukier, 'Governments Stake Claim for Control over Country-Specific Domain Names,' CommunicationsWeek International, June 7, 1999, p. 1.

  16. Submission by Republic of South Africa in Response to World Intellectual Property Organization's WIPO2 RFC-2 Process, March 1, 2001.

  17. In a rather delicious irony, has been registered by a Washington D.C. area man with an uncanny resemblance to the stereotypical Bible school picture of Jesus. The Web site at that address is an extended personal ad: 'Golden-haired, blue-eyed Jesus seeks loving young woman (22-29), preferably of recent Norse-Germanic heritage, who wishes to live in the spirit of the eternal. Innocence, or rebirth into innocence, and a desire to transcend the material mendacity of this world are essential! I offer a pure and spiritual existence of life's essence, free of fear, free of despair. I will reveal the bliss, power, and endless rewards of faith and belief. The right woman who is ready for my love, blessings, and unforgettable spiritual exploration will be given the world, but will also want to give me her world in the mutual quest to share the infinite. I offer you the ability to experience the fulfillment of your dreams and all you seek. Prospective respondents should read 1 John 4:18. True to artistic depictions, I have a lean swimmer's body and a six-pack, and if you have sought your best in life you will also be in good shape.' Where is WIPO when we need it?

  18. The domain name in this URL,, refers to M. David Lewis Enterprises, an organization that has no official relationship to Garbo or her estate.

  19. Cecily Barnes, 'Catchy Domain Names Lose Their Luster,' CNET News, October 16, 2000.

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Ruling the Root(c) Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace
Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace
ISBN: 0262134128
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2006
Pages: 110

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