Figure 2.1: Information techology (IT) uses sensors and transducers to convey information to and from the material world.
Figure 2.2: An image can be represented by square pixels, the intensity of each represented by eight bits.
Figure 2.3: Successive generations result from replication or copying.
Figure 2.4: Layers of complementary supporting software. (The arrows mean "built on".)
Chapter 3: Users
Figure 3.1: Classification of software applications in order of appearance and the primary technologies they leverage.
Figure 3.2: Methodology for iterative refinement of application ideas involving end-users.
Figure 3.3: Network effects on instances of a software product.
Chapter 4: Creating Software
Figure 4.1: WinWin spiral model of software development.
Figure 4.2: A simple software architecture.
Figure 4.3: Hierarchical decomposition.
Figure 4.4: Architecture of a platform and environment for a software distribution.
Figure 4.5: Three common approaches to distributing software: native code, source code, and intermediate object code.
Figure 4.6: Internet hourglass architecture extended to processing.
Figure 4.7: Client-server and peer-to-peer architectures are distinguished by their symmetry or asymmetry of function and by their interconnection topology.
Figure 4.8: The future network cloud will include processing and storage as well as connection services made available to applications.
Chapter 5: Management
Figure 5.1: Value chains in the software industry.
Figure 5.2: Dependence of the user on other players in an overall security system.
Figure 5.3: Operators can capture user profiles and potentially aggregate that information over multiple applications.
Figure 5.4: An asymmetric encryption algorithm uses two coordinated encryption keys.
Figure 5.5: Three methods of secret distribution in security systems.
Chapter 6: Software Supply Industry
Figure 6.1: Natural business partitioning of the value chain.
Figure 6.2: Composition of all business functions except infrastructure was common in the mainframe era, as represented by the shaded block.
Figure 6.3: The enterprise application model leaves application software development and provisioning to specialized firms while retaining most operations in the end-user organization.
Figure 6.4: The application service provider (ASP) provisions and operates an application, offering it for use over a wide-area network.
Chapter 7: Software Creation Industry
Figure 7.1: Historically, the telecommunications and computing industry both used an architecture resembling a stovepipe.
Figure 7.2: The layered architecture for infrastructure modularizes it into homogeneous horizontal layers.
Figure 7.3: A simplified architecture of the Internet illustrates how new layers are added while future layers and applications can still invoke services of previous layers.
Figure 7.4: The widely deployed virtual machine can create a homogeneous spanning layer for applications that hides the heterogeneity of platforms.
Figure 7.5: A layered architecture for distributed applications and the supporting infrastructure.
Figure 7.6: Layering provides separation of a diversity of technologies from a diversity of applications.
Figure 7.7: Examples of industry standards fitting the layered model of figure 7.5.
Figure 7.8: The device driver can allow interoperability while moving standardizations to a higher abstraction.
Figure 7.9: Direct network effects can be eliminated by mobile code.
Figure 7.10: Components can be portable, or they can compose across platforms, or both.
Figure 7.11: An architecture for client-server applications supporting a component methodology.
Figure 7.12: A component container in JavaBeans.
Figure 7.13: Component frameworks to separate dimensions of evolution.
Figure 7.14: The Web services reference model, now on its way toward adoption as a standard, shows how UDDI supports service discovery (Gardner 2001).
Chapter 8: Government
Figure 8.1: A chain of copy protection between information appliances.
Figure 8.2: The appliance- and media-specific information supporting CPRM.
Figure 8.3: The CPRM copy protection scheme supports renewability.
Figure 8.4: Two models of technology transfer.
Figure 8.5: A dynamic model of technology transfer based on the Stokes (1997) two-dimensional model.
Chapter 9: Economics
Figure 9.1: Demand function for uniformly dispersed willingness to pay and Metcalf's law for the direct network effect.
Figure 9.2: Demand for a uniform dispersion in willingness to pay and a model of indirect network effects, with g = 0.25.
Figure 9.3: Market dynamics with direct network effects.
Figure 9.4: Several ways to spread revenue from a single customer over time. Note that the supplier cost structures for these pricing options may be distinctly different, particularly as provisioning and operation move from customer to provider responsibility.
Figure 9.5: The utilization that can be achieved for a single faster server (y-axis) in comparison to N slower servers (x-axis) for the same average delay.
Chapter 10: The Future
Figure 10.1: The rendezvous is a genric technique to allow a client to find a nomadic server.