For more on these changes, see chapter 1 of this volume and Cappelli et al. (1997); Osterman (1999); Cappelli (1999a).
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Household Survey for April 2000 indicated that out of 135.7 million working Americans, 22.1 million were part-timers (16.3 percent) and 10.1 million (7.4 percent) were self-employed; see U.S. BLS (2000a). The BLS Establishment Survey for the same month indicated that 3.5 million Americans were employed in the Help-supply services industry, SIC Code 7363; see BLS (2000b). Given slight differences between the Household and Establishments surveys, a conservative estimate is that of the 135.7 million working Americans, 3.5 million (2.6 percent) are temporary workers employed by staffing companies. Of this 3.5 million, 0.6 million are part-timers, and already included in the figures for part-time workers derived from the Household Survey. This leaves 2.9 million (2.2 percent) working as full-time temps. Thus in April 2000, 25.9 percent of working Americans were part-timers, selfemployed, or full-time temps. In addition, for the same time period, 1.0 million (0.7 percent) were working in private households; see U.S. BLS (2000a). And the BLS survey on "alternative employment arrangements", conducted in February 1997, indicated that 1.6 percent of the workforce were on-call workers and another 0.6 percent were employed by contract firms; see Cohany (1998). When all six of these categories are included, 28.8 percent of American workers can be considered as not holding traditional full-time jobs.
MIT, for example, operates this way.