Introduction


Character strings are an inevitable part of just about any programming task. We use them for printing messages for the user; for referring to files on disk or other external media; and for people's names, addresses, and affiliations. The uses of strings are many, almost without number (actually, if you need numbers, we'll get to them in Chapter 5).

If you're coming from a programming language like C, you'll need to remember that String is a defined type (class) in Java. That is, a string is an object and therefore has methods. It is not an array of characters and should not be thought of as an array. Operations like fileName.endsWith(".gif") and extension.equals(".gif") (and the equivalent ".gif".equals(extension)) are commonplace.

Notice that a given String object, once constructed, is immutable. That is, once I have said String s = "Hello" + yourName; then the particular object that reference variable s refers to can never be changed. You can assign s to refer to a different string, even one derived from the original, as in s = s.trim( ). And you can retrieve characters from the original string using charAt( ) , but it isn't called getCharAt( ) because there is not, and never will be, a setCharAt( ) method. Even methods like toUpperCase( ) don't change the String; they return a new String object containing the translated characters. If you need to change characters within a String, you should instead create a StringBuilder [1] (possibly initialized to the starting value of the String), manipulate the StringBuilder to your heart's content, and then convert that to String at the end, using the ubiquitous toString( ) method.

[1] StringBuilder is new in JDK 1.5. It is functionally equivalent to the older StringBuffer. We will delve into the details in Recipe 3.3.

How can I be so sure they won't add a setCharAt( ) method in the next release? Because the immutability of strings is one of the fundamentals of the Java Virtual Machine. Remember that Java is the one language that takes security and multiprocessing (threads) seriously. Got that in mind? Good. Now think about applets, which are prevented from accessing many local resources. Consider the following scenario: Thread A starts up another Thread B. Thread A creates a string called s containing a filename, saves a reference s2 to it, and passes s to some method that requires permission. This method will certainly call the Java Virtual Machine's SecurityManager [2] object, if one is installed (as it certainly will be in an applet environment). Then, in the nanoseconds between the time the SecurityManager passes its approval on the named file and the time the I/O system actually gets around to opening the file, Thread B changes the string referred to by s2 to refer to a system file. Poof! If you could do this, the entire notion of Java security would be a joke. But of course, they thought of that, so you can't. While you can, at any time, assign a new String reference to s, this never has any effect on the string that s used to refer to. Except, of course, if s were the only reference to that String, it is now eligible for garbage collection it may go up the pipe!

[2] SecurityManager is a class that is consulted about whether the current application is allowed to do certain things, such as open local disk files, open arbitrary network connections, etc. Applets run with a more restrictive security manager than do normal applications, for example.

Remember also that the String is a very fundamental type in Java. Unlike most of the other classes in the core API, the behavior of strings is not changeable; the class is marked final so it cannot be subclassed. So you can't declare your own String subclass. Think if you could you could masquerade as a String but provide a setCharAt( ) method! Again, they thought of that. If you don't believe me, try it out:

/**  * If this class could be compiled, Java security would be a myth.  */ public class WolfInStringsClothing extends java.lang.String {     public void setCharAt(int index, char newChar) {         // The implementation of this method         // is left as an exercise for the reader.         // Hint: compile this code exactly as-is before bothering!     } }

Got it? They thought of that!

Of course you do need to be able to modify strings. Some methods extract part of a String; these are covered in the first few recipes in this chapter. And StringBuilder is an important set of classes that deals in characters and strings and has many methods for changing the contents, including, of course, a toString( ) method. Reformed C programmers should note that Java strings are not arrays of chars as in C, so you must use methods for such operations as processing a string one character at a time; see Recipe 3.4. Figure 3-1 shows an overview of String, StringBuilder, and C-language strings.

Figure 3-1. String, StringBuilder, and C-language strings
figs/jcb2_0301.gif


While we haven't discussed the details of the java.io package yet (we will, in Chapter 10), you need to be able to read text files for some of these programs. Even if you're not familiar with java.io, you can probably see from the examples that read text files that a BufferedReader allows you to read "chunks" of data, and that this class has a very convenient readLine( ) method.

We won't show you how to sort an array of strings here; the more general notion of sorting a collection of objects is discussed in Recipe 7.8.



Java Cookbook
Java Cookbook, Second Edition
ISBN: 0596007019
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2003
Pages: 409
Authors: Ian F Darwin

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