2.1. Spotlight

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Remember the relentless disk grinding you heard after you first installed the operating system? That was Spotlight creating its initial database. Spotlight is a repository of metadata for certain types of files Spotlight gathers information about any file (or data record, such as an iCal event) for which it has an importer (an operating system plug-in that extracts metadata from a document). To see all the importers on your system, look in /System/Library/Spotlight and /Library/Spotlight.

By default, Spotlight has importers for the following files and data:

  • Address Book records

  • AppleWorks files

  • Applications

  • Audio files

  • Safari bookmarks

  • iChat transcripts

  • Fonts

  • iCal events

  • Images

  • Keynote presentations

  • Mail messages

  • Microsoft Office documents

  • Pages documents

  • PDF and PostScript files

  • QuickTime movies

  • RTF documents

  • Source code

  • System preferences

To perform a spotlight query, simply click the magnifying glass icon in the upper right of the menu bar or press -Space. A Spotlight search field drops down, in which you enter a search term, as shown in Figure 2-1.

You can get a more detailed Spotlight search window by pressing Option--Space. This window, shown in Figure 2-2, lets you configure a number of aspects of your search, such as location, date, and result grouping.

2.1.1. Performing Spotlight Searches

Unix geeks might never use Spotlight if Mac OS X didn't include some command-line goodies for performing searches . You can perform a simple Spotlight search from the shell with the following syntax:

     mdfind term 

For example:

     $ mdfind burroughs     /Developer/Documentation/DeveloperTools/Tcl/Trf/bz2.html     /Volumes/Macintosh HD/Users/bjepson/Music/iTunes/iTunes Music/William          S. Burroughs     /Volumes/Macintosh HD/Users/bjepson/Music/iTunes/iTunes Music/William          S. Burroughs/Dead City Radio/02 A Thanksgiving Prayer.m4p     /Volumes/Macintosh HD/Users/bjepson/Music/iTunes/iTunes Music Library.xml     /Volumes/Macintosh HD/Users/bjepson/Sites/radio/2003/04/11.html 

Figure 2-1. Using the Spotlight menu


If you have a good idea of where you want to search, you can use the -onlyin option as shown here:

     $ mdfind -onlyin /Developer burroughs     /Developer/Documentation/DeveloperTools/Tcl/Trf/bz2.html 

You can use the -live option to update the results in real time as they change, and as quickly as Spotlight can index them.

Although you can find interesting results with simple keyword searches, you can refine your search by specifying any of the metadata attribute keys. For example, to find all the songs written by Robert Hunter, you could use this search:

     $ mdfind "kMDItemComposer == '*Robert Hunter*'"     /Users/bjepson/Music/iTunes/iTunes Music/Grateful Dead/Hundred Year       Hall (Disc 1) [Live]/1-01 Bertha.m4a     /Users/bjepson/Music/iTunes/iTunes Music/Grateful Dead/Hundred Year       Hall (Disc 1) [Live]/1-04 China Cat Sunflower.m4a     /Users/bjepson/Music/iTunes/iTunes Music/Grateful Dead/Hundred Year       Hall (Disc 1) [Live]/1-06 Jack Straw.m4a     /Users/bjepson/Music/iTunes/iTunes Music/Grateful Dead/Hundred Year       Hall (Disc 1) [Live]/1-08 Playing In The Band.m4a 

Figure 2-2. Searching with the Spotlight window


     /Users/bjepson/Music/iTunes/iTunes Music/Grateful Dead/Dick's Picks       Volume 12 (Disc 1)/1-02 China Cat Sunflower _.m4a     /Users/bjepson/Music/iTunes/iTunes Music/Grateful Dead/Dick's Picks       Volume 12 (Disc 1)/1-06 Truckin' _.m4a     [... and so forth ...] 

Without the wildcard characters (*), you wouldn't match a thing, since Robert Hunter coauthored all those songs with Jerry Garcia. You can perform more complex queries with mdfind, as well. For example, the following query uses the and (&&) operator to combine two search criteria: the composer name contains "Jerry" and the performer (author) name does not contain "Grateful Dead":

     $ mdfind "kMDItemComposer == '*Jerry*' && \          kMDItemAuthors != '*Grateful Dead*'"     /Users/bjepson/Music/iTunes/iTunes Music/Compilations/Box of Pearls - The       Janis Joplin Collection/3-11 Piece of My Heart (Live at Woodstock).m4p     /Users/bjepson/Music/iTunes/iTunes Music/The Who/Live At Leeds/11       Summertime Blues.m4a 

2.1.2. Inspecting a File's Attributes

Now that we've found a couple songs written by someone named Jerry who's not in the Grateful Dead, how do we figure out what his deal is? The mdls utility lets you see all of the metadata for a given file:

     $ cd ~/Music/iTunes/iTunes\ Music/Compilations/     $ cd Box\ of\ Pearls\ -\ The\ Janis\ Joplin\ Collection/     $ mdls 3-11\ Piece\ of\ My\ Heart\ \(Live\ at\ Woodstock\).m4p     3-11 Piece of My Heart (Live at Woodstock).m4p -------------     kMDItemAlbum                   = "Box of Pearls - The Janis Joplin Collection"     kMDItemAttributeChangeDate     = 2005-02-19 17:43:08 -0500     kMDItemAudioBitRate            = 125240     kMDItemAudioChannelCount       = 2     kMDItemAudioTrackNumber        = 11     kMDItemAuthors                 = ("Janis Joplin")     kMDItemCodecs                  = ("")     kMDItemComposer                = "Bert Berns & Jerry Ragovoy"     kMDItemContentCreationDate     = 2004-04-02 11:46:40 -0500     kMDItemContentModificationDate = 2004-04-02 11:46:40 -0500     kMDItemContentType             = "com.apple.protected-mpeg-4-audio"     kMDItemContentTypeTree         = (         "com.apple.protected-mpeg-4-audio",         "public.audio",         "public.audiovisual-content",         "public.data",         "public.item",         "public.content"     )     kMDItemDisplayName             = "3-11 Piece of My Heart (Live at Woodstock).m4p"     kMDItemDurationSeconds         = 391.3483333333334     kMDItemFSContentChangeDate     = 2004-04-02 11:46:40 -0500     kMDItemFSCreationDate          = 2004-04-02 11:46:40 -0500     kMDItemFSCreatorCode           = 1752133483     kMDItemFSFinderFlags           = 0     kMDItemFSInvisible             = 0     kMDItemFSLabel                 = 0     kMDItemFSName                  = "3-11 Piece of My Heart (Live at Woodstock).m4p"     kMDItemFSNodeCount             = 0     kMDItemFSOwnerGroupID          = 501     kMDItemFSOwnerUserID           = 501     kMDItemFSSize                  = 6522800     kMDItemFSTypeCode              = 1295274016     kMDItemID                      = 128067     kMDItemKind                    = "MPEG-4 Audio File (Protected)"     kMDItemLastUsedDate            = 2004-04-02 11:46:40 -0500     kMDItemMediaTypes              = (Sound)     kMDItemMusicalGenre            = "Rock"     kMDItemStreamable              = 0     kMDItemTitle                   = "Piece of My Heart (Live at Woodstock)"     kMDItemTotalBitRate            = 125240     kMDItemUsedDates               = (2004-04-02 11:46:40 -0500) 

That's a lot of information, but this sampling gives you an idea of what sort of search terms you can use with your mdfind queries. Table 2-1 lists some of the most common metadata attributes , but as you can see from the music file example, importers (in this case, the iTunes importer) are free to define their own attributes.

Keep in mind an important distinction when speaking of metadata: the owner (in terms of file system permissions) of the file is not necessarily its author. For example, if you rip an MP3 file from a CD-ROM, you're the owner. However, iTunes consults CDDB (the Gracenote CD Database, located at http://www.gracenote.com/gn_products/cddb) and uses the information it finds there to determine the authors of the file. On the other hand, if you create a Word document on your Mac, you'll not only be the owner of the file, but you're also the author. Another way to think about this is that Spotlight metadata is not so much about files, but the contents of files.

Table 2-1. Common Spotlight metadata attributes

Attribute

Description

kMDItemAttributeChangeDate

The date and time that a metadata attribute was last changed.

kMDItemAudiences

The intended audience of the file.

kMDItemAuthors

The authors of the document.

kMDItemCity

The document's city of origin.

kMDItemComment

Comments regarding the document.

kMDItemContactKeywords

A list of contacts associated with the document.

kMDItemContentCreationDate

The document's creation date.

kMDItemContentModificationDate

Last modification date of the document.

kMDItemContentType

The qualified content type of the document, such as com.adobe.pdf for PDF files and com.apple.protected-mpeg-4-audio for an Apple Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) file.

kMDItemContributors

Contributors to this document.

kMDItemCopyright

The copyright owner.

kMDItemCountry

The document's country of origin.

kMDItemCoverage

The scope of the document, such as a geographical location or a period of time.

kMDItemCreator

The application that created the document.

kMDItemDescription

A description of the document.

kMDItemDueDate

Due date for the item represented by the document.

kMDItemDurationSeconds

Duration (in seconds) of the document.

kMDItemEmailAddresses

Email addresses associated with this document.

kMDItemEncodingApplications

The name of the application (such as "Acrobat Distiller") that was responsible for converting the document in its current form.

kMDItemFinderComment

This contains any Finder comments for the document.

kMDItemFonts

Fonts used in the document.

kMDItemHeadline

A headline-style synopsis of the document.

kMDItemInstantMessageAddresses

IM addresses/screen names associated with the document.

kMDItemInstructions

Special instructions or warnings associated with this document.

kMDItemKeywords

Keywords associated with the document.

kMDItemKind

Describes the kind of document, such as "iCal Event."

kMDItemLanguages

Language of the document.

kMDItemLastUsedDate

The date and time the document was last opened.

kMDItemNumberOfPages

Page count of this document.

kMDItemOrganizations

The organization that created the document.

kMDItemPageHeight

Height of the document's page layout in points.

kMDItemPageWidth

Width of the document's page layout in points.

kMDItemPhoneNumbers

Phone numbers associated with the document.

kMDItemProjects

Names of projects (other documents such as an iMovie project) that this document is associated with.

kMDItemPublishers

The publisher of the document.

kMDItemRecipients

The recipient of the document.

kMDItemRights

A link to the statement of rights (such as a Creative Commons or old-school copyright license) that govern the use of the document.

kMDItemSecurityMethod

Encryption method used on the document.

kMDItemStarRating

Rating of the document (as in the iTunes "star" rating).

kMDItemStateOrProvince

The document's state or province of origin.

kMDItemTitle

The title.

kMDItemVersion

The version number.

kMDItemWhereFroms

Where the document came from, such as a URI or email address.


2.1.3. Managing Spotlight

Spotlight is modestly configurable; you can use System Preferences Spotlight to control the order in which results are presented, exclude certain file types, and specify directories that must never be indexed. You can do quite a bit from the shell prompt as well.

The mdutil command controls Spotlight settings on a volume-by-volume basis, and mdimport lets you work with the various importers installed on your system. For example, mdutil can turn indexing on or off for an entire volume with the -i option (it takes an argument of on or off):

     # mdutil -i off /Volumes/Macintosh\ HD     /Volumes/Macintosh HD:             Indexing disabled for volume. 

This setting is persistent across reboots. You can inspect a volume's setting with the -s option:

     # mdutil -s /Volumes/Macintosh\ HD/     /Volumes/Macintosh HD/:             Status: Indexing Disabled 

You can use mdimport to list all the importers installed on your system:

     $ mdimport -L      2005-02-26 22:10:53.296 mdimport[268] Paths: id(501) (         "/System/Library/Spotlight/Image.mdimporter",         "/System/Library/Spotlight/Audio.mdimporter",         "/System/Library/Spotlight/Font.mdimporter",         "/System/Library/Spotlight/PS.mdimporter",         "/Library/Spotlight/Microsoft Office.mdimporter",     [... and so forth ...]  

And if the list of attributes in Table 2-1 isn't enough to keep you busy, you can also use mdimport to list all the attributes supported by the importers on your system:

     $ mdimport -A      'kMDItemAcquisitionMake'                'Device make'          'Make of the device used to acquire this document'     'kMDItemAcquisitionModel'               'Device model'          'Model of the device was used to acquire this document'     'kMDItemAlbum'          'Album'          'Title for a collection of media, such as a record album'     'kMDItemAperture'               'Aperture'          'Aperture setting of the camera when the picture was taken'     [... and so forth ...]  

mdimport also has a number of features of interest to people developing their own metadata importers. For example:

  • -X prints out an XML schema for the metadata on your system

  • -f forces mdimport to import a directory or file (overriding any exceptions you've made in System Preferences)

  • -p displays performance statistics for a run of mdimport

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    Mac OS X Tiger for Unix Geeks
    Mac OS X Tiger for Unix Geeks
    ISBN: 0596009127
    EAN: 2147483647
    Year: 2006
    Pages: 176

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