Important Kernel Components

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In order to understand how rootkits can be used to subvert an OS kernel, it helps to know which functions the kernel handles. Table 2-1 describes each major functional component of the kernel.

Table 2-1. Functional components of the kernel.

Process management

Processes need CPU time. The kernel contains code to assign this CPU time. If the OS supports threads, the kernel will schedule time to each thread. Data structures in memory keep track of all the threads and processes. By modifying these data structures, an attacker can hide a process.

File access

The file system is one of the most important features an OS provides. Device drivers may be loaded to handle different underlying file systems (such as NTFS). The kernel provides a consistent interface to these file systems. By modifying the code in this part of the kernel, an attacker can hide files and directories.

Security

The kernel is ultimately responsible for enforcing restrictions between processes. Simple systems may not enforce any security at all. For example, many embedded devices allow any process to access the full range of memory. On UNIX and MS-Windows systems, the kernel enforces permissions and separate memory ranges for each process. Just a few changes to the code in this part of the kernel can remove all the security mechanisms.

Memory management

Some hardware platforms, such as the Intel Pentium family, have complex memory-management schemes. A memory address can be mapped to multiple physical locations. For example, one process can read the memory at address 0x00401111 and get the value "HELLO," while another process can read that same memory at address 0x00401111 but get the value "GO AWAY." The same address points to two totally different physical memory locations, each containing different data. (We will discuss more about virtual-to-physical memory mapping in Chapter 3, The Hardware Connection.) This is possible because the two processes are mapped differently. Exploiting the way this works in the kernel can be very useful for hiding data from debuggers or active forensics software.


Now that we have an idea of the functions of the kernel, we will discuss how a rootkit might be designed to modify the kernel.

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    Rootkits(c) Subverting the Windows Kernel
    Rootkits: Subverting the Windows Kernel
    ISBN: 0321294319
    EAN: 2147483647
    Year: 2006
    Pages: 111

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