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Defining Migration-Specific Management Tasks
The new IT environment components must be integrated into the existing IT management infrastructure. The approach you take and the degree of effort involved with it will depend on the current degree of operational capability the organization possesses. An IT organization with a well-defined set of management processes, supported by an appropriate tools infrastructure, will be able to integrate the migrated environment with a reasonable degree of effort. A less mature organization will need to consider using the migration effort as the catalyst to improving its operational capability, which will require significantly more effort. In this case, the organization might consider improving operational capabilities in a separate project.
It has been our experience that very few organizations will be able to address operational readiness issues by taking a "green field" approach. Even immature organizations will have some existing practices and technology that must be accounted for. A generalized strategy for addressing operational readiness should include the following steps:
The following sections describe each of these steps in more detail. These steps should be focused on the requirements and benefits case defined during the justification activities and the architect phase.
Assessing the Current IT Management Infrastructure
As a first step to ensuring that they can support the migrated environment, organizations undertaking a migration must develop a realistic understanding of their operational capability. You can begin this process by reviewing the available standards and frameworks, looking for opportunities to leverage them as much as possible. You should adopt a management framework and a maturity model as the basis for both the assessment effort and subsequent improvement activities. A management framework describes what needs to be in place. A maturity model defines the evolutionary path for realizing the framework.
In previous sections, we described both a management framework (the STMF) and a maturity model for operational capability. Other models are available, including the capabilities maturity model and its derivatives from the Software Engineering Institute (http://www.sei.cmu.edu), the IT Infrastructure Library or ITIL (http://www.itsmf.com), and Control Objectives for Information Related Technology or COBIT (http://www.isaca.org).
Assess People Requirements
When assessing the human aspects of a management solution, focus on the skills that will need to be developed and exploited to manage and control the new environment. Obviously, new skills will need to be adopted and absorbed, which puts a focus on training and development processes that will enable the development of the appropriate competences to successfully control the new environment.
Additionally, the introduction of new migrated technology will require the evaluation of the current workforce and a determination of what is immediately needed to provide the appropriate staffing levels. In addition, to promote the desired behavior of personnel, compensation plans and employee performance management might need to be aligned to include the right measures for success.
When significant changes are introduced, it is essential that you emphasize communication and coordination between workgroups to limit the resistance to change and to increase the chances for success.
To be proactive, evaluate the following processes and bring them to an appropriate level of maturity:
Obviously, the ability to introduce changes into the environment with minimal risk and at an acceptable cost is key to the successful migration of any technology. If the change management process is implemented successfully, this can be achieved. The following diagram describes how such a process can be defined. It is ITIL based and incorporated into the STMF.
Figure 8-7. Change Management Process Flow
Naturally, implementation management has close ties with change management because projects of this size typically introduce significant change. A solid development and deployment process is key to a smooth transition into production.
For execution management (often referred to as operations management) to become more proactive in accepting and introducing changes, you will need to start addressing the following key areas:
The ability to manage problems and incidents quickly and consistently is essential to avoid solving the same issue more than once. The focus of problem management, when shifting from reactive to proactive, must move to root cause analysis to enable the most effective solutions for existing issues. The SunTone Management Framework has leveraged many of the ITIL best practices here. The following figure shows how such a process could look.
Figure 8-8. Problem Management Process Flow
In moving to a more mature level of operational capability, an organization shifts from technology that is focused on monitoring the lower portions of the E-stack to technology that extends the monitoring coverage and facilitates proactive management of the IT environment. In applying the tools solutions model described previously, we would focus on the following items at each layer:
To determine the current state of IT operational capability, you should conduct some type of audit. Audits generally fall into one of two categories:
Compliance and effectiveness audits should be conducted as part of any assessment activity. Our experience has been that the existence of a well-documented process does not always mean that the process actually meets the needs of the organization or that it is being followed by the organization. Depending on the expertise and enthusiasm of the staff members involved in such an effort, organizations might want to consider using an external agency to conduct the assessment.
Addressing Critical Gaps
Detailing the means to address all possible shortcomings in the management infrastructure is beyond the scope of this book. However, we provide the following important rules to help you understand the scope of this task.
Selecting Tools for Managing the Migrated Environment
The tools solutions model described above implies the application of sound systems-design principles to include modular design, separation of function, and well-defined interfaces. As a result, the management tools architecture should be loosely coupled with the corresponding managed environment. The degree of dependency between the two architectures decreases the farther up the management framework you go. In a properly architected management infrastructure, most of the impact resulting from the introduction of Sun technology will be seen in the instrumentation and element management layers. Most of the Sun technology that is available for managing migrated platforms is focused on these two layers of the tools model. Sun works with a number of industry partners to provide solutions for other portions of the tools framework. The following figure shows some of these tools and how they map to the SunTone Management Framework. This sample is not exhaustive; however, it provides a good overview of the available solutions. The sections that follow briefly explain each of these tools. You are encouraged to consult available vendor documentation for specific information about the tools mentioned.
The following tools can be used to manage various aspects of the newly migrated environment:
Sun Management Center
Sun Management Center (SunMC) is the primary technology platform for the management of Sun products. As seen in FIGURE 8-9 on page 154, SunMC provides functionality in a number of different areas within the framework.
Figure 8-9. Tools Mapped to the SunTone Management Framework
As shown in FIGURE 8-10 on page 156, SunMC has a three- tier architecture consisting of the following components:
The core SunMC functionality includes monitoring Solaris hardware and software components. The visibility SunMC provides into the hardware layer of the Sun environment is a key element of this structure. The Sun Management Center's core functionality can be extended using available product add-ons as shown in FIGURE 8-11 on page 157. Examples include the following:
Figure 8-11. Layers of SunMC
Additional management functionality to monitor other Sun and non-Sun software is available from third-party vendors that have extended SunMC capabilities. For example, Halcyon Monitoring Solutions offers the PrimeAlert product line, which extends the management capabilities of SunMC. PrimeAlert modules are also available for a variety of applications including Oracle, Sybase, VERITAS, BEA WebLogic, and the Sun ONE software stack. For more information, visit the Halcyon Web site at http://www.halcyoninc.com
SunMC is designed to coexist with the major system's management framework. Integration facilities are available for CA Unicenter, Tivoli, and BMC. A probe to integrate SunMC with Microm by using Omnibus is also available.
Solaris Management Console GUI
Solaris Management Console is a container-based GUI for administration tools used in the Solaris environment. It provides a common look and feel, access control, and application launch points for a variety of applications used to managed Sun systems. Administrative functions that are supported include systems status, account management, storage management, and management of projects and tasks for Solaris Resource Manager software. Solaris Management Console is a two-tier application with a Java client and a server layer. This application is the primary replacement for the AdminSuite tool set.
Solaris Resource Manager Software
Solaris Resource Manager software is an example of a control application that enables system resources like CPU, memory, and network bandwidth to be allocated among applications. Solaris Resource Manager software supports the definition of resource usage groups, constraints of resource use, and accounting of use. Use of this tool enables multiple applications to coexist on a single instance of the Solaris OS, with each application being able to count on the availability of specific levels of CPU, memory, and network resource availability. Solaris Resource Manager software was offered as an add-on application before the release of version 9 of the Solaris OS. Starting with version 9, the software is bundled with the operating system. This enhanced version of the product also includes functionality from Solaris Bandwidth Manager.
Solaris Bandwidth Manager Software
Solaris Bandwidth Manager software is another control application that enables the management of available network resources. The application enables the allocation of IP traffic to specific traffic classes. These allocation schemes can be based on a number of factors, including IP address, source or destination port, protocol, and type of service (TOS). Incoming and outgoing IP packets are assigned to specific classes. Classes have a guaranteed and maximum bandwidth assigned. Solaris Bandwidth Manager also provides a number of interfaces that can be used to export collected performance information for processing by accounting and billing applications.
Automated Dynamic Reconfiguration
Solaris Resource Manager and Solaris Bandwidth Manager software allocate resources within a single instance of the Solaris OS. Automated dynamic reconfiguration (ADR) allows hardware resources to be allocated between multiple OS images on platforms running more than one Solaris domain. The idea is to reallocate system boards with CPU or memory from domains that are of a lower priority or not under heavy load to a higher-priority domain under a heavy workload. ADR provides a high-level command set for dynamic reconfiguration that can be used within scripts. Additionally, this functionality is exposed through a CIM/WBEM interface in the Sun Fire 15K/12K servers. In addition to using scripting to control reallocation of systems boards, you can also use agent technology from the framework vendors to integrate this functionality into the management framework. BMC provides this, using the Patrol for Sun ADR product. Patrol for ADR is a KM that uses the exposed ADR interfaces (CLI on the Sun Enterprise 10000 server, CIM/WBEM on the Sun Enterprise 12000 server and the Sun Enterprise 15000) to control allocation of systems boards according to CPU use. FIGURE 8-12 on page 160 shows the use of the Patrol ADR KM.
Figure 8-12. Patrol Automated Dynamic Reconfiguration Knowledge Module
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