Network Communications Control Facility (IBM, SNA). Along with NPDA this program product allows for the monitoring of a complete SNA Network from a central location. An IBM Term . See Netview.
Network Control Center System.
NonCompliant End Office.
Number of calls handled.
National Customer Help Desk.
Network Channel Interface Code. Identifies the electrical conditions that are required for Pacific Bell when the circuit is handed off at the designated premises or Point of Termination (POT). NCI is formatted at each circuit location. It has a maximum 12 alphanumeric entry that contains such information as:
number of wires
National Criminal Information Center. The FBI's data warehouse of criminal histories that is accessed over phone lines by every law enforcement agency.
Network Control Language. A command line interface language used by Digital Equipment Corp.'s Digital Network Architecture (DNA).
Non-Computing Module Load.
Network Control Office.
Neutral Central Office. Also sometimes called a "Telephone Hotel." A NCO is a neutral location owned by a party other than the ILEC (Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier). The third-party owner of the NCO provides a totally neutral environment in which various carriers , both incumbent and competitive, may lease space to terminate their transmission facilities and locate their various switches, multiplexers, and other equipment. A NCO is much like a Private Peering Point, in Internet terminology. See Carrier Hotel for a full explanation. See also Private Peering Point.
Network Code Of Practice.
In AT&T language, Network Control Point. A routing, billing, and call control data base system for DSDC which uses the AT&T 3B2OD computer as the feature processor.
In IBM language, Network Control Program, which is a program that controls the operations of the communication controllers, 3704 and 3705 in an IBM SNA network.
In Northern Telecom language, it means Network Configuration Process.
In Novell language, it means NetWare Core Protocol. It is NetWare's format for requesting and replying to requests for file and print services.
National Customer Product Support.
Originally National Cash Register, then called NCR Corp. AT&T acquired the company in 1991, and changed the name to AT&T Global Information Solutions (GIS) in January 1994. AT&T had grand plans to become a voice and data powerhouse, in both the equipment and network domains. It didn't work out that way. AT&T split into three companies on January 1, 1997. AT&T GIS was spun off and once again became NCR Corp. NCR is trying to regain its status as a leading manufacturer of data processing systems, ATMs and electronic cash registers.
National Cellular Resellers Association. A Washington-based trade association and lobbying organization which became the NWRA (National Wireless Resellers Association), which merged into TRA (Telecommunications Resellers Association) in 1997, which changed its name to ASCENT in 2000. See ASCENT.
Network Control System.
See National Communications System.
Network Computing System.
Network-based Call Signaling has been defined by CableLabs as the standard for telephony over HFC (Hybrid Fiber Coax) CATV cable plants. The NCS specification is a CATV- specific enhancement to MGCP (Media Gateway Control Protocol), which is the de facto standard for multimedia call control between the traditional PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) and IP-based packet networks. NCS serves as the core of the CableLabs PacketCable architecture. PacketCable is a fast-track initiative aimed at developing interoperable interface specifications for delivering advanced, real-time multimedia services over IP-based packet channels carved out of two-way CATV cable plants. PacketCable is built on the infrastructure set by CableLabs Certified, previously known as DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification), which sets standards for CATV modems and related network elements supporting high-speed Internet access over CATV networks. PacketCable includes specifications for call signaling, QoS (Quality of Service) control, PSTN interconnection, security, network management, codec support, billing event messages, and network announcements. The NCS signaling occurs between the Multimedia Terminal Adapter/cable modem (MTA) and the NCS Gateway (NCSG), which works as interface between the MTA and the Call Feature Server connected to the CATV network or PSTN. See also CableLabs, CableLabs Certified, CATV, MGCP, and PacketCable.
National Center for Supercomputer Applications. A supercomputer operations and research center located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The NCSA was one of the national supercomputer centers funded by the NSF (National Science Foundation). The six centers were interconnected over a network known as the NSFNET, which originally operated at 56 Kbps, and which was upgraded in 1987 to 1.544 Mbps (T-1) and to 45 Mbps (T-3) in 1989. The NSFNET was essentially disbanded in 1995, in favor of commercialization of the backbone network. See also NSF.
National Center for Supercomputer Applications Network. A regional TCP/IP network which connected users in Illinois, Wisconsin and Indiana. NCSANet was also a mid- level network in NSFNET, which has been abandoned . The NSF (National Science Foundation) decided to get out of the business of being an Internet backbone provider, in favor of allowing the commercialization of the backbone. See also NCSA and NSF.
National Cable Television Association. A trade organization representing U.S. cable television carriers.
Network Channel Terminating Equipment. The general name for equipment that provides line transmission termination and layer-1 maintenance and multiplexing, terminating a 2-wire U-interface. Another name for a CSU, a Channel Service Unit. Also called a Data Service Unit. A device to terminate a digital channel on a customer's premises. It performs certain line conditioning and equalization functions, and responds to loop back commands sent from the central office. A CSU sits between the digital line coming in from the central office and devices such as channel banks or data communications devices. FCC decisions have established that most NCTE is customer premises equipment (CPE) and may therefore, by supplied by third party vendors as well as the telephone company.
National Centrex Users Group .
A non-disclosure agreement is a signed formal agreement in which one party agrees to give a second party confidential information about its business or products and the second party agrees not to share this information with anyone else for some time ” sometimes as long as five years . NDAs are often signed when a company wants to sell something ” itself or a subsidiary and it doesn't want
NDAs tend to protect the company more than the individual signing the agreement. As a matter of practice, I've signed very very few NDAs. Most people will show me things because they trust me. Making me sign an NDA is not going to protect them much if I'm not trustworthy. I personally prefer trust and integrity to an NDA.
A non-disclosure agreement (NDA) is a signed formal agreement in which one party agrees to give a second party confidential information about its business or products and the second party agrees not to share this information with anyone else for a specified period of time. Translation...is promising not to tell anyone else what a lousy product, idea or business plan you have before you have a chance to cash in on the idea...
National Directory Assistance, or Nationwide Directory Assistance. A Directory Assistance that removes the need to know the area code of the target party in order to get the telephone number. The area codes are expanding and changing so frequently that it's difficult to keep up with them. A number of telephone companies are offering NDA services to help solve the problem. It's a huge business.
National Database Administration Center.
National Destination Code. A wireless telecommunications term. The second part of an MSISDN (Mobile Station ISDN) number. It is used to identify a PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) within a country.
Network Descriptive Database.
Network Design Engineering.
Network Driver Interface Specification. A device driver specification co-developed by Microsoft and 3Com and used by LAN Manager and Vines and supported by many network card vendors. Besides providing hardware and protocol independence for network drivers, NDIS supports both MS-DOS and OS/2. It offers protocol multiplexing so that multiple protocol stacks can coexist in the same host. NDIS is conceptually similar to ODI.
Network Data Mover, a delayed interface using the "Connect:Direct" transmission method. I don't know much about this term, but apparently it is a one-way street, may be somewhat error prone, and is being moved away from by the long distance industry as a means of transmission. See Connect:Direct.
Network Data Management Protocol.
Measured standard, no allowance.
Network Design Order. See Telephone Equipment Order.
See Network Design Request.
Novell Directory Services. According to Novell, NDS is a multiple-platform, distributed database that stores information about the hardware and software resources available on a network. It provides network users, administrators and application developers global access to all network resources. NDS also provides a flexible directory database schema, network authentication/security, and a consistent cross-platform development environment. NDS uses objects to represent all network resources and maintains them in a hierarchical directory tree. NDS was originally NetWare Directory Services, but it was changed about 1996 when Novell started to explore putting it on platforms other than NetWare. NDS is now available on a wide variety of platforms, including NetWare, Windows NT, Sun Solaris, Linux (several variants), OS/390, AIX, and Compaq Tru64 UNIX.
Non Dispersion Shifted Fiber is the earliest form of Single Mode Fiber (SMF) developed, and was a considerable improvement over MMF (MultiMode Fiber). NDSF generally runs in the O- Band , at about 1310nm (nanometers). When NDSF was first developed, it was discovered that signals suffered from chromatic dispersion, the phenomenon by which different colors (i.e., wavelengths ) of light travel at slightly different speeds. Since even the most tightly tuned laser light sources create signals composed of multiple wavelengths, each pulse of light contains components that travel at slightly different speeds. The portions of the light pulses that enter the cladding experience this phenomenon to a greater extent, as the cladding is much more pure that the core. Therefore, all signals travel at an accelerated rate through the cladding, and the impact of the phenomenon is more pronounced. The problem is exacerbated by waveguide dispersion, the phenomenon by which higher frequency (shorter wavelength) signals travel more in the cladding (and less in the core) than do lower frequency signals. NDSF runs in the 1310nm window (i.e., wavelength range), as chromatic dispersion and waveguide dispersion cancel each other at that wavelength. Dispersion Shifted Fiber (DSF) is an improvement over NDSF. See also Chromatic Dispersion, DSF, MMF, O-Band, SMF, Waveguide Dispersion, and Window.
No Dial Tone. Abbreviation often used on phone company repair orders by staff.
Direct inward dialing (DID) Trunk.
NetWare Directory Services. A feature of Novell's NetWare operating system which allows users to sign on to multiple NetWare servers through one simple sign-on. The ultimate idea is that NDS will become somewhat of a front-end sign-on to other networked devices, e.g. telephone systems, voice mail, electronic mail, Lotus Notes, etc. Sign on in one place, get into many. A big user time-saving benefit. A competitor to NDS is Microsoft's ODSI Open Directory Services Interface.
PBX Service, establish trunk group and provide first group.
Network Element. A single piece of telecommunications equipment used to perform a function or service integral to the underlying bearer network. In ATM networks, NE is a system that supports at least NEFs and may also support Operation System Functions/Mediation Functions. An ATM NE may be realized as either a standalone device or a geographically distributed system. It cannot be further decomposed into managed elements in the context of a given management function.
Network Engineering and Implementation. An area of responsibility in a telecommunications organization that identifies business processes and conducts activities that identify, plan, design, and construct network and system resources.
The originating end of a trunk circuit or connecting path .
NEXT. Interference from an adjacent channel. If crosstalk at the near end is great enough, it may interfere with signals received across the circuit. See NEXT for a full explanation.
NIC. The very fast quantizing of an analog signal into digital representation...and converting it back. See also Companding.
A storage term typically used as "near-line storage." A digital audio tape (DAT) might be considered near-line storage. A DAT would typically store a database of information sequentially. To find a record might take anywhere from three to 23 seconds. That's an eternity in most computer applications, but it may be adequate for finding something you rarely need to find ” maybe several times a year. Thus the concept "near-line" storage.
Not quite in real-time, but nearly so. Real-time involves the immediate processing of information as the transaction occurs. Near real-time is not immediate, but nearly so. Batch processing is neither , and may involve considerable delay.
A service with which a subscriber can watch a programmer- chosen video program at nearly any time. Usually implemented by showing a hot movie on several channels with staggering start times,. like every half- hour . Compare to Video-on-Demand.
A commercial Internet access service run by Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, MA.
Near End Block Error. See FEBE (Far End Block Error) for a full explanation.
New Equipment Building System.
Network Equipment Building Standards. NEBS defines a rigid and extensive set of performance, quality, environmental and safety requirements developed by Bellcore, the R&D and standards organization once owned by the seven regional Bell operating companies (RBOCs). NEBS compliance is often required by telecommunications service providers such BOCs (Bell Operating Companies) and Interexchange Carriers (IEC) for equipment installed in their switching offices. NEBS defines everything from fire spread and extinguish ability test to Zone-4 earthquake tests to thermal shock, cyclic temperature, mechanical shock , and electro-static discharge . Conforming to NEBS is not inexpensive.
Here is a more detailed explanation of NEBS: NEBS, Generic Equipment Requirement, is a subset of the Family of Requirements as published by Bellcore known as LSSGR, LATA Switching System Generic Requirement. Bellcore has published a technical reference (TR), TR-NWT-000063, Issue 5, 1994, which outlines the NEBS "standard." Bellcore states that the intent of this TR is to " inform the industry of Bellcore's view of the proposed minimum generic requirements that appear to be appropriate for all new telecommunications equipment systems used in central offices (CO) and other telephone buildings of a typical BCC (Bellcore Client Company)."
The requirements defined in this TR are broken into two major categories: 1) spacial requirements and 2) environmental requirements. Spacial requirements apply to the equipment systems' cable distributing and interconnecting frames , power equipment, operations support systems and cable entrance facilities. Compliance with these requirements is intended to improve the use of space in the CO, simplify building-equipment interfaces and help make the planning and engineering of central offices simpler and more economical. In general, the spacial requirements relate to the size and location of the equipment going into a CO, how to power it and how to cable it all together.
The second category relates to environmental requirements that define the conditions under which the equipment could potentially be exposed to and still operate reliably or not cause any catastrophic situation such as fire spread. These environmental requirements include temperature and humidity, fire resistance (which seems to be at the top of many BCCs' lists), shock and vibration (which covers transportation, office and earthquake), electrostatic discharge (susceptibility and immunity) and electromagnetic compatibility (emission and immunity). Bellcore has also defined test methods in this TR which provide procedures on how to test the equipment to ensure that it meets the requirement. See Bellcore.
See National Electric Code.
The National Electrical Code (NEC) is written and administered by the National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA). The latest 1990 version states that any equipment connected to the telecommunications networks must be listed for that purpose. Listing is acquired through Underwriters Laboratories (UL) or a similar approved lab. Listing requirements for premises wiring between the Network Interface Device and the modular jack at the work area took effect on October 1, 1990. See NFPNA 90A.
National Exchange Carrier Association. An association of local exchange carriers mandated by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission in 1983, in anticipation of the breakup of the Bell System. NECA's primary responsibility was to file new interstate access tariffs and to perform the " settlement " functions previously performed by AT&T and the BOCs (Bell Operating Companies). Under the direction of the FCC, NECA administers approximately $2 billion in annual revenues , based on pooled tariff rates. Through the pooling process, the LECs (Local Exchange Carriers) bill the IXCs (IntereXchange Carriers) for the use of their local exchange networks in originating and terminating long distance calls. Individual revenues and costs then are submitted to NECA, which distributes them to the member companies on an averaged basis. NECA also administers the Universal Service Fund (USF), the Lifeline Assistance Programs, and the Telecommunications Relay Services Fund. See also Division of Revenues, Lifeline Assistance Programs, Separations and Settlements, Telecommunications Relay Services Fund, and Universal Service Fund. www.neca.org.
Network Element Control Protocol. An Internet protocol which provides methods by which network elements (NEs) can learn about the capabilities and availability of services, and which provides hints as to which data flows can and cannot be serviced. Thereby, NECP allows intelligent NEs to perform load balancing across an array of servers, interception and redirection of data flows to transparent proxy servers, and cut-through of data flows to the origin in the event that the proxy servers cannot serve the data flows. See also Cache, Client, Proxy, and Server.
Nectar is a collaboration among Bell Atlantic/Bell of PA, Carnegie-Mellon University, the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center and Bellcore.
Sent by the Supervisor to go from node to node with instructions for setting up a virtual circuit.
A rapidly increasing group of people who are fascinated with computers but who do not necessarily have any scientific skills beyond getting the computer to boot up.
Network Element Function: A function within an ATM entity that supports the ATM based network transport services, (e.g., multiplexing, cross-connection).
A signal is negated when it is in the state opposed to that which is indicated by the name of the signal. Opposite of Asserted.
Amplification. The positive difference between stimulated and absorbed radiation.
NAK. A communications control character sent by a receiving station to indicate that the last message or block received was not received correctly.
Use of a notch filter, usually in cable systems, to trap out part of a signal and thereby deny the signal to non-subscribers.
Negligent is a condition in which you absentmindedly answer the door in your nightie.
Think about a voice conversation. We call someone. They answer. We say "Joe." They say "Harry." We've identified ourselves . We know each other so we choose the language we speak ” in this case English. This is a simple explanation of what two machines do when trying to speak with each other. When they first start talking, they query each other on speed, protocol, language, etc. etc. This is called "negotiation." For example, if one device is speaking slowly (the line is a slow speed one), the other device will drop (negotiate) its speed down. Here's a more technical explanation: Negotiation is the process whereby two end-points announce their speed (10/100 Mbps) and duplex value (Half/Full) and determine the best values for communication. For example, if a device is connected to an Internet switch port, the network card in the device and the Internet switch port negotiate their speed and duplex values. If the values are different, the lower values are used.
Negotiation also means getting the product or service you want at the price you want to pay. Books have been written on the art of negotiation. For me, the key is to go for the best deal. The worst that can happen is for them to say "NO." If you lose that deal, there's always a better one around the corner.
This term was coined by George Gilder after Nicholas Negroponte, founder of MIT's Media Lab. Negroponte predicted that the advent of personal wireless technologies would cause signals that historically traveled by wireless methods (broadcast television, for example) to "switch" to wireline technologies (such as CATV), and signals that historically traveled by wireline methods (telephone, for example) would switch to wireless (such as cell phones). Negroponte's prediction was based on considerations of efficiency ” cell -based wireless networks are much more efficient in spatial reuse of the spectrum than broadcast networks ” and business opportunity. Broadcasters/content providers seeking to "narrowcast" their content in order to collect more subscription revenues. The model holds up pretty well in developed countries, but less so in other countries where wireline network infrastructure (telephone or CATV plant) may not be as well-developed.
An ATM term. A node that is directly connected to a particular node via a logical link.
Network Element Layer: An abstraction of functions related specifically to the technology, vendor, and the network resources or network elements that provide basic communications services.
The lady who records the messages on Lucent's Audix voice mail system. She records her timeless messages at the Lucent Bell Labs in Denver. She lives in Oregon.
The software visionary who coined the term "hypertext" in a 1965 paper delivered to the Association for Computing Machinery. Extending the concept, Nelson proposed "zippered lists," whereby elements in one textual document would be linked to identical or related elements in other texts . Nelson also started Xanadu, a yet unsuccessful venture for the development of a system which would support the network sale of documents, or snippets of documents, with an automatic royalty on every byte. Nelson since has gone on to other things. See also Hypertext and Xanadu.
National Electrical Manufacturers Association. A trade association comprising over 500 member companies of the "electroindustry." NEMA develops and promotes positions on standards and government regulations, serves its members to acquire information on industry and market economics. NEMA publishes over 200 standards, which it offers for sale, along with certain standards originally developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). NEMA is organized into nine divisions: Industrial Automation, Lighting Equipment, Industrial Equipment, Electronics, Building Equipment, Insulating Materials, Wire and Cable, Power Equipment, and Diagnostic Imaging and Therapy systems. The Wire and Cable division specifically includes voice and data types used for internal premises wiring, and specifically excludes exterior telephone distribution cables. See also ANSI and IEC.
Network Management and Administration System.
Norwegian Board for Testing and Approval of Electrical Equipment.
National Emergency Number Association. A US non-profit organization promoting 911 as the standard emergency number, including technical support, public awareness, certification programs, and legislative representation. NENA's mission is to foster the technological advancement, availability, and implementation of a universal emergency telephone number system. In carrying out its mission, NENA promotes research, planning, training and education. The protection of human life, the preservation of property and the maintenance of general community security are among NENA's objectives. www.nena9-1-1.org.
Ted Rose works in a NEP for a large telephone company. His employer calls NEP a Network Entry Point. Mr. Rose explains, "We are not unlike the hub of a wagon wheel where data comes in from the two computer centers at DS1 and DS3 speeds. The equipment here breaks down those high speeds to both DS0 and DS1 speeds and then we feed that low speed data to Pacific Bell offices and garages to the people who are the users of the data that are customer facing . They would be the spokes of the wagon wheel."
See Noise Equivalent Power.
The National Environment Policy Act of 1969. An Act of Congress which requires federal agencies to take into consideration the potential environmental effects of a particular proposal such as construction of a radio station.
Basic unit of a logarithmic SCAL used for the expression of ratios of voltages, currents, and similar quantities .
Np. A method of expressing the ratio between two quantities (Q1, Q2). Np=log(to the base e)xQ1/Q2. One Neper equals 8.686 decibels.
Slang term coined in the 1950s for an unpleasant, unattractive, or insignificant person ” a square, or loser. It would seem that the term clearly was coined by people who considered themselves to be pleasant, attractive, or significant, i.e. winners. One theory traces the term it to a passage in Dr. Seuss' lesser-known 1950 children's book "If I Ran the Zoo." The thought is that Dr. Seuss probably got it from the U.S. Navy acronym NERD, which referred to Naval Enlisted Requiring Discipline, a term commonly used for sailors locked away in the brig. Another theory considers it a variation of the 1940s put- down "nerts to you," as in "nuts to you." Since a lot of nerds are now rich Cybergeeks, the term probably needs to be redefined. See also Geek, Nerb Bird and Nerdistan.
A slang term for the non-stop plane that flies between Austin, Texas and San Jose, California. Both these town are high tech centers, thus full of "nerds." See Nerd.
An upscale and largely self-contained suburb or town with a large population of high-tech workers employed in nearby office parks that are dominated by high-tech industries. Also any large collection of nerds. See Nerd and Nerd Bird.
To embed a set of instructions or a block data within another.
Novell Embedded Systems Technology. Software that Novell wants to put into cars , office machines, telephones and other noncomputer products. It is a variant of NetWare.
A list that is contained within a member of another list. Nesting is indicated by indentation in most Web browsers. When you create one list element within another list element in FrontPage, the new list element is automatically nested.
Literally putting one thing inside another. In the security business of IPSec, this refers to creating tunnels within tunnels by wrapping additional headers/ trailers around network packets.
The Internet. See Internet.
Normes Europeans de Telecommunication (European Telecommunications Standards).
Network Equipment Technologies.
A data communications network and processing service of AT&T that never got off the ground and was closed down at a cost of about $1 billion. At one stage it was called Advanced Communications Service.
A cellular term. The amount of new subscribers signing up for service after adjusting for disconnects (churn).
The location on a network where an addressee's mail is held, usually in storage until the user logs into the system. The system delivers the message at that time. The Net Address in the header of a message gives the information required by an automated message processing or message switch, to deliver a message to an intended addressee. A net address of RA3Y#SAIL would designate that the message was addressed to the user with the "Net Name" of "RA3Y" (pronounced "Ray". The 3 is silent) located at (signified by the symbol "#") the system in the network called "SAIL", in this case, the Stanford (University) Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
NCD. Part of Microsoft's Windows for Workgroups. Its purpose is to determine the network adapted installed in the workstation and minimize mistakes made by the user.
An inhabitant of Cyberspace. One usually tries to be a good net.citizen, lest one be flamed, i.e. insulted through e-mail.
NDT. The rate at which data is transferred on a communications channel, normally specified in bits per second.
See Operating Income.
A Windows NT term. For Window NT Server, performs authentication of domain logons , and keeps the domain's database synchronized between the primary domain controller and the other backup domain controllers of the Windows NT Server domain.
The signal loss encountered in a transmission facility or network, or the sum of all the losses the signal encounters on its way to its final destination.
Selling your kind power utility more power than it sells you. You do this by generating your own electricity using photovoltaic cells , a windmill or whatever and not using as much as you produce. Some states don't allow you net metering.
A Net Nanny program lets parents, guardians and teachers keep children from accessing pornographic material on the 'Net, while preventing the childrens ' personal information ” names , addresses, telephone numbers , etc. ” from being accessed.
Somebody sufficiently opinionated/flaky/with plenty of time on his hands to regularly post in dozens of different Usenet newsgroups, whose presence is known to thousands of people. See Internet.
Derogatory term for those who would impose their standards on other users of the Internet. Often used in vigorous flame wars (in which it occasionally mutates to net.nazis).
Another name for POP, or Point of Presence. See POP.
A call center term. The actual number of staff minus the required number of staff in a given period. Net staffing that is positive indicates overstaffing; net staffing that is negative, understaffing. See Net Staffing Matrix.
A call center term. A report that shows the actual number of staff, required number of staff, and net staffing for each period of a given day. See Net Staffing.
Radio station which broadcasts its programming over the Internet.
There's only one thing to know about the NetBEUI protocol ” install it. On any networked Windows PC, go to Networking/Properties/Install/Protocol/Microsoft NetBEUI. The reason? Windows machines networked to each other over Ethernet work better and more reliably when NetBEUI protocol is installed. This is irrespective of what Microsoft tells you about its machines happily using the TCP/IP protocol to talk to each other. IN fact they can. But TCP/IP seems to be unreliable in for communicating between PCs on a small local area network. NetBEUI stands for NetBIOS Extended User Interface. It was one of the earliest protocols available for use on networks composed of personal computers. It was designed around the Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) interface as a small, efficient protocol for use in department- sized local area networks (LANs) of 20 to 200 computers, which would not need to be routed to other subnets. Windows 2000-based NetBEUI, known as NetBIOS Frame (NBF), implements the NetBEUI version 3.0 specification. NBF is the underlying implementation of the NetBEUI protocol installed on a computer running Windows 2000. It provides compatibility with existing LANs using the NetBEUI protocol, and is compatible with the NetBEUI protocol driver included with previous versions of Microsoft networking products. In addition, NBF:
Uses the Windows 2000-based Transport Driver Interface (TDI), which provides an emulator for interpretation of NetBIOS network commands.
Uses the Windows 2000-based Network Device Interface Specification (NDIS) with improved transport support and a full 32-bit asynchronous interface.
Uses memory dynamically to provide automatic memory tuning.
Supports dial-up client communications with a remote access server.
Provides connection-oriented and connectionless communication services.
Removes the NetBIOS session number limit.
Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) is software developed by IBM. It provides the interface between a computer's operating system, the I/O bus, and the network; a de-facto network standard. NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) is the original personal computer networking protocol and interface designed by IBM for their LAN Manager server. NetBEUI implements the OSI LLC2 protocol and has a limitation of 254 session connections. Windows 2000 NetBEUI 3.0, also known as NetBIOS Frame Format Protocol (NBFP), is the Microsoft implementation of the IBM NetBEUI protocol. It eliminates the previous NetBEUI limitation of 254 sessions to a server and uses the Microsoft TDI layer as an interface to NetBIOS. See NETBIOS.
Network Basic Input/Output System. A layer of software originally developed by IBM and Sytek to link a network operating system with specific hardware. Originally designed as the network controller for IBM's PC Network LAN, NetBIOS has now been extended to allow programs written using the NetBIOS interface to operate on the IBM Token ring. NetBIOS has been adopted as something of an industry standard and now it's common to refer to Netbios-compatible LANs. It offers LAN applications, a variety of "hooks" to carry out inter-application communications and data transfer. Essentially, NetBIOS is a way for application programs to talk to the network. Other applications interfaces are also being used these days, such as IBM's APPC. To run an application that works with NetBIOS, a non-IBM network operating system or network interface card must offer a NetBIOS emulator. More and more hardware and software vendors offer these emulators. They aren't always perfectly compatible, though. Today, many vendors either provide a version of NetBIOS to interface with their hardware or emulate its transport layer communications services in their network products. See NetBEUI.
An emulator program provided with NetWare that allows workstations to run applications that support IBM's NetBIOS calls.
NBFP. See NetBEUI.
NetBSD is a free, secure, and highly portable UNIX-like operating system available for many platforms, from 64-bit AlphaServers and desktop systems to handheld and embedded devices. Its clean design and advanced features make it excellent in both production and research environments, and it is user-supported with complete source. Apple's operating system OS X is a variation of Unix. It was built on NetBSD, which is different than Linux. The original SunOS from Sun Microsystems was build from an earlier version of NetBSD as well.
NBT. NetBios over TCP/IP. A protocol supporting NetBIOS services in a TCP/IP environment, defined by RFCs 1001 and 1002.
A method used to deliver Web content automatically to the desktop. Netcasting is referred to as push technology because content is pushed from a Web site to those users who requested receipt of the content. Content can include weather forecasts, stock market quotes, or software updates.
A system that provides information on Customer Premises Equipment (CPE), location equipment, and contracts.
Network Dynamic Data Exchange, a feature of Microsoft Windows.
A white pages service which enables a person to query one service and have that service search other databases for addresses matching the originally entered query.
NetFX consortium is a group of companies that have come together to provide solutions for delivering real-time multimedia over the Internet's World Wide Web. The members are Diamond Multimedia Systems www.diamondmm.com, NETCOM www.netcom.com, SAIC http://merkury.saic.com/demo), Template Graphics Software www.sd.tgs.com/~template), and Xing Technology Corp www.xingtech.com).
Also spelled NET.GOD. A person very visible on a network and who played an important role in the development of the network.
Also spelled net.head. A person who like really loves the Internet.
A wonderfully cute name for a device that organizes data to hop from one local area network to another. Nethoppers are also called bridges and routers.
The home of the RIME network located in Bethesda, MD. All Super-Regional Hubs in the RIME network call the NetHub to exchange mail packets.
Network Information Table.
Network Interprocess Communications. Permits inter-CPU program sharing and allows programs running on different systems to exchange data through a set of program- matic calls. This peer-to-peer service is important for developing distributed applications.
A pun on "etiquette". Contraction for "Network Etiquette". It means proper behavior on Internet. Because the recipients of text-only messages cannot see your face or hear the inflections of your voice, special care must be taken to avoid misunderstanding and to convey the "flavor" that you intended your messages to have. Some common techniques are the use of smileys (also called emoticons): punctuation that suggests sideways faces, bracketed abbreviations like <g> for grin and <G> for Big Grin, and careful capitalization as in I AM NOW SHOUTING AT YOU!
A citizen of the Internet.
A private message transmission capability on FidoNet in which nodes directly communicate with one another on a point-to point (in FidoNet) or hub-routed (in PCRelay). NetMail was originally developed for use by SYSOPS to communicate with one another and is available on some BBs for regular users. See Echo.
A colloquial way of saying IP Address Mask. See IP Address Mask.