Master-Slave Replication

Master-slave replication is indeed replication, yet it satisfies an entirely different need than that of multimaster schemes. It does not provide the same availability and fault tolerance guarantees as do multimaster techniques. If there is one thing I hope you walk away from this book with, it would be "the right tool for the job" mentality. Despite the fact that master-slave replication is different from multimaster replication, it is vital that this difference not be interpreted as a weakness. It is a different tool with different applications, and there are many places where it is simply an excellent tool for the job at hand.

Changing the Scope of the Problem

Master-slave replication is a solution for a different problem. In this configuration, data modification may occur only at the master because there is no attempt to coordinate atomic transactions or view consistency between the slaves and their master. If you can't modify data at the slaves, what good are they? Clearly you can perform both simple and complicated read-only operations against the slaves.

By replicating authoritative data from a master to many slave nodes, you can increase the performance of read-intensive database applications almost linearly and sometimes super-linearly. How does this help with write-intensive applications? That is a complicated answer and depends heavily on the underlying replication technology used to push database modification from the master to its slaves. Understanding this will debunk some myths about the performance gains of master-slave replication systems.

Operation and Changeset Replication

When a database processes a request for data modification (commonly referred to as DML, which stands for data modification language), it does a bit of work behind the scenes.

The first step is to understand the question and what datasets are required to answer the question. This is the parsing and planning phase of processing DML. Because SQL is a complicated language that can consist of arbitrarily complicated queries that feed into the modification being performed, after the database arrives at a satisfactory plan to answer the question, it attempts to process it and apply the required changes. The changes are applied, or the operation is rolled back and the transaction is complete.

There are two common methods to replicate a master database to a set of slaves based on the preceding transaction flow. The first is to replicate the operationthat is, distribute the statement that resulted in the change to all the slave nodes and allow them to plan and then execute the operation to (hopefully) arrive at the same result. The second technique consists of tracking the actual data changes (called a changeset) and distributing the data that has changed to each slave. We will call the first DML replication, and the second DML log replication because the first replicates the actual data modification language, whereas the second replicates the log of what happened due to the data modification language.

One of these methods may seem much better than the other, and that is typically the case. However, half the population thinks DML replication is better, whereas the other half thinks DML log replication is better. Who is right?

Each of these techniques has trade-offs. After you have a clear understanding of your own problems, you can better match your issues to the trade-offs to arrive at the best solution.

To understand better where these techniques both excel and fall short, let's define four types of DML:

  • Cheap DML with small data changeThis would be a query such as UPDATE USERS SET LAST_LOGON=SYSDATE WHERE USERID=: userid, where the column userid has a unique index. It is computationally cheap and guaranteed to affect at most a single row.

  • Expensive DML with small data changeThis would be a query such as INSERT INTO REGISTRATION_SUMMARY SELECT TRUNC(SYSATE), a.CNT, b.CNT FROM (SELECT COUNT(*) AS CNT FROM USERS WHERE TRUNC(REG_DATE)=TRUNC(SYSDATE-1)) a, (SELECT COUNT(*) AS CNT FROM HITS WHERE TRUNC(HIT_DATE)=TRUNC(SYSDATE-1)) b. Although we could have an index on reg_date and hit_date, it still requires an index scan and could process millions of rows of data, all to insert just a single row. This is computationally expensive, and yet will never affect more than a single row.

  • Expensive DML with large data changeThis would be a query such as UPDATE USERS SET ACCESS='ineligible' WHERE USERID IN (SELECT USERID FORM HITS WHERE HIT_CODE='opt-out' MINUS SELECT USERID FROM PAYMENT_HISTORY WHERE STATUS='approved'), which may induce a massive data change and is relatively expensive to perform because we are revoking access to users who opted out but have never successfully purchased anything, and the HITS table could have a billion rows and PAYMENT_HISTORY tables could have several hundred thousand rows.

  • Cheap DML with large data changePerhaps the easiest to demonstrate are queries that are simple to calculate, but dramatic data-level changes ensue. Queries such as DELETE FROM HITS WHERE HIT_DATE < SYSDATE-30, which would delete all rows in a table older than 30 days, could induce multimillion row data changes with little or no computation effort by the database.

So, ask yourself which of the preceding examples characterizes the queries run against the database that you want to replicate. Expensive DML with large changesets and cheap DML with small changesets have similar costs under both replication modelsthey don't compel a choice one way or the other. It is difficult to ascertain whether you will spend more time planning and executing on the slave node than you would shipping over the changes and applying them directly.

On the other hand, the difference between the other two usage patterns is astounding. Cheap DML operations that result in massive data updates mean that you ship over the query and have the slave node delete or update a slew of rows (using DML replication), or you can ship over every single row that has changed as a result of the query and reapply each individually to each slave (using DML log replication). That sounds awful. However, you really should not be performing massive data changes on an online transaction processing (OLTP) data system. So, if you classify many of your queries in this category, perhaps you should revisit your queries and data model and determine a way to avoid them in the first place.

Expensive DML operations that result in small data updates mean that you spend hours on the master performing a query that ultimately changes a few rows of data and then ships that query to each slave so that they can perform several hours of computational mimicking to update the same few rows of data (using DML replay). However, using the DML log replay technique, the master spends several hours calculating the resultset (which is unavoidable) and then ships a few snippets of data change to the clients. If you classify many of your queries in this category, DML log replay is a huge win. However, just as with cheap DML with massive changes, this type of operation should be rare in a production OLTP environment.

So, where does that leave us? Both solutions are good. In my personal experience, changeset is more reliable and adapts more easily to cross-platform database replication (such as Oracle to PostgreSQL or Oracle to MySQL), which can be useful to get the best of all worlds.

Looking at Oracle

Oracle's primary method of master-slave replication is via changeset replication. As data is changed, the changes are shipped to slave instances and applied. This is commonly called applying archive redo logs. This means that if you have a write-intensive database usage pattern on the master node, the slave node will be able to keep up so long as there is sufficient network bandwidth to transmit the changes and sufficient I/O bandwidth on the slave to apply the changes. This makes Oracle's replication lackluster in the cases where cheap DML is applied, resulting in massive data updates. However, it is perfect for expensive DML that results in small data updates, meaning that if you run a lot of reporting and statistical aggregation on the master, the slaves can be much weaker machines and still have no issues "keeping up" with the master's replication needs.

Looking at MySQL

MySQL, on the other hand, has the concept of a binlog that stores every query that induced a data modification. This binlog is transferred to slave MySQL databases, and the operations are re-performed. This makes a million-row delete very quick to replicate to slaves, but it also means that if the updates were expensive to plan and execute, you will pay that cost on every single slave.

Some costs cannot be avoided, but some can. Simple updates with complicated where clauses that induce a nontrivial amount of load to execute are difficult to engineer around. However, the example for expensive DML with small data change that was used previously was an INSERT INTO SELECT . . . statement that would insert a single row. This type of load can be avoided on the slave nodes by splitting the queries into two. Because the binlog contains only queries that induce data modification, if the expensive SELECT is run in the application and then the result is inserted back into the database via a subsequent INSERT statement, the cost will be negligible on the slave nodes.


Given that most online transaction processing systems have many queries that are inexpensive and induce small data change, choosing between operation and changeset replication is really a "six to one, half-dozen to another" argument. As such, sticking to your existing database vendor is most likely a good approach unless your typical usage patterns unequivocally fall into one of the other two DML patterns.

In general on local area networks, network bandwidth and I/O bandwidth are cheaper than CPU cycles and memory. This makes changeset replication ideal for local clusters. For wide area replication where network bandwidth can easily be more expensive than CPU cycles and memory, operation replication makes more sense.

Scalable Internet Architectures
Scalable Internet Architectures
ISBN: 067232699X
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2006
Pages: 114

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