Section 13.1. Modifying a Script in the Toolkit

   

13.1 Modifying a Script in the Toolkit

Let's look at a typical task you'll often perform as part of your Oracle database administration duties : checking on the jobs scheduled via Oracle's built-in scheduling package, DBMS_JOBS. First, we'll see how DBAs typically check on these jobs by examining the DBA_JOBS data dictionary view. Then we'll take a look at a script we've developed to make your checking easier and more efficient. And finally we'll make a few modifications to that script and its supporting files in order to demonstrate how easy it can be to customize and extend the scripts in our toolkit.

13.1.1 The Standard Approach

The Oracle job scheduler is easy to use. You submit a PL/SQL job and Oracle runs it at specified intervals. Here's a short example that illustrates how it works:

  1. The ANALYZE_SCOTT procedure will analyze all of SCOTT's objects at 3:00 AM each morning. We create it like this:

     create or replace procedure analyze_scott is begin    dbms_utility.analyze_schema('SCOTT','COMPUTE'); end; / show errors procedure analyze_scott 
  2. Then we submit the job:

     declare    jobno integer; begin    dbms_job.submit(       job => jobno       , what => 'analyze_scott;'       , next_date => (sysdate + ( 1/1440))          /* Start in 1 min */       , interval => '(trunc(sysdate) + 1) + (3/24)' /* Then at 3AM */    );    commit; end; / 
  3. The following SQL on the DBA_JOBS view tells you which jobs are scheduled:

     select schema_user, job, last_date, next_date,  broken  ,         interval, failures, what   from  dba_jobs  order by schema_user, next_date; 
  4. Our newly created procedure appears like this:

     USER  JOB LAST DATE    NEXT DATE  B  INTERVAL    FAILURES  WHAT ----- --- ------------ ------------  -  ----------- --------  -------------- SCOTT  42 mar-17 15:50 mar-18 03:00  N  (trunc(sys         0  analyze_scott;                                        date) + 1)                                          + (3/24) 1 row selected. 

That's pretty easy. And if you're checking on only a handful of jobs in one or two databases, this approach works just fine. It becomes unwieldy, however, if you need to check a large number of databases on a regular basis.

13.1.2 Checking on Scheduled Jobs with the dba_jobsm.pl Script

We've provided a script in our toolkit that makes checking on scheduled jobs a lot more flexible and efficient. Using the dba_jobsm.pl script, you can check on several databases in succession and combine the output into a single report. The script can also email this report to us so we can easily scan it for BROKEN jobs. (A Y in DBA_JOBS's BROKEN column indicates that a job has failed 16 times or has been manually disabled via DBMS_JOB's BROKEN procedure.)

13.1.2.1 Configuring dba_jobsm.pl

The dba_jobsm.pl script is installed automatically when you install the toolkit (see Chapter 9). You'll find it in Perl's script installation directory. On Unix systems, this is /usr/local/bin/ (or another location, depending on your chosen install configuration). It will also be found in the PDBA installation directory:

PDBA-1.00/routine_tasks/dba_jobsm.pl

On Win32, you'll find the script as C:\Perl\bin\dba_jobsm.pl .

There is also a configuration file that stores the parameters for the dba_jobsm.pl script (see Example 13-1). On Unix, the dba_jobs.conf configuration file is:

PDBA-1.00/routine_tasks/dba_jobs.conf

On Win32 it is:

C:\Perl\site\lib\PDBA\conf\dba_jobs.conf
Example 13-1. dba_jobs.conf
 package dbajobs; use vars qw{ $emailAddresses %databases };    $emailAddresses = [qw{yourname@yourdomain.com}];    %databases = ( sherlock => { ts01 => 'system', },                watson => { ts98 => 'system', ts99 => 'system', } ); 1; 

The configuration file is very straightforward. It contains two hashes: one for the email address to which the final report will be sent, and one for the servers we wish to check, broken down by machine and database.

An example of a final report generated by this script is displayed in Figure 13-1; this particular example was generated with the -noemail option specified.

Figure 13-1. Output from dba_jobsm.pl
figs/pdba_1301.gif
13.1.2.2 dba_jobsm.pl: A walkthrough of the main script

The following may look daunting, but we thought we'd walk through at least one complete PDBA Toolkit script in this book, just to show you its low-level wiring. We expect that some readers will find sufficient inspiration in these pages (or frustration with our code) to decide to customize our scripts or create their own. When creating your own scripts, you can treat ours as something of an artist's palette from which you can cut and paste the elements you require.

With that rationalization out of the way, let's plunge into a no-holds-barred familiarization exercise before you embark on your own missions into no-man's-land. We'll focus on one group of lines at a time.

 01: #!/usr/bin/perl 02:  03: =head1 dba_jobsm.pl 04:  05:  like dba_jobs.pl, but connects to multiple servers 06:  as specified in the configuration file 07:  08: =cut 09:  10: use warnings; 11: use strict; 12: use PDBA; 13: use PDBA::CM; 14: use PDBA::GQ; 15: use PDBA::OPT; 16: use PDBA::ConfigFile; 17: use PDBA::LogFile; 18: use Getopt::Long; 
Line 1

Informs the command shell that this script runs with the /usr/bin/perl binary program. The #! shebang is recognized by Unix command shells as an identifier indicating which executable to run the script with. This magic cookie , as it's sometimes known, must be on line 1. On Win32 the #! line is simply treated as just another comment.

Lines 3 to 8

Inline documentation. (The perldoc FULL_PATH/dba_jobsm.pl command displays all of the documentation.) [2]

[2] (The perldoc -f function_name utility provides online documentation for all of Perl's hundreds of built-in functions.)

Lines 10 to 18

Specify the modules needed for this script:

use warnings

Makes Perl detect and flag program warnings as well as errors. Alternatively, use the -w flag switch on line 1. (We'll show an example a bit later.)

use strict

Enforces coding discipline. For instance, you must name package variables explicitly. (See Appendix A, for information about variable scoping.)

The next few lines load up the necessary PDBA Toolkit modules; these include the PDBA mother-ship module, the Connection Manager, the Generic Query module, the Options password retriever, the Config File loader, and the Log File creator. (See Chapter 9 for a discussion of all these modules.)

Line 20

Sets the date format for retrieving date columns from Oracle. (We'll say more about configuring this in a later section.)

Line 22

Declares our intended use of the %optctl hash.

Line 26

Sets the pass-through option for Getopt::Long . We can then specify extra options via the command line to pass through to PDBA::OPT . Example 13-2 demonstrates why we need this.

Example 13-2. passthrough.pl
 #!/usr/bin/perl -w    use Getopt::Long; my %optctl=(  );    Getopt::Long::Configure(qw{  pass_through  });  GetOptions  ( \%optctl, "  database  =s", "  username  =s",);    print join(":", @ARGV); 

The following script call processes the command line options created by GetOptions , including database and username , and leaves the -pwc_conf option and its argument in the @ARGV program parameters array printed by passthrough.pl :

 $ passthrough.pl -database orcl -username system  -pwc_conf test.conf   -pwc_conf:test.conf  

If you remove the pass_through directive, GetOptions raises an error, because the -pwc_conf flag is unspecified, unlike database and username .

 $ passthrough.pl -database orcl -username system  -pwc_conf test.conf   Unknown option: pwc_conf   test.conf  

Let's continue with the next group of lines in dba_jobsm.pl :

 28: GetOptions( \%optctl, 29:   "help!", 30:  "conf=s",  31:   "confpath=s", 32:   "logfile=s", 33:   "logcolumns!", 34:  "email!",  35:   "verbose!", 36:   "debug!", 37: ); 
Lines 28 to 37

Calls the GetOptions function from the Getopt::Long module, passing the expected command line option names and processing them as they appear on the command line. Those specified with =s , such as conf=s , require an argument. The following command makes Getopt::Long assign the string -logfile as the argument to -conf . This is because -conf explicitly requires an argument:

 $ dba_jobsm.pl  -conf -logfile  test.log Unknown exception from user code:      Could not load config file -logfile 

A configured exclamation point following a GetOptions parameter, such as email! , tells Getopt::Long the option is a Boolean switch (1 or 0). These options switch to false with a no prefix, as in dba_jobs.pl -conf dbatest.conf -noemail . (For much more on Getopt::Long , try perldoc Getopt::Long .)

  39: if ( $optctl{help} ) { usage(1) }  
Line 39

Employs the usage subroutine. We'll discuss this in lines 212-229.

Let's move on to the next group of lines:

 41: # config is required 42: my $configFile = $optctl{conf}  43:  ?  $optctl{conf}  44:  :  'dba_jobs.conf'; 
Lines 42 to 44

Determine which configuration file to use. If the expression before ? is true, the expression following ? is returned. If the expression before ? is false, the expression following : is returned. Therefore, if the -conf option value fills $optctl{conf} , line 43 assigns this value to $configFile . Otherwise, line 44 assigns it to a default of dba_jobs.conf .

 46: # load the configuration file 47: unless (  48:   new PDBA::ConfigLoad(  49:     FILE => $configFile,  50:     DEBUG => $optctl{debug}, 51:     PATH => $optctl{confpath}, 52:   )  53: ) {  54:   die "could not load config file $configFile\n";  55: } 
Lines 46 to 55

Load the configuration file. Lines 48 to 52 invoke PDBA::ConfigLoad 's new method, passing values for FILE, DEBUG, and PATH. The PDBA::ConfigLoad module ignores PATH if it is undefined or if it is an empty string. If the configuration file fails to load, the program exits on line 54 with a die command.

 57: # setup and open the log file 58: my $logFile = $optctl{logfile}  59:   ? $optctl{logfile} 60:   :  PDBA->pdbaHome . q{/logs/dba_jobsm.log};  61:  62: my $logFh = new PDBA::LogFile($logFile); 
Lines 57 to 60

Determine the name and location of the logfile. As with the configuration file, the name is supplied by the -logfile option. The default dba_jobsm.log file is placed in PDBA_HOME/logs directory. (Note that the forward slash is acceptable to Win32, which uses it internally anyway.)

Line 62

Creates a new PDBA::LogFile object, $logFh , and the program writes to this object handle when sending audit messages to the logfile.

 64: if (  $optctl{debug}  ) { 65:  66:   foreach my $machine ( keys %dbajobs::databases ) { 67:     print "machine: $machine\n"; 68:     foreach my $database ( keys %{$dbajobs::databases{$machine}} ) { 69:       print "\tdb: $database\n"; 70:       print         "\t\tusername: $dbajobs::databases{$machine}->{$database}\n"; 71:     } 72:   } 73:   exit; 74: } 
Lines 64 to 74

Execute only if the -debug program option is specified. Line 66 sets up a loop which iterates through each $machine in the %dbajobs::databases hash. This is loaded from the configuration file, with each machine, database, and username being printed to the screen.

 76: my $instanceName = undef; 77: my $machineName = undef; 78: my $systemDate = undef; 79: my $row = {}; 80: my $tmpFile; 
Lines 76 to 80

Simply declare some variables for later use.

 82: if ($optctl{email}) { 83:  84:   use POSIX; 85:  86:   if ( 'unix' eq PDBA->osname ) { 87:     $tmpFile = POSIX::tmpnam(  ); 88:   } else { 89:     $tmpFile = 'C:\TEMP' . POSIX::tmpnam(  ) . 'tmp'; 90:   } 91:  92:   print "TMPFILE: $tmpFile\n" if $optctl{verbose}; 93:  94:   open(FILE,"> $tmpFile")  die "cannot create $tmpFile\n"; 95:   select(FILE); 96:  97:   # reset the format and format_top names, as using select(FILE) 98:   # will cause Perl to look for FILE and FILE_TOP 99:   $~ = 'STDOUT'; 100:   $^ = 'STDOUT_TOP'; 101:  102: } 
Line 82

Gatekeeper for the next code body. It only runs if the -email flag was set.

Line 84

Loads the POSIX module because we need a temporary file for email formatting purposes later on.

Lines 86 to 90

Name this temporary file via the POSIX::tmpnam function. On Unix, this defaults to something like /tmp/fileiZZd123 . On Win32, POSIX::tmpname returns a \random_value. string. We want all of our temporary files stored in the same location on Win32, and we ensure this on line 89. If POSIX::tmpnam returns a filename of \wpo. , this is converted into C:\TEMP\wpo.tmp .

Line 94

Creates and opens the temporary file.

Line 95

Uses Perl's main select operator and sets the default output filehandle to be the temporary file. All write and print statements without specific filehandle parameters will now go to the temporary file.

Lines 99 to 100

Set the print format names for the write operator. The $^ built-in Perl variable sets the name for the header format. The $~ variable sets the equivalent for the body format.

You can avoid using built-in Perl variable names like $~ and $^ if you use the English module. This makes all such variables readable to English speakers :

 use English; # Use English names so your code won't # look like an obscure Klingon dialect! :-) $FORMAT_TOP_NAME = 'STDOUT_TOP';  # $~ $FORMAT_TOP = 'STDOUT';           # $^ 

For more information about such variables, invoke perldoc perlvar .

The default names for these are STDOUT and STDOUT_TOP , which is what our code uses too. The default usually works fine for console output, but when we changed our default filehandle to FILE the default formats changed too, into FILE and FILE_TOP . Because we still want to use STDOUT and STDOUT_TOP , we need to explicitly reset them both back again.

 104: foreach my $machine ( keys %dbajobs::databases ) { 105:  106:   foreach my $database ( keys %{$dbajobs::databases{$machine}} ) { 107:  108:     my $username = $dbajobs::databases{$machine}->{$database}; 109:  110:     # retrieve the password from the password server 111:     my $password = PDBA::OPT->pwcOptions ( 112:       INSTANCE => $database, 113:       MACHINE => $machine, 114:       USERNAME => $username 115:     ); 
Line 104

Begins the loop where the real work begins. As with line 66, this line begins looping through the machines defined in the configuration file.

Line 106

Iterates through each database as defined for each machine.

Line 108

Retrieves the current loop iteration's DBA username.

Lines 111 to 115

Retrieve the password for the username from the password server. (You could modify the dba_jobsm.pl script to avoid using the password server, but this would require a fair amount of work and would also necessitate giving up all the security and ease-of-use the server delivers. However, we will demonstrate how this is possible in a later section.)

 117:     # create a database connection 118:     my $dbh = new PDBA::CM( 119:       DATABASE => $database, 120:       USERNAME => $username, 121:       PASSWORD => $password, 122:     ); 123:  124:     $dbh->do(qq{alter session set nls_date_format = '$nlsDateFormat'}); 
Lines 117 to 122

Create the database connection via PDBA::CM 's Connection Manager. One of the advantages of using PDBA::CM , rather than DBI, is the use of the cm.conf configuration file. This contains a default ORACLE_HOME value that sets the $ENV{ORACLE_HOME} environment variable, making it unnecessary to set the Oracle environment before running a script.

Line 124

Sets NLS_DATE_FORMAT for your current database session.

 126:     # get the host and instance name 127:     my $gn = new PDBA::GQ($dbh,'v$instance'); 128:     my $gnHash = $gn->next; 129:     $instanceName = $gnHash->{INSTANCE_NAME}; 130:     $machineName = $gnHash->{HOST_NAME}; 131:     undef $gn; 132:     undef $gnHash; 133:  134:     print "Instance Name: $instanceName\n" if $optctl{verbose}; 135:     print "Host Name: $machineName\n" if $optctl{verbose}; 136: 137:     # get the system date 138:     $systemDate = PDBA->sysdate($dbh, NLS_DATE_FORMAT => $nlsDateFormat); 139:     print "System Date: $systemDate\n" if $optctl{verbose}; 
Line 127

Uses PDBA::GQ to execute a SQL statement of select * from v$instance . The PDBA::GQ module also prepares the SQL statement. Because we failed to specify any columns, it assumes we want all of them. To select specific columns you can use PDBA::GQ like this:

 my $gn = new PDBA::GQ($dbh,'$v$instance',     {  COLUMNS => [qw(host_name instance_name)]  } ); 
Line 128

Retrieves the first row from query object $gn via PDBA::GQ 's next method. Its default return value is a hash reference. On lines 129 and 130 we assign $instanceName and $machineName . The sharp-eyed among you may be wondering why we haven't followed line 128 with the following:

 $gn->finish; 

All open cursors must be finished before database disconnection. Fortunately V$INSTANCE only holds one row, so the $gn cursor finished automatically.

Lines 131 to 132

Undefine $gn and $gnHash , as we're done with them in this particular loop iteration and we should clear them out before the next one.

Line 138

Sets $systemDate to the current database SYSDATE value.

 141:     my $gq = new PDBA::GQ ( $dbh, 'dba_jobs', 142:       { 143:         COLUMNS => [ 144:           qw(schema_user job last_date next_date                       interval failures what), 145:           q{round(total_time,2) total_time}, 146:           q{decode(broken,'N','NO','Y','YES','UNKNOWN') broken}, 147:         ], 148:         ORDER_BY => q{schema_user, next_date} 149:       } 150:     ); 
Line 141

Begins a complex instantiation of a database query via PDBA::GQ .

Line 143

Begins specifying the columns to include in the query.

There is a difference between the q{} and qq{} operators. They're identical in use to either single quotes ( ` ') or double quotes ( " " ) in Perl. Variables only interpolate within the qq{} braces. For instance, let's run the following code:

 my $str = 'this is Earth calling'; print qq{$str\n}; print q{$str\n}; 

The second printed line remains uninterpolated:

 this is Earth calling $str\n 

The use of these and other quoting functions such as qw{} makes Perl code formatting much plainer to the eye. Check out perldoc perlop for much more detail.

Lines 145 to 146

Perform column manipulation. We use Oracle's ROUND function to format TOTAL_TIME, and its DECODE function to return YES or NO from the BROKEN column, rather than Y or N (see Figure 13-1).

Line 148

Supplies the ORDER BY clause to the SQL query.

 152:     # print the column names in the log 153:     my $colHash = $gq->getColumns; 154:     $logFh->printflush( 155:       join('~', ( 156:           $machine, $database,  157:           map {$_} sort keys %{$colHash} 158:         ) 159:       ) . "\n") if $optctl{logcolumns}; 
Line 153

Uses PDBA::GQ 's getColumns method to return the SQL query's column names into the hash reference, $colHash , in this kind of form:

 $colHash = { 'BROKEN' => 8,              'LAST_DATE' => 2,              'FAILURES' => 5,              'TOTAL_TIME' => 7,              'WHAT' => 6,              'JOB' => 1,              'INTERVAL' => 4,              'NEXT_DATE' => 3,              'SCHEMA_USER' => 0 }; 
Lines 154 to 159

We need to consider these lines together. Line 159 allows the printing of columns only if the -logcolumns option was included on the command line. We want these column names printed in the database specified order. That's what line 157 does with the map function. The columns retrieved into $colHash have no particular order, because hashes lack any guarantee as to the order in which keys are stored (see Appendix A). To get them in the $gq query order, we employ a little Perl magic. We sort the keys into alphabetical order, we then map them to an array, and then join all of these elements together with the machine and the database strings to form a ~ delimited superstring. To read about these functions, try the following:

 $ perldoc -f map $ perldoc -f sort $ perldoc -f join 161:     while ( $row = $gq->next({}) ) {  162:       $logFh->printflush(  163:         join("~", ( 164:             $machine , 165:             $database , 166:             # the map function is used to place all values from the 167:             # $row hash ref into an array.  The ternary ?: operator 168:             # is used with 'defined(  )' to avoid warnings on undefined 169:             # values.  These occur when a NULL is returned from a  170:             # SQL statement 171:             map { defined($row->{$_}) ? $row->{$_} : '' }                      sort keys %$row 172:           ) 173:         ) . "\n" 174:       );  175:       write;  176:     } 
Lines 161 to 185

Retrieve the data from our query object. Line 161 retrieves a row at a time into the hash reference, $row .

Lines 162 to 174

Begin the process of retrieving the query data. The column values in the $row hash reference are printed to the logfile. Notice the use of Perl's defined operator, which traps potential NULLs.

Line 175

Consists of a write statement. We'll come back to this at line 231.

 178:     $dbh->disconnect; 179:  180:     # set number of lines on page left to 0 181:     # forcing a form feed 182:     $- = 0; 183: 184:   } 185: } 
Line 178

Terminates the connection to this database before the next loop.

Line 182

Issues a form feed via the $- built-in Perl variable. This is known as $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT , if you use English.pm , and it's the number of lines left on a page of the currently selected output channel.

 187: if ($optctl{email}) { 188:  189:   #email here 190:   close FILE; 191:   select(STDOUT); 192:  193:   open(FILE, "$tmpFile")             die "cannot open $tmpFile for read - $!\n"; 194:   my @msg = <FILE>; 195:   close FILE; 196:   my $msg = join('',@msg); 197:  198:   my $subject = qq{DBA Jobs Report For All Servers}; 199:  200:   unless ( PDBA->email($dbajobs::emailAddresses,$msg,$subject) ) { 201:     warn "Error Sending Email\n"; 202:   } 203:  204:   unlink $tmpFile; 205:  206:   $logFh->printflush(("report mailed to ",            @$dbajobs::emailAddresses, "\n")); 207: } 208:  209:  210: ## end of main  
Line 187

Follows the main loop exit. If -email was set, we execute the following code body.

Lines 190 to 191

Close the FILE opened earlier and reset STDOUT to be the default output filehandle.

Line 193

Opens the temporary email file, which has been filled by the write function on line 175 (we'll discuss write formats later at line 231).

Lines 194 to 196

Read the entire contents of this temporary file into the @msg array before closing the file. Line 196 then creates the scalar $msg , from @msg , by joining all of its elements together, including their embedded newlines.

Line 198

Creates the email $subject header.

Lines 200 to 202

Mail the recipients designated in the dba_jobs.conf configuration file via the PDBA module's mail method.

Lines 204 to 206

Remove the temporary file and write one last audit message, with line 210 marking the end of the main program section.

13.1.2.3 dba_jobsm.pl: A walkthrough of functions and formats

We've finished looking at the main logic of the script. Now we've reached the script's functions and print formats. Just for orientation, you might like to revisit line 39 in the main program to check its context before looking at the usage subroutine:

 39: if ( $optctl{help} ) { usage(1) } 

The usage routine is called when the -help command option is flagged. It accepts one argument, $exitVal , read in at line 213. The usage subroutine outputs a help message, then exits Perl with $exitVal returned to the command shell as the error code:

 212: sub usage { 213:  my $exitVal = shift;  214:   use File::Basename; 215:   my $basename = basename( 
 212: sub usage { 213:  my $exitVal = shift;  214: use File::Basename; 215: my $basename = basename($0); 216: print qq/ 217: usage: $basename 218: 219: -help show help and exit 220: -conf configuration file ( needed for email ) 221: -confpath path to configuration file ( optional ) 222: -logfile logfile - may include path ( optional ) 223: -logcolumns include column names in logfile 224: -email send email to users in config file 225: -verbose verbosity on 226: 227: /; 228:  exit $exitVal;  229: }; 
); 216: print qq/ 217: usage: $basename 218: 219: -help show help and exit 220: -conf configuration file ( needed for email ) 221: -confpath path to configuration file ( optional ) 222: -logfile logfile - may include path ( optional ) 223: -logcolumns include column names in logfile 224: -email send email to users in config file 225: -verbose verbosity on 226: 227: /; 228: exit $exitVal; 229: };
Lines 214 to 215

Determine the name of the current script with File::Basename . Even if the script's name changes, $basename remains correct.

Lines 216 to 227

Use Perl's qq// operator to print the help information. The use of qq// is much neater than a series of print statements and much easier to edit.

Line 228

Exits the program.

 231: no warnings; 232: format STDOUT_TOP = 233:  234:                                   DBA Jobs Status 235: Database: @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< 236: $instanceName 237: Machine : @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< 238: $machineName 239: Date    : @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< 240: $systemDate 241:  242: SCHEMA                                                 TOTAL                              FAIL 243: USER         JOB LAST DATE        NEXT DATE             TIME BROKEN       INTERVAL        URES WHAT 244: ---------- ----- ---------------- ---------------- --------- ------       --------------- ---- ------------------------- 245:  246: . 247:  248:  249: format STDOUT = 250: @<<<<<<<<< @#### @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< @######## @<<<<<       ^<<<<<<<<<<<<<< @### @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< 251: $row->{SCHEMA_USER}, $row->{JOB}, $row->{LAST_DATE},       $row->{NEXT_DATE}, $row->{TOTAL_TIME}, $row->{BROKEN},       $row->{INTERVAL}, $row->{FAILURES}, $row->{WHAT} 252: ~~                                                                        ^<<<<<<<<<<<<<< 253:                                                                           $row->{INTERVAL} 254: . 
Line 231

Begins the print formatting section for the earlier write command:

 175:       write; 

A no warnings call is made at line 231 to prevent Perl from overreacting to acceptable difficulties such as NULL values returning from Oracle.

Lines 232 to 246

Create the STDOUT_TOP header format, which appears at the top of each page. Perl formats use literal text, variables, and field holders to determine how data will be printed (with much of the original layout borrowed from FORTRAN and the nroff program). You can learn more about Perl formats by invoking:

 $ perldoc perlform 
Line 235

Contains the literal text of `Database: ' followed by a field holder of @<<<<<<<<<< . This tells Perl that the print data should be left justified.

Lines 242 to 244

Print the literal text of the column names.

Line 246

Terminates the STDOUT_TOP format with a period.

Lines 249 to 253

Define the STDOUT body of the report.

Line 254

Terminates the STDOUT format and brings us to the end of the script.

13.1.3 Modifying the dba_jobsm.pl Script

By now you should have a good understanding of the structure and logic of the existing version of the dba_jobsm.pl script and its dba_jobs.conf configuration file. Now let's talk about how you might want to modify the script and file to provide some code flexibility. In addition to showing specific modifications for this particular case, the following sections should give you the background necessary to be able to examine and modify additional scripts to suit your own requirements.

13.1.3.1 Configuring parameters

The first change we'll make involves Oracle's NLS_DATE_FORMAT, a setting used within the database to set the default format in which date column data will be returned. This format is currently hard-coded into the script at line 20:

 20: my $nlsDateFormat = q{yyyy/mm/dd hh24:mi}; 

If we ever want to change this value, we'll have to edit the script each time. It's much better to specify this value as a configurable item in the dba_jobs.conf configuration file. So let's comment out line 20 of the script with a # hash character as follows:

 20:  #  my $nlsDateFormat = q{yyyy/mm/dd hh24:mi}; 

Now find lines 124 and 138. They look like the following:

 124:$dbh->do(qq{alter session set nls_date_format =  '$nlsDateFormat'  }); ... 138: $systemDate = PDBA->sysdate($dbh, NLS_DATE_FORMAT =>  $nlsDateFormat  ); 

You need to change these lines to this:

 124: $dbh->do(qq{alter session set nls_date_format =  '$dbajobs::nlsDateFormat'  }); ... 138: $systemDate = PDBA->sysdate($dbh, NLS_DATE_FORMAT =>  $dbajobs::nlsDateFormat  ); 

Save the dba_jobsm.pl file and open dba_jobs.conf . Now we'll add an entry for NLS_DATE_FORMAT. We've displayed the relevant code snippet that adds the $nlsDateFormat variable. Notice that this variable name has also been added to the use vars statement. Doing so prevents use warnings from raising a message about the single use of a variable.

 package dbajobs;    use vars qw{ $emailAddresses  $nlsDateFormat  %databases };  $nlsDateFormat = q{yyyy/mm/dd hh24:mi};  $emailAddresses = [qw{yourname@yourdomain.com}]; ... 

Now simply run dba_jobsm.pl to test it. Be sure to change the value of the $nlsDateFormat variable so you can verify the results.

13.1.3.2 Adding passwords to the configuration file

Although we encourage you to use the password server, we'll show you how to work around it just in case you're unable to use it for some reason. While putting passwords in configuration files is workable , it is both a security risk and more work to maintain. However, given those caveats, let's begin with the configuration file by creating data constructs that can hold DBA passwords as well as usernames:

 package dbajobs; use vars qw{ $emailAddresses $nlsDateFormat %databases }; $nlsDateFormat = q{yyyy/mm/dd hh24:mi}; $emailAddresses = [qw{yourname@yourdomain.com}];    %databases = ( sherlock => { ts01 =>  [qw{system manager}]  , },                watson =>   { ts98 =>  [qw{system manager}]  ,                               ts99 =>  [qw{system manager}]  , } ); 1; 

The DBA user and its password are placed inside array references. The user is element 0 of each array reference, and the password is element 1.

Now it's time to change the script. Open dba_jobsm.pl and locate the following lines:

 15: use PDBA::OPT; ... 70:       print         "\t\tusername: $dbajobs::databases{$machine}->{$database}\n"; ... 108:     my $username = $dbajobs::databases{$machine}->{$database}; ... 111:     my $password = PDBA::OPT->pwcOptions ( 112:       INSTANCE => $database, 113:       MACHINE => $machine, 114:       USERNAME => $username 115:     ); 

Change these lines so they appear like those in Example 13-3:

Example 13-3. Results of changes to dba_jobsm.pl for password usage.
 15:  #  use PDBA::OPT;    --- Commented out, array references used below! :-) ... 70:       print         "\t\tusername: $dbajobs::databases{$machine}->{$database}  [0]  \n"; ... 108:     my $username = $dbajobs::databases{$machine}->{$database}  [0]  ; ... 111:     my $password = $dbajobs::databases{$machine}->{$database}  [1]  ; 112:  #  INSTANCE => $database, 113:  #  MACHINE => $machine, 114:  #  USERNAME => $username 115:  #  ); 

Once again, run the script to validate the changes.

   


Perl for Oracle DBAs
Perl for Oracle Dbas
ISBN: 0596002106
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2002
Pages: 137

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