Section 12.6. Building Packages

12.6. Building Packages

In this section, you explore the PEAR package system from the inside, learning how to build your own packages and how to make the most out of the installer. Following is an example package containing a PHP class, a command-line script, a regression test, and a package description file.

12.6.1. PEAR Example: HelloWorld

This is the minimal example, a single PHP source file implementing a class called HelloWorld:

 <?php /**  * Hello World class.  The ubiquitous example.  * @package HelloWorld  */ class HelloWorld {     function HelloWorld($html = true)     {         if ($html) {             print "Hello, World!<br />\n";         } else {             print "Hello, World! \n";         }     } } HelloWorld.php 

Here is a command-line script called "hello" for demonstration:

 #!/bin/sh exec php -d output_buffering=1 $0 $@ <?php ob_end_clean(); require_once "HelloWorld.php"; $hello = new HelloWorld(false); hello 

It is a good idea to write regression tests for your classes sooner rather than later. This example regression test verifies that the HelloWorld constructor's $html parameter works like intended:

 --TEST-- HelloWorld test --FILE-- <?php include dirname(__FILE__).'/../HelloWorld.php'; new HelloWorld(false); new HelloWorld(true); ?> --EXPECT-- Hello, World! Hello, World!<br /> HelloWorld.phpt 

A .phpt file is split into sections that start with a single line containing --SECTION--. The following sections exist (see Table 12.2).

Table 12.2. Test Section Headings




Short description of the test.


Actual test code.


The exact output that the test code should print.


Expected output with some placeholders.


Regular expression matching expected output.


HTTP GET variables (for example, a=foo&b=bar).


HTTP POST variables; same format as GET.


If this code snippet prints "skip," the test is not executed but marked as skipped.


Command-line parameters; space-separated.


Php.ini directives; directive=value, one per line.

The sections marked with "*" are required; the rest are optional. The EXPECTF section uses these placeholders (see Table 12.3).

Table 12.3. EXPECTF Placeholders




Platform directory separator, typically "/" or "\"


Any string (not greedy)


Any integer


Any positive integer


Any hexadecimal positive integer


Any floating-point number


Any single character

To package this class into a proper PEAR package, you need a package description file called package.xml:

 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <!DOCTYPE package SYSTEM ""> <package version="1.0">   <name>HelloWorld</name>   <summary>Simple Hello World Package</summary>   <description>     This package contains a class that simply prints "Hello, World!".   </description>   <license>PHP License</license>   <maintainers>     <maintainer>       <user>ssb</user>       <role>lead</role>       <name>Stig S. Bakken</name>       <email></email>     </maintainer>   </maintainers>   <release>     <version>1.0</version>     <state>stable</state>     <date>2004-04-24</date>     <notes>       First production release.     </notes>     <filelist>       <file role="php"    name="HelloWorld.php"/>       <file role="script" name="hello"/>       <file role="test"   name="01-HelloWorld.phpt"/>     </filelist>   </release> </package> 

A comprehensive reference of all the XML elements of the package description format is found in "The package.xml Format" section later in this chapter.

12.6.2. Building the Tarball

With these two files (HelloWorld.php and package.xml), you can create a package tarball with the pear package command:

 $ pear package Analyzing HelloWorld.php Package .../HelloWorld-1.0.tgz done Tag the released code with 'pear cvstag package.xml' (or set the CVS tag RELEASE_1_0 by hand) 

The message about tagging the released code reminds package maintainers who work on the CVS server to just ignore it for now.

HelloWorld-1.0.tgz is your package tarball. This file may be installed with the pear install command on any machine that has a PEAR installer.

If you do not have zlib support in your PHP build, the created package tarball will not be compressed, and the file name would be "HelloWorld-1.0.tar." Compressing it with an external gzip program will work in this case.

12.6.3. Verification

Use the pear package-validate (or pear pv) command to validate that your tarball is good:

 $ pear pv HelloWorld-1.0.tgz Validation: 0 error(s), 0 warning(s) 

Validation fails if

  • You have defined symbols that are outside your package's namespace.

  • Required elements are missing in package.xml.

  • Dependencies are bad.

  • The file list is bad or missing.

Another way to verify that your package tarball works as you intend is to use the pear info and pear list commands:

 $ pear info HelloWorld-1.0.tgz ABOUT HELLOWORLD-1.0 ==================== Provides        Classes: Package         HelloWorld Summary         Simple Hello World Package Description     This package contains a class that simply prints                 "Hello, World!". Maintainers     Stig S. Bakken <> (lead) Version         1.0 Release Date    2004-04-24 Release License PHP License Release State   stable Release Notes   First production release. 

The info output quickly reveals if something went wrong with the tarball creation:

 $ pear list HelloWorld-1.0.tgz CONTENTS OF HELLOWORLD-1.0.TGZ ============================== PACKAGE FILE             INSTALL PATH HelloWorld.php           /usr/local/lib/php/HelloWorld.php hello                    /usr/local/lib/php/hello tests/01-HelloWorld.phpt -- will not be installed -- 

Check the install path of each file and make sure it is what you intended. If a file ended up in the wrong location, go back to your package.xml file and set the baseinstalldir attribute in the <file> element for that file.

You should also install and uninstall it for a final verification and to ensure that the install/uninstall scripts are working. If your package uses the platform attribute in one or more <file> elements, you should repeat the same procedure for at least one platform that the "platform" rule matches, and for at least one that it does not match.

12.6.4. Regression Tests

Testing involves two things:

  • Installing and uninstalling the package to verify that the package scripts, if any, work and to finally test that the tarball is good

  • Running package regression tests with pear run-tests

This means we need to make a regression test for our HelloWorld package. These tests use PHP's ".phpt" format; here is an example:

 --TEST-- HelloWorld test --FILE-- <?php include dirname(__FILE__).'/../HelloWorld.php'; new HelloWorld(false); new HelloWorld(true); --EXPECT-- Hello, World! Hello, World!<br /> 

The --FOO-- lines mark the start of different sections. The .phpt format defines these sections:

  • TEST. Title of the test.

  • SKIPIF. PHP code (must start with <?php) run to determine whether the test should be executed at all. The test is skipped if this code prints skip.

  • FILE. PHP code that comprises the test itself.

  • EXPECT. The expected output of the PHP code in the FILE section.

  • GET. HTTP GET input variables (for example, foo=bar&ya=da, which requires CGI binary).

  • POST. Raw HTTP POST data (same format as GET data), which requires CGI binary.

The pear run-tests command looks for files with the ending ".phpt" in the current directory, or subdirectories called "tests."

    PHP 5 Power Programming
    PHP 5 Power Programming
    ISBN: 013147149X
    EAN: 2147483647
    Year: 2003
    Pages: 240 © 2008-2017.
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