The following typographical conventions are used in this book:
Used to indicate new terms, example URLs, filenames, file extensions, directories, commands and options, Unix utilities, and to highlight comments in examples. For example, a path in the filesystem will appear in the text as /Applications/Utilities.
Used to show functions, variables, keys, attributes, the contents of files, or the output from commands.
Constant width bold
Used in examples and tables to show commands or other text that should be typed literally by the user.
Constant width italic
Used in examples and tables to show text that should be replaced with user-supplied values.
Menus and their options are referred to in the text as File Open, Edit Copy, etc. Arrows are also used to signify a navigation path when using window options; for example: System Preferences Accounts username Password means that you would launch System Preferences, click the icon for the Accounts preference panel, select the appropriate username, and then click on the Password pane within that panel.
Pathnames are used to show the location of a file or application in the filesystem. Directories (or folders for Mac and Windows users) are separated by a forward slash. For example, if you're told to "...launch the Terminal application (/Applications/Utilities)," it means you can find the Terminal application in the Utilities subfolder of the Application folder.
The dollar sign ($) is used in some examples to show the user prompt for the bash shell; the hash mark (#) is the prompt for the root user.
Used in place of a carriage return.
These icons signify a tip, suggestion, or a general note.
These icons indicate a warning or caution.
When looking at the menus for any application, you will see some symbols associated with keyboard shortcuts for a particular command. For example, to open a document in Microsoft Word, you could go to the File menu and select Open (File Open), or you could issue the keyboard shortcut, -O.
Figure P-1 shows the symbols used in the various menus to denote a keyboard shortcut.
Figure P-1. These symbols, used in Mac OS X's menus, are used for issuing keyboard shortcuts so you can quickly work with an application without having to use the mouse.
Rarely will you see the Control symbol used as a menu command option; it's more often used in association with mouse clicks to emulate a right click on a two-button mouse or for working with the bash shell.