Chapter 7. Combining Documents into Books

CONTENTS
  •  Why Build a Book
  •  Overview of a Book File
  •  A Word About Planning
  •  Organizing and Managing Book Files
  •  Going Bookwide
  •  How Numbering Works in a Book
  •  Updating File Information
  •  Solving Book File Errors
  •  Summary

Organizing and maintaining long documents is a necessary part of the documentation process. In the same way that chapters make up a book, smaller document files can make up one larger document. Small document files typically consist of chapters or sections, front matter such as title page and preface, table of contents, appendixes, and an index. FrameMaker's book features provide the capability required to combine the various files that make up a book. Regardless of how many files you want to include in a book, you'll appreciate being able to work in a single document window while viewing or making changes to the overall organization of the document files that make up the book.

FrameMaker's book features bring many productive tools to the table, such as the ability to produce a single table of contents or index based on the smaller set of documents files, as well as applying a variety of settings to some or all of the document files in the book at one time.

In this chapter, you discover the benefits of building book files in FrameMaker through examples such as creating a new book file, working with a variety of commands across some or all the files included in the book, understanding how numbering works, and updating numbering, cross-references, text insets, or generated files with up-to-date information.

Why Build a Book

The benefits of book building in FrameMaker all add up to making some tasks in the document production process an easier and more streamlined operation for you to perform. While you'll always work with document files individually to include content, apply formatting to paragraphs and customize other elements, book building provides the means to work with a collection of document files as one unit and implement an imposing array of features.

While you work with a FrameMaker book file, here are a few tasks that you can use to your advantage:

  • Open, close, save, and organize files from a central location

  • Apply various commands or settings to one or more files

  • Page through the entire book

  • Produce the table of contents or another list

  • Using Spelling Checker and Find/Change across all files

  • Specify Numbering Properties

  • Print or save to PDF

Working with FrameMaker book files does not require that you have a real book. In other words, you don't have to be working on a software manual or another multi-chapter document to use these powerful book features. For example, if you were working on a stand-alone document file (such as a 75-page report) that grew too large in size because of intensive graphics or tables, you could easily split that file into two smaller files and use FrameMaker's book features to work with the two files as one unit.

Book files are not just for "books" per se. They can be used for any document files that are part of a bigger picture that you want to treat as one unit for the purpose of managing or applying certain FrameMaker commands.

Overview of a Book File

Before getting started with book building, it's a good idea to understand some basics about a book file because you will be working with it most of the time while performing book functions. A book file is not like a document file; it's a file that simply contains a list of filenames that are included in the book. The book file holds the key to particular settings and organization information for each file included in the book, as well as the ability to perform certain commands such as Find/ Change and Spelling Checker for one or more files contained in the book.

Back to Basics

Book file settings override individual file settings.

After you create a book file and add some document files to the book, your Book File window might look similar to Figure 7.1.

Figure 7.1. Working with the Book File window.

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As you can see, the files included in the book are listed in the Book File window. If you click once on any file in the list, the status area displays the page numbers that file comprises in relation to the entire book. That page number is also displayed in the current page numbering style for that particular document file. If you select more than one document file, the status area displays the full page range of the selected files. If certain files restart page numbering or differ in numbering style, the page numbers are displayed in sets (in their native style), separated by commas.

Back to Basics

You can select more than one document file from the Book File window by holding down the Ctrl key and clicking on the desired files.

You can quickly execute commonly used commands with the four icons located on the lower right of the window. Table 7.1 provides a description of each Book File window icon.

Table 7.1. Book Window Command Icons

Command

Icon

Description

Display Heading Text/Display Filenames

 

Toggle between the actual name of the file or the heading text of the first heading displayed in a document.

Update Book and Generate Lists and Indexes

 

This one command combines two separate operations. First, Update Book supplies numbering, referenced files, cross-references, page numbering, and page type with the most recent or correct information. Next, the Generate operation creates a variety of lists that you have included in the book file, such as table of contents, indexes, or other lists, and subsequently refreshes the source information included in each of those files.

Add File to Book

 

Use this to add one or more document files to the current book file.

Delete Selected File from Book

 

Use this to delete selected files from the book list. Be certain that you want to delete a file from the book before clicking on this button. You will not see a dialog window asking, "Do you really want to do this?" Keep in mind that when using this button, you are only deleting the file from the book list, and not the file itself.

A Word About Planning

Although a book file allows you to manage all the files included in a book from a single window, you should still keep those files organized on your hard drive. For example, if you have a book file, 10 document files, and 1 table of contents, keeping all those files (and any referenced files, such as figures) in one folder on your computer disk helps you to manage those components. This is especially true if you plan to move the files to another location at a later time, whether it be to a CD, network server, or some other location on your local computer. Imagine if you had 10 document files in 10 different folders on your hard drive and referenced figure files in yet another location. If you were to move the files, it wouldn't be easy to gather all the files from various locations and maintain the correct file path for the book file to locate each file. By keeping all the ingredients of your book in one location, the file path isn't broken, and moving one folder to another location ensures that the path to each file contained in the book remains intact.

Another consideration is the file-naming conventions that you need to use for document files. For example, suppose that you created FrameMaker files with long filenames and included those in a book file. Next, you moved the book file and its components to another computer that's not configured to read filenames with so many characters. The result: Each filename becomes truncated on the disk, and the book loses its connection to each file because the filenames no longer match the filename in the book file list.

With this in mind, use file-naming conventions that work on most computing platforms, regardless of how they are configured.

Organizing and Managing Book Files

Tip

graphics/07icon05.gif Save the book file after you make any changes. The asterisk indicates that the file has not been saved since the last change.

A FrameMaker book is the glue that holds its components together and your best friend in organizing and managing a set of files. This section explores the features that contribute to the physical organizing and managing of files within a book, before moving on to understanding the details of particular settings for individual files contained therein.

Getting Started with a Book File

Every book in FrameMaker starts with a book file. If you are reading this chapter, you have probably either created or worked with a FrameMaker template to contain the content of your document and are ready to combine those documents into a book file. The first step in building a book is to create the book file. Whether or not you have another FrameMaker document open, here is how to create a book file:

  1. Select File > New > Book.

    A new, untitled Book window displays. If no documents are open when you create the book, the untitled Book window remains empty. If a document is open and active when you create the book, the message "Do you want to add the file, 'filename.fm', to the new book?" is displayed. If you select Yes, this file is automatically added to the book list. If you previously created a stand-alone table of contents for this document file, the table of contents is automatically added with the document file (without warning).

  2. From the Book window, select File > Save (or Save As.)

    The Save Book window appears. Navigate to the location on your hard drive where you want to save the book file. Usually, this is the same location where you plan to put all the components of your book.

  3. Type the new book name in the File Name text field. Click on Save.

    Be sure to maintain the .book extension. The new book file is saved in the location with the name that you type. The .book filename extension indicates that this is a book file. If you look at the file icon on your computer (see Figure 7.2), you notice that the book file icon is slightly different from a FrameMaker document file icon. Do not change the filename extension, as the book file can become unusable.

    Figure 7.2. The difference between a book and document file icon.

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Adding Document Files to a Book

With the Book File window active, you can add the document files that you want to include in the book. From the Book File window, here's how to do it:

Tip

graphics/07icon06.gif You can use this button on the Book window task bar to add files.

  1. Use the menu to select Add > Files.

    The Add Files to Book window appears.

  2. Use the file folder navigation tools located at the top of the window to navigate to the folder that contains the files you want to add to the book.

    The list of files contained in the folder appears.

  3. Click one time on a file to select it, Shift-click to select multiple consecutive files or Control-click to select multiple non-consecutive files (see Figure 7.3). Click the Add button.

    Figure 7.3. You can add files to the Book window.

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Back to Basics

You do not have to open the files to add them to the book.

You are returned to the Book window and the files that you added are included in the book file list. If included files are contained in a folder other than the folder containing the book file, the full path to the file will be displayed.

Sometimes, it's easier to find the files that you want to include in the book on your computer desktop (using the File Folder window) and just drag the files into the Book window. Using this method is as good as using the Add File command. Before you drop files into the Book window, arrange the windows so that both the FrameMaker Book window and the File Folder window that contains the files are in plain sight.

The files that you added to the book list might or might not be in the correct order. You correct that a little later in this section by using the Rearrange command.

Adding Non-FrameMaker Files

You can add document files, such as a Microsoft Word file, to the book. After the file is added to the book list, just double-click its name to open the file in its native application. Of course, you must have that native application installed on your computer for that to work. Although non-FrameMaker files can be included in the book list, they are ignored during FrameMaker book file updates or applying of other settings, such as formatting or numbering options.

Adding a Table of Contents or Another List

As you have seen so far, adding document files to a book is simple. If you plan to add a table of contents or other lists such as a list of figures, tables, or an index, it requires more thought and planning on your part. Table of contents and other lists are generated files in FrameMaker. FrameMaker creates this type of file based on some parameters and rules that you set up. For example, after the file, such as a table of contents, is initially created, you can decide what elements of the source information you want to include and determine the format and page layout of the file.

This section discusses how the table of contents works in relation to the book file.

Note

To learn more on creating, setting up, and formatting table of contents and other lists, see Chapter 8, "Creating Tables of Contents and Other Lists."

To learn details on Index lists, see Chapter 9, "Indexing."

The first time that you add a table of contents to a book file, while the name of the file exists in the book list, the file itself doesn't exist on disk until you update/generate the book file at least once. In other words, if you add the table of contents to the book file list for the first time and attempt to open that file by double-clicking on its name in the list without first updating/generating the book file, you see the message "File named filenameTOC.fm does not exist."

Fortunately, after adding this special type of generated file, FrameMaker prompts you to update the book before continuing. Although I explore updating books in the section, "Updating File Information," take a brief look at this command in this section to see how everything works together when adding generated files, such as a table of contents.

This example begins from the Book File window:

  1. Select Add > Table of Contents.

    The Set Up Table of Contents window appears (see Figure 7.4).

    Figure 7.4. The Set Up Table of Contents window.

    graphics/07fig04.gif

  2. Use the drop-down list next to Add File to position the file before or after the currently selected file in the book list.

    When the table of contents is added to the book file, the order is as you selected with the Add File drop-down list. Don't be concerned if you don't make the correct order selection at this time. You have the opportunity at any time to rearrange files in the book list and update the information in the book based on the new arrangement.

  3. Double-click paragraph tags in the Don't Include list that you want to be included in the table of contents (see Figure 7.4).

    The paragraph tags you select move to the Include Paragraphs Tagged list on the left. The result: The source information of the paragraph tags you selected are included in the table of contents.

  4. Click once on Hypertext Links.

    A check is included next to Create Hypertext Links. When the table of contents is created, hypertext links are included for each list item, which enables you to jump from the list item to the source information in one click. To learn more, see the section "Using Hypertext Links" on page 253 in Chapter 8.

  5. Click the Add button after you finish.

    The Update Book window appears (see Figure 7.5). When the table of contents or other list filename is included in the Generate list and Generate Table of Contents, Lists, and Indexes is checked, the table of contents is created the first time. If just one or the other condition is true, the table of contents won't be created. If so, and you try to open the table of contents file, you see the "File does not exist" message.

    Figure 7.5. The Update Book window.

    graphics/07fig05.gif

  6. Click on the Update button.

    The table of contents is added to the book file. The filename automatically becomes the same as the book file, with a TOC suffix (such as filenameTOC.fm).

Rearranging Files

Order is important in a book file. For example, if you add three files to the book, when you update the book file, the page and paragraph numbering is applied to the new files according to the order they appear in the book list.

Regardless of the order in which you added the files to the book list, you can easily organize the list of files at any time during the book-building process. To rearrange your files, do the following:

  1. Click and hold once on the filename that you want to move.

  2. The filename is highlighted.

  3. While you hold down the mouse button, move the file to the correct location in the list (see Figure 7.6).

    Figure 7.6. You can rearrange files at any time during the production process.

    graphics/07fig06.gif

  4. When you move the cursor arrow, you see a line indicating where you are moving the file, as well as a marque that indicates that you are moving the file.

  5. Release the mouse button.

    The file moves to the new location in the book list. You must update the book file to include the new organizational information throughout the files.

Deleting Files

You might have discovered a file that was added in error, or simply not needed in the book file. Here's how to delete any file from the book list:

  1. Click once on the filename to select it.

    The file is highlighted in the list.

  2. Select Edit > Delete File from Book.

    The selected file is deleted from the book list. Although this file no longer is included in the book list, it still exists as a file on disk. You have not deleted the file from the disk.

Tip

graphics/07icon07.gif You can use the Delete icon as shown in the Book File window. Or, you can right-click on the file to display the floating menu.

Moving File Locations and Renaming Files

When you work with many files that make up a book, relocating or renaming of files can occur. This section reviews the do's and don'ts for moving and renaming files.

Moving Files

Among FrameMaker's many slick features, keeping track of file movement is not one of them. If you have a few files in a book and you move one of those files from its current folder location, the book file no longer is able to find that file because the original path is the only location that is stored in the book file.

Back to Basics

Cross-references to moved files will not work after the path to the source information is lost.

Figure 7.7 shows what a book file list looks like if the path to a single file is broken in any way. Notice the icon next to the filename, "walking.fm", changed to a generic question mark icon. That's a sign that the book can no longer locate a file for one reason or another. If you were to double-click on that file in the list to open it, the message shown in Figure 7.7 appears.

Figure 7.7. The Filename icon for files that cannot be found.

graphics/07fig07.gif

You can avoid the lost file problem if you move individual files from their original location to another by doing the following:

  1. Manually delete the original filename from the Book File window.

  2. Add the filename (in its new location) to the book file.

Renaming Files in the Book List

One of the best ways to rename files that are included in a book file is from the Book File window. Alternatively, you have the option of changing the filename from the file folder location or using Save As from the document's File menu. Changing the filename from the file folder produces the same result as moving the file location, which was previously discussed. If you use Save As, you have to delete the original filename from the Book window and add the new filename.

Instead, rename files from the Book File window. You'll enjoy the following advantages that are not produced when renaming files using the other discussed methods:

  • The filename is changed in both the book list and on computer disk (hard drive).

  • Cross-references, hypertext links, and text insets throughout each file included in the book update based on the new filename information.

To rename a file from the Book window, follow these steps:

  1. Click once on the filename that you want to rename.

    The filename is highlighted.

  2. Select Edit > Rename File.

    A marque appears around the filename that you selected in the list (see Figure 7.8).

    Figure 7.8. The Rename File from Book window.

    graphics/07fig08.gif

  3. Type the new filename and then press Return or Enter (or click elsewhere in the list).

    An alert message appears that displays information about additional updates FrameMaker can perform behind-the-scenes based on the filename change. These changes include updating cross-references, hypertext links, and text insets to reflect the new filename, as well as the filename change to disk.

  4. Click OK.

    FrameMaker makes those changes displayed in the alert message.

Tip

Attention Windows users: You can right-click the mouse to get floating menu selection.

If you have a large number of files, cross-references, hypertext links, and text insets throughout the book, this operation might take a few minutes to update. Be patient while your computer does the work.

The Dreaded Error Message

One of the biggest problems you might run into while performing this operation is the alert message that begins with "Some book components can't be opened or can't be saved." This happens because FrameMaker internally opens each file contained in the book to introduce the changes that have been discussed. If one of those files has a problem, FrameMaker cannot internally open the file and, hence, the alert message appears. Here are a few reasons why this might happen:

  • Imported graphics or other reference files are missing (for any reason).

  • Fonts are unavailable for a particular file.

If this happens to you, don't dismay. First, open all the files in the book (or at least the files causing the problem). Rename that file from the book list. Because the files are already open, FrameMaker can then update each file without running into error messages. When you open each file individually, you can see any error messages and bypass them.

Renaming the Book File

As you fill up the Book File window with document files and generated files such as lists, you might decide to change the name of that book file to something more meaningful. Changing a filename is an effortless task that you have no doubt done numerous times for other files. Although it's also effortless to rename a book file, you must be aware of a few quirks.

The least problematic method to change the name of a book file is to first open the folder that contains the book file. Click the name of the book file to make it editable, type the new name, and press Enter or Return.

Here's a question: What happens if generated files are part of the book list, contain the default name (same name as the book file, such as runguide.book or runguideTOC.fm), and you use the Save As method to change the book's filename?

As you learned, when adding any type of generated file to a book, that file has the same name as the book file but a different suffix. For example, if your book file is named runguide.book, the table of contents is runguideTOC.fm, and a list of figures is called runguideLOF.fm.

Take a look at what happens if you use Save As to change the name of the book file, using the example of runguide.book. Suppose that you change the name to runningstart.book. Then the table of contents' name in the list automatically changes to runningstartTOC.fm. However, that has nothing to do with the original table of contents you created and saved to disk. Only the name in the list changes, just as if you added a new table of contents to the book file. In fact, if you double-click on this new filename, you see the "File does not exist" error message. If you end up in this situation, you need to import the formats from the table of contents that you previously created and saved to disk (if it has already been structured and formatted) in order for this new table of contents to look correct both in structure and format.

On the other hand, if you change the name of the table of contents to something other than the original default name of runguideTOC.fm, the name of that table of contents in the book list will not change when you use Save As to rename the book file to runningstart.book.

Take a look at how that would work. If you have runguide.book, and therefore runguideTOC.fm, first change the name of the table of contents to runTOC.fm from the Book window. Now rename the book file using Save As. The runTOC.fm remains as it is and you avoid the problem altogether.

Opening, Closing, Printing, and Saving Files

The Book File window is the place where you manage and organize your files. Therefore, the most efficient way to open, close, print, and save files included in your book is from the Book File window.

Take a quick look at the alternative. Suppose that you want to print each file included in the book. You could open each file individually from the disk and print each one. Although that works fine for a couple of files, it's an astronomical undertaking when you work with 20 or 30 files that comprise a book. Or, suppose that you want to open the first 10 files that make up the book. You could search for the filenames of those document files and open each one individually, or you could work from the Book window and accomplish the same task in less time.

The following options are performed with the book file:

  • Open. Double-clicking a single file in the Book window opens it. Alternatively, click once on the file and press Enter. To open all the files at once, hold down Shift and select File > Open All Files in Book. To open several, but not all the files, select the files that you want to open and press Enter.

  • Close or Save. With one or more files open, hold down Shift and select File > Close All Files in Book or Save All Files in Book. If you use this method to save your files, you get an added bonus in that the book file is also saved.

  • Print. Use one of two methods to print. From the Book list, select the files that you want to print, and then select File > Print Selected Files. Or, to print the book, Select File > Print Book.

Tip

From the book file list, Shift-click for multiple consecutive selections, and Control-click for multiple, non-consecutive selections.

Going Bookwide

After the document and generated files are collected in the Book window, you can experience this collection as one unit rather than individual parts. This is just one area where FrameMaker really distinguishes itself from the "other guys."

You'll appreciate harnessing this power to make large-scale changes, such as View or Format settings, to one or more selected files or perform a spell check and find/change to some or all files right from the Book window.

If you manage a large number of documents that comprise a book, paging through the book from the first page to the last, without having to physically open individual files, is just another feature that you can enjoy.

This section explores some of the tasks that you can perform to all the files and discover how to use these effectively for one or more selected files in the book. I don't go into detail on individual commands, such as Spelling Checker, but rather how to use the command with a book file. After you understand how to use these commands within a book file, you can transfer that knowledge to using any of the book-wide commands (although every one of these isn't reviewed).

Moving Around the Collective Document

Among the many tasks included in the document production process is checking and rechecking each page for content and formatting accuracy. After any number of files is included in the book list, you can page through the entire book from beginning to end just by using the Page Down key on your keyboard or the arrows located at the bottom of the FrameMaker document window. From the book file, here's what you can expect:

  1. Click once on the first file in the book list, and press Enter or Return (or double-click the filename).

    The first file opens.

  2. Use the arrows to page through to the end of the first-opened document. Browse the document using any method with which you are comfortable. When you get to the last page, use the Page Down key on your keyboard, or the Page Down arrow in the FrameMaker document window.

    If you began this exercise with files in the book closed, once you reach the last page, you are prompted to open the next document in the book list (see Figure 7.9).

    Figure 7.9. The Open Next File window.

    graphics/07fig09.gif

    If the next document in the book list is already open, no message appears. The next page (which is the first page of the next document) is displayed.

  3. Click Yes to proceed to the next document in the book list (if that document was closed).

    The next document in the list opens. If there are any missing graphics or unresolved cross-references, you are prompted in the usual manner.

Find and Find/Change

If you want to perform a Find, or Find/Change, you have the option to search across selected files in a book, or the entire book. The files on which you plan to perform the Find/Change do not have to be open when you initiate this command:

  1. Select one or more files in the Book window.

    The selected files are highlighted.

  2. Select Edit > Find/Change.

    The Find/Change window appears.

  3. Select the Selection radio button next to Look In (see Figure 7.10).

    Figure 7.10. The Find/Change window for a book file.

    graphics/07fig10.gif

    The Selection radio button is highlighted. The Find/Change is performed on the files that you have selected in the book list, whether it is one file or several. Each selected file opens, and you can use Find/Replace as you always do.

If you plan to use Find/Replace on all the files in the book, just select the Book radio button, which is located next to Look In. Regardless of how many files you select in the book file list, the search is conducted throughout the entire book, beginning with the first file.

Spelling Checker

Spell-checking all the files in a book is a breeze. Using the Spelling Checker as you normally would:

  1. Select one or more files in the Book window.

    The selected files are highlighted.

  2. Select Edit > Spelling Checker.

    The Spelling Checker window appears.

  3. Select the Selection radio button under Check (see Figure 7.11).

    Figure 7.11. The Spelling Checker window for selected files in a book.

    graphics/07fig11.gif

    The Selection radio button is highlighted. The Spelling Checker is performed on the files that you selected in the book list, whether it's one file or several files. Use the Spelling Checker as you normally do for each file.

Tip

Alternatively, you can spell-check all the files in a book by selecting the Book radio button instead.

You get the benefits of spell-checking your book even when you're not initiating this command from the Book window. Suppose that you have a book file open in the background, and you have opened one of the document files in the list and are viewing the body pages of that document. If you decide to spell-check this file, you will see the option to check the Book, Document, or Current Page in the Spelling Checker window (see Figure 7.12), even though you are in an individual file that happens to part of the book that is currently open.

Figure 7.12. The Spelling Checker option for the entire book.

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Changing the View Options

Among the many handy features for FrameMaker book files is the ability to change the View options for one or more files included in the book. Here's a simple example: Say that you are working in a book file that contains 20 files, all with text symbols turned off. Suppose that you want text symbols turned on in each of those files. You could open each file and make that change. But that's tedious, because there are so many files. To change your View options the easy way, follow these steps:

  1. Select the files in the book list that you want to change.

    The files are selected.

  2. Select View > Show Text Symbols.

    Text symbols are turned on for all the selected files in the list. If some of the selected files already have text symbols turned on, the text symbols remain on.

The next time you open each individual file, the text symbols are turned on.

Importing Document Formats

While in a book file, File > Import > Formats offers the opportunity to import formatting information from a FrameMaker template (or any FrameMaker file) to one or more files included

in the book. This is especially helpful if you decide to make formatting changes that must be introduced in each file in the book. You can make those changes to one FrameMaker file and import selected formats to all the files at once.

Use Import Formats as you always do to import one or more formatting selections:

  • Paragraph formats

  • Character formats

  • Page layouts

  • Table formats

  • Color definitions

  • Documents properties

  • Reference pages

  • Variables definitions

  • Cross-reference formats

  • Conditional text settings

  • Math definitions

Keep in mind that importing formatting information is not always a magic bullet. FrameMaker merges formatting information into each individual document that you select. If formatting information is the same (for example, a paragraph tag has the same exact name), that information overwrites current information. You might have to go into each file and correct any formatting faux pas that can happen during an Import Format.

It's time to examine the steps required to import formatting information to one or more files in your book:

  1. From the Book file, select only those files to which you want to import formatting information.

    The files are selected in the list. In this example, only walking.fm, jog.fm and run.fm are selected (see Figure 7.13). runguideTOC.fm isn't included in the import formats update.

    Figure 7.13. You can import formats to selected files in your book.

    graphics/07fig13.gif

  2. Select File > Import > Formats.

    The Import Formats window appears.

  3. Select the source document from the Import from Document drop-down list.

    The source document is selected. This document contains the formats that you want to import into other files included in the book. The source document must be open in order to show up in the Import From Document drop-down list.

  4. Click a check box next to formatting information that you want to import into documents.

  5. Click Import.

    The selected formatting information imports into all the selected files in the book list.

Back to Basics

If a check mark appears next to an item that you do not want to import, just click once on that check box to clear the check mark.

Depending on how many, and how large each selected file is, this procedure can take a few seconds or a few minutes. During the import procedure, the status bar of the Book window offers a glimpse of the current update status.

How Numbering Works in a Book

To start the numbering discussion, you first need to understand one primary rule about numbering in book files: Numbering at the book level, that is, changing the settings of individual files from the Book window, always overrides numbering settings that were introduced in an individual file. With that said, it's time to delve in and unravel the mysteries of Numbering Properties at the book level.

Note

To learn more about creating and using automatic numbering in individual files, see Chapter 3.

Overview of Numbering Properties

Document numbering properties, whether at the individual or book level, are made of six components: volume, chapter, page, paragraph, footnote, and table footnote. Each of these components offers a subset of properties to control various settings unique to each component.

Back to Basics

From a book file, select Format > Document > Numbering to access Numbering Properties.

The following is a brief explanation of each of these. To learn more detail, see page 47.

Volume

Click on the Volume tab in the Numbering Properties window to access the Volume settings for a particular document. You need this property only when paragraph autonumber formats, headers or footers, cross-references, or page numbers include the <$volnum> Building Blocks.

Chapter

Click on the Chapter tab in the Numbering Properties window to access the chapter settings for a particular document. You need this property only when paragraph autonumber formats, headers or footers, cross-references, or page numbers include the <$chapnum> Building Blocks.

Page

Click on the Page tab in the Numbering Properties window to access its settings. Use this property to set the starting page number, page numbering style, or a particular document to continue page numbering based on the previous file.

Paragraphs

Click on the Paragraphs tab in Numbering Properties to access its settings. You use this property only when document files contain paragraph autonumber formats that include the placeholder or counter Building Blocks <n> and <n+>, and their counterparts in other numbering styles. If you use a combination of <$chapnum> and these placeholder Building Blocks, you must use the Numbering Properties settings for both Chapter and Paragraph.

Footnote

Click on the Footnote tab in Numbering Properties to change the numbering style of footnote, set a particular number, start over, continue numbering from the previous file, or read from the original file settings.

Table Footnote

Click on the Table Footnote tab in Numbering Properties to access the setting that enables you to either change the numbering format style (such as numeric, alphabetic, Roman, or custom) or read from the original file settings.

Book Level Numbering Example

Numbering settings at the book level provide information about how individual files relate to the file that came before it. For example, if a file is second in the book list, does the page numbering continue based on the previous file's last page, or does the page number start over again at page 1? If this same file has a chapter number, does the chapter number automatically increment based on the previous file chapter number, or does this chapter number begin with 1 or some other number? Consider these items when you set up files that are contained in a book.

After you have a book file in place, with included document and generated files, you can see the overall organization and flow of the files at once (see Figure 7.14). To illustrate how numbering works at the book level, you must explore the setup of these files in the Book window.

Figure 7.14. The overall organization of files in a book.

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Take a look at your book file to determine a plan of attack. What do you want to happen, with regard to numbering, in these files? Using the example, review the plan illustrated in Figure 7.15 for how numbering should work in this book, with regard to chapter, paragraphs, and page numbers.

Figure 7.15. How numbering should work for files in a book.

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Setting Up Each File in the Book

After you determine an overall plan, the next step is to set up various numbering settings for each file. The following sections break down this exercise by filename, and discuss each file's requirements and setup at the book level. To set up each file in the book, click once on the filename, then select Format > Document > Numbering.

titlepg.fm

titlepg.fm is the first file that appears in the book and contains the title page followed by a blank page. Because no page numbers appear on these pages, nor chapter or paragraph numbering, no specific setup is required for this file.

runguideTOC.fm

runguideTOC.fm is the second file that appears in the book and uses small Roman numeral page numbering. This file follows the title pages, which, although not numbered, take up two pages. Therefore, the table of contents begins on page iii, continuing where titlepg.fm left off. Figure 7.16 shows the Numbering properties for the table of contents.

Figure 7.16. The Numbering Properties for the table of contents.

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walking.fm

walking.fm is the third file and the first chapter in the book. This file uses Arabic numerals, begins on page 1, and uses both the chapter number and paragraph numbering, both starting at 1. Therefore, you must set up the Chapter, Paragraph, and Page Numbering properties, as shown in Figure 7.17.

Figure 7.17. The Numbering Properties for the first chapter file.

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jog.fm

jog.fm is the fourth file and the second chapter in the book. This file uses Arabic numerals, continues page numbering following the last page of the previous chapter, and uses both the chapter number and paragraph numbering. The chapter number increments from the chapter number in the previous file, while the paragraph numbering begins at 1.

Tip

If you use chapter-based page numbering that is, each chapter starts the page numbering over at 1, as in 2-1, 2-2, 2-3 you would set the First Page # to 1.

Therefore, you must set up the Chapter (refers to 2), Paragraph (refers to the number 1 in subhead, figure, and table), and the Page Numbering properties (see Figure 7.18).

Figure 7.18. The Numbering Properties for the second chapter file.

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run.fm

run.fm is the fifth file and the third chapter in the book. This file uses Arabic numerals, continues page numbering following the last page of the previous chapter, and uses both the chapter number and paragraph numbering. The chapter number increases by 1 based on the chapter number in the previous file, while the paragraph numbering begins at 1.

Therefore, you must set up the Chapter (refers to 3), Paragraph (refers to the number 1 in subhead, figure, and table captions) and the Page Number properties, as shown in Figure 7.19.

Figure 7.19. The Numbering properties for the third chapter file.

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runguideIX.fm

runguideIX.fm is the sixth and last file that appears in the book. This file uses Arabic numerals and continues page numbering following the last page of the previous file. No chapter or paragraph numbering is used in this file. Figure 7.20 shows the Numbering properties for the index file.

Figure 7.20. The Numbering properties for the index file.

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Tip

If the index has its own page numbering, such as small Roman numerals beginning with number i, you must set up the First Page # to 1 and the Format to Roman (xiv).

Updating File Information

So far in this chapter, you have seen that a book file brings together all the necessary ingredients that make up a book in FrameMaker. You discovered how to perform a wide range of commands on files from the Book window, and how to use Numbering Properties for individual files in relation to the book as a single unit.

Back to Basics

When you update book file information, individual files do not need to be open.

After all this work, the final step is for FrameMaker to scan all the files included in the book and update file information, such as numbering and cross-references, and create or refresh generated files, such as the table of contents or list of figures with the most recent information.

You can perform this update at any time. You don't have to wait until you have included all the files in the book. However, you might want to update the book information as you add each file to the book. Why is this a good idea? Have you noticed that, while you work on individual files that are not part of a book and include numbered chapters, that each file might begin with the number 1? This is a common occurrence if you have started with a new FrameMaker template that hasn't been updated as part of a book and, therefore, is numbered as Chapter 1.

You might also want to review an updated table of contents or another list as you work through the chapters in your book file. If you rearranged or changed the Numbering properties for any files, you need to update the book file in order to incorporate these changes throughout each file included in the book.

When you are ready to update the information, here's how to do it from the Book File window:

  1. Select Edit > Update Book.

    The Update Book window appears.

  2. Select items in the list that you want to update throughout the files included in the books (see Figure 7.21).

    Figure 7.21. The Update Book window.

    graphics/07fig21.gif

    The selected items are the only information that are updated after you click the Update button. If you included generated files, such as the table of contents, index, or list of figures in the book list, these appear in either the Generate or Don't Generate list. If generated files show up on the Generate list and you checked Generate Table of Contents, Lists, and Indexes, these files are updated with the current information. If the filenames show up under the Generate list, and you do not check Generate Table of Contents, Lists, and Indexes, these files are not updated with the latest information.

    Tip

    graphics/07icon02.gif Use the Update icon as shown in the Book File window.

  3. Click the Update button after you finish selecting the items in the Update Book window.

    The book file begins to update the selected information for the book components. This can take a few seconds or a few minutes, depending on the size of each file and the type of information that's being updated in each file. The status bar in the Book window provides information about each operation as it's performed.

Solving Book File Errors

Updating a book file is easy! The errors that can occur, however, require detective work on your part. If errors occur, you need to solve them in order for the information in each file to be properly updated with the latest information. Book file errors are a common occurrence.

A separate FrameMaker window is created with a list of each error that occurred during the book update. Figure 7.22 shows an example of a Book Error Log window. The information is presented in an organized fashion, with the date, name of the file in which the error occurred, a list of errors in each particular file, and hyperlinks to the file, or the error itself if the error is an unresolved cross-reference.

Figure 7.22. The Book Error Log window.

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This section explores the types of errors that can occur during a book update. Here you can discover how to solve each type of error.

Couldn't Open File

If any particular file in the book list couldn't be opened, you see the Couldn't Open File message. As seen in Figure 7.23, the name of the file appears in the Book Error Log. Why does this happen? Here's a list of reasons:

Figure 7.23. The frustrating Couldn't Open File error message.

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  • Unavailable fonts. If the file in question uses unavailable fonts, FrameMaker cannot open this file in order to perform the update. Solve this problem by opening the file first and solving the missing font problem. Then save and close the file. Or, open the file and leave it open during the update process if you want to solve the font problem another time.

  • Saved in older version of FrameMaker. You see this message if the problem file was saved in a version of FrameMaker other than the current version in which you are working. To solve this, open the file and save it in the current version of FrameMaker before you update the book file.

  • Unable to locate file. You are met with this message if any file has been moved and not added to the book file from the new location, or if a filename has been changed from a location other than the Book File window. To solve this, delete the old filename and add the file again with its new name and/or location.

Inconsistent Settings

A number of inconsistency settings can occur during the book update process. Suppose that the first file in the book list has all conditional text showing and the second file in the book has some conditional text hiding. Those different settings are inconsistent to FrameMaker.

Inconsistency messages mean that certain command settings in a particular file are different from those same command settings for the previous file in the book list. This error message doesn't disrupt the updating of information in files. Its purpose is to serve as a reminder to you that these settings might differ from file to file in your book. If you are not using conditional text in document files, but the settings are different from file to file, you are met with the inconsistency message. In other words, don't be fooled into thinking that because you are not using conditional text this ought not happen. It will happen, and you need to fix it.

Inconsistency settings relate to conditional text or color settings. The easiest way to solve this annoying problem is to make these settings the same for each file in the book. You can either change the file settings individually in each file or choose one file's settings and import the formats from that one file into all the files in the book.

After all the files have the same setting with respect to conditional text and color definitions, the message disappears.

Inconsistent Numbering Properties

If you see the Inconsistent Numbering Properties error message, it reminds you that the Numbering properties you set up while in an individual file are different from the Numbering Properties for that same file at the book level. This error message does not affect the update of information in the book. As you learned previously, book file settings override individual file settings.

If many files in your book contain inconsistent Numbering properties (book level versus individual file), you can leave this alone and just check the box on the error message window "Skip Remaining Inconsistent Numbering Properties Messages" (see Figure 7.24). For each subsequent file with this type of inconsistency, the message doesn't appear again.

Figure 7.24. The Inconsistent Numbering Properties message.

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If you want to make each file consistent with its book-level setting, you must open each file and change the Numbering properties to match those of the book-level settings.

Unresolved Cross-References

You might meet the Unresolved Cross-References error message if cross-references in files are unresolved for any number of reasons. The Book Error Log window provides a list of each file that contains an unresolved cross-reference with hyperlinks to each one.

Unresolved cross-references can happen because of the following reasons:

  • A cross-reference marker was deleted from the source information.

  • The source information is part of conditional text that's hidden.

  • The name of the source file changed.

  • The location (path) of the source file changed.

You must solve unresolved cross-references in order to continue with book updating. Read "Unresolved Cross-References" on page 150 in Chapter 5 for details.

Summary

In this chapter, you learned about working with a collection of document files as one unit. FrameMaker gives you a powerful array of features to manage and organize files included in a book. You learned some techniques for adding and arranging files, as well as working with the files as a unit for commands such as Spelling Checker and Find/Change. Some special techniques included specifying number settings for individual files in the book in relation to each other, and creating a single table of contents or another list based on the collection of files.

If you plan to create book files, keeping the individual files organized on a computer disk is an important part of the project and should be determined first rather than last. This saves you time later.

CONTENTS


FrameMaker 6. Beyond the Basics
FrameMaker 6: Beyond the Basics
ISBN: B00008CM3V
EAN: N/A
Year: 2000
Pages: 15
Authors: Lisa Jahred

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