You know search is important. You want to attract search visitors to your site. You are reading this book because you expect to learn what you need to know so your site succeeds at search marketing. And the most fundamental fact behind what you already know is that more and more Web users are searching.
Congratulations on spotting the trend! Your intuition that search usage is growing is correct. Seventy-six percent of all Web users performed at least one search in January 2004, totalling 114 million Web visitors to search sites. Fully 64 percent of Web users employ search as their primary method of finding things. The top three search sites account for more than 5 percent of all Web site visits!
Beyond the numbers, search is becoming a cultural phenomenon. If you have never "Googled yourself" (searched for your own name in Google), I bet you are going to do so now. Even people who do not use the Web have heard of Google and Yahoo! The Web is growing in popularity every year, and search is growing right along with it. And younger market segments cannot be reached as easily through traditional advertising, because teens and young adults now spend more time online than watching television. When you add it all up, your Web site cannot ignore the increasing importance of search to your visitors.
But that does not make you an expert in how to do search marketing. You might not know the first thing about how to get your site into the top search results. Maybe you heard that your competitors are succeeding at search marketingand one of your customers told you that your site cannot be found. You want to fix it, but how?
Despite how little you might know, you need to learn just two things to get started:
Let's begin with an overview of Web search results.
Kinds of Search Results
When we talk about search, we are actually referring to two distinct ways that search results land on the screen, as shown in Figure 1-1:
Figure 1-1. Types of search results. Google's results page has always separated paid from organic results, but other sites have at times combined them.
Another form of paid search is known as paid listings or directories, as shown in Figure 1-2. Directories are manually maintained classification systems that list Web sites according to each subject category that describes them. Directories are main tained by human editors who examine every Web site submitted to them by the site owner and decide under which subject a site should be listed. You can see in Figure 1-2 that an editor decided to list Tivo's company Web site under the Digital Video Recorder category. (Because the results are created manually, search geeks and other technologists do not consider directories to be a kind of search, but Web users do.)
Figure 1-2. Directory listings. Yahoo! adds a directory listing showing the subject category that matches the result, giving the searcher one more choice.
Reproduced with permission of Yahoo! Inc. © 2005 by Yahoo! Inc. YAHOO! and the YAHOO! logo are trademarks of Yahoo! Inc.
Search engine marketing (SEM) is a broader term than SEO that encompasses any kind of search results. SEM is everything you do to raise your site's visibility in search engines to attract more visitors. Regardless of what term you use, search marketing is a critical way for your site to attract new visitors.
Now that you have learned about the types of search results, we can survey the most popular search sites around the world. In this book, we refer to search sites such as Google and Yahoo! as search engines.
Where Searchers Go
If you have a favorite search engine that you use all the time, you might not realize how many other search engines people use. Some search engines operate in just one country or one region, and others do nothing but help people comparison shop for products. Each search engine is competing vigorously for its share of this growing business, but searchers are beginning to show brand loyalty, as Figure 1-3 shows.
Figure 1-3. Searcher share and loyalty. Google leads widely in share of searches and searcher loyalty.
Sources: OneStat (May 2004) and iProspect (April 2004)
Among worldwide search engines, Google and Yahoo! are currently the two top competitors, but the landscape can change quickly. As late as 2004, Yahoo! and Google were partners! Let's look closely at the worldwide leaders in search and at leaders within particular countries and regions.
A googol is a mathematical term for a 1 digit followed by one hundred 0s, and served as the inspiration for the Google search engine name, signifying the immense size of the search index it searches. Founded in 1998 by Stanford graduate students Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Google (www.google.com) has become so well known that "Googling" (searching for) someone's name has even been mentioned on popular TV shows.
Like many Web businesses of the 1990s, Google started small and grew as the Web exploded. Unlike many of the dotcom companies of that era, Google resisted going public until 2004, and eschewed advertising, preferring to grow through word of mouth. Google has been such a wonderful search engine that this strategy has worked. Google is used by more than 80 million searchers a month40 percent of all Web userstops of any search engine. Google is one of the five most-visited Web sites in the world, offering results in 35 languages with half of its visitors from outside the United States.
Google started by offering the most relevant organic results that the Web had ever seen, which is still its most striking feature. The I'm Feeling Lucky button that takes you directly to the first search result testifies to the confidence Google has in its organic search capability. Google, like others, has a huge number of pages in its search indexmore than four billionbut seems to find the right one for each search.
Unlike some competitors, Google has kept its business focused on search, never straying too far into the territory of a portal, the way Yahoo! and others have offered news, weather, shopping, and other services. Google has always made its money through forms of paid search, allowing advertisers to purchase space on the results page based on what search words were entered. Over the years, Google has grown into one of the largest paid search companies in the world.
For the search marketer, Google is the 800-pound gorilla of the industry. You cannot ignore Google in your search strategy for organic or paid campaigns. But Google is not the only search engine in town. Although Google is the most popular search engine in the world, it receives fewer than 40 percent of all searches, as shown in Figure 1-4. You must include other search engines in your plan to maximize the benefits of search marketing.
Figure 1-4. Share of searches. Google is the leader, but has less than 40 percent of the total share.
Source: comScore MediaMetrix qScore (May 2004)
Yahoo! (www.yahoo.com) is one of the most-visited sites on the Internet, but its visitors do a lot more than search. Yahoo! is a leading portal, offering news, e-mail, shopping, and many other functions to visitors who register. The Yahoo! search engine is the #2 search engine in the world, with more than one fourth of all searches, but Figure 1-5 shows the difference in focus for Yahoo! and Google.
Figure 1-5. Yahoo! and Google company focus. Google is "all search, all the time," whereas Yahoo! is a "full-service portal."
Reproduced with permission of Yahoo! Inc. © 2005 by Yahoo! Inc. YAHOO! and the YAHOO! logo are trademarks of Yahoo! Inc.
Yahoo! is one of the oldest Web companies around, founded in 1994 by Stanford Ph.D. students David Filo and Jerry Yang. Yahoo! began as a Web directoryinitially free to any company in its listbut later Yahoo! began charging a fee for each listing. Yahoo! quickly became a popular destination as its editors catalogued the growing Web, site by site, into its subject hierarchy. Yahoo! visitors believed they could find every Web site about any subject in just a few clicks.
When Yahoo! began offering organic search capability, it licensed the technology from other companiesat one time licensing Google's search technology. In 2003, Yahoo! shifted gears, acquiring several organic and paid search companies so that it could control its own technology. Yahoo! suffered no major drop-off in popularity, attesting to its search quality. If Yahoo! Search does not match the popular buzz of Google, it seems plenty good enough for its loyal users.
Yahoo! has more than three billion pages indexed, but trails Google. More significantly, Google leads Yahoo! in total searches each month, especially outside the United States. Yahoo! Search is offered in fewer languages and lags far behind Google in countries where they go head to head.
Although Google and Yahoo! get the lion's share of attention, other excellent worldwide search engines should also be targeted by search marketers in their plans. Although you will get less traffic from these engines than from Google and Yahoo!, it all adds up.
The Microsoft Network (MSN), Microsoft's answer to America Online's service, was launched in conjunction with the Windows 95 operating system, but has steadily trailed AOL in popularity despite Microsoft's dominance of the PC software business. MSN has not cracked 10 million members, compared to AOL's 30 million.
MSN Search (www.msn.com) is ranked third in the search race by most counts, with about 14 percent of all searches worldwide, but Microsoft has long tried to increase its share of searches. Microsoft introduced new technology for MSN Search in early 2005, and is rumored to be developing a new search facility built in to a future version of the Windows operating system. Windows users would then be able to search their own computer, their company's servers, and the Internet within the same search. Today's MSN Search, in contrast, looks a lot like the others, as Figure 1-6 shows.
Figure 1-6. MSN Search results. Like most competitors, MSN returns both organic results as well as variations of paid listings.
Worldwide search marketers must focus on MSN Search because of the sizable number of visits you can attract to your site14 percent of all searches. MSN currently uses its own search technology for organic search and syndicates Yahoo!'s Precision Match technology for its paid search.
Now part of media giant Time Warner, America Online (founded as Quantum Systems in 1985) was an online company before most people knew what the Internet was. AOL was the original portal, gradually making its proprietary service more and more Web-oriented over the years. Still notable for its ease of use, AOL is the world's largest Internet service provider (connecting people to the Internet), offering online access to more than 30 million people.
AOL Search (search.aol.com) is used mostly by AOL users, but that is still a lot of peopleadding up to more than 12 percent of total Web searches, good enough for fourth place worldwide. AOL has a partnership with Google, so search results on AOL Search are nearly the same as for Google (for both organic and paid search), as you can see in Figure 1-7.
Figure 1-7. Google or AOL? AOL's results are nearly the same as Google's for the same search.
Worldwide search marketers need not do anything special to target AOL searchersgoing after Google will get you AOL, too. In Chapter 2, "How Search Engines Work," we discuss the various relationships between search competitors, of which the Google-AOL relationship is one of the most prominent.
Founded in 1996 as a "natural language" search engine, Ask Jeeves (www.ask.com) allows searchers to ask the Jeeves character a question ("What is the population of India?") and get an answer, not just a list of documents containing the words. This approach yields good answers to popular questions; because it depends on human editors selecting the best answers, however, it does not work well for more esoteric subjects the editors did not handle. In recent years, Ask Jeeves has acquired several organic search engine companies and built a search engine many believe is the closest rival to Google in quality. Figure 1-8 shows a sample results page from Ask Jeeves that melds question answering with strong organic search results.
Figure 1-8. Ask Jeeves search. Ask Jeeves treats Katmandu as a location, returning links to related topics in addition to regular search results.
To gain market share, Ask Jeeves also acquired Excite, one of the original Internet portals and still a popular search site. Today, Ask Jeeves attracts more than 6 percent of all searches, when you add up the visits to all of its properties. Worldwide search marketers can reach Ask Jeeves searchers through Google's paid search (which Ask Jeeves uses), but need to pay attention to Ask Jeeves organic search results, too. Ask Jeeves has been growing in popularity; so although it has a relatively small share of searches today, it bears watching.
Metasearch engines provide a way of searching multiple search engines, with the expectation that searching several different engines will provide better results than any one alone. Unfortunately, it does not, and relatively few searchers use metasearch engines.
Some metasearch engines, such as HotBot (www.hotbot.com), merely show a search input box and ask the searcher to choose which engine to search with. HotBot has its own search engine (using Yahoo! search technology), but also provides results from Google and Ask Jeeves.
More complex metasearch engines actually search multiple search engines at the same time and mix the results together on the same results page. InfoSpace (www.infospace.com) searches Google, Yahoo!, Ask Jeeves, and several other search engines. InfoSpace actually owns several metasearch engines that work this way, including WebCrawler (www.webcrawler.com) and Dogpile (www.dogpile.com), but none of these metasearch engines draw many searchers.
Search marketers do not need to concern themselves with metasearch enginesif you are listed in the worldwide search engines, the few searchers who use metasearch engines will find your site, too.
Local Search Engines
Figure 1-9. Local search engines. Onet and Seekport are just two of the many local search engines that search marketers need to know.
Beyond search engines that operate in just one country or region, local search also refers to searches that operate within a geographic areaeven inside a city. Yellow Pages sites, such as Verizon SuperPages, are the most common U.S. examples of local search engines. But worldwide search engines, including Yahoo! and Google, also use local search technology that detects the use of geographic terms in searches and finds results related to that area. So, a search for "Newark electrician" might find contractors in that city. But because not all searchers use geographic terms, and because those terms are frequently ambiguous (Newark, New Jersey or Newark, Delaware?), search engines are beginning to automatically detect the physical location of the searcher (using knowledge of the Internet's physical layout) and use that information in the searches.
Shopping Search Engines
One of the fastest-growing areas of search marketing is shopping search. Shopping search engines allow comparison of features and prices for a wide variety of products, and customers are flocking to them. Just 9 percent of all Internet users worldwide used a shop ping search in 2002, but that grew to 15 percent in 2003 and continues to rise.
Consumers like comparison shopping search engines because they allow simultaneous comparison of similar products across many purchasing factors, such as price, reviews, and availability, as shown in Figure 1-10. Shopping search engines cover a wide range of consumer products, including electronics, office supplies, DVDs, toys, and many others. Internet users who visit shopping sites already have a good idea of what they are looking for, with price and availability often determining from whom they buy.
Figure 1-10. Shopping search engines. PriceGrabber, like any shopping search engine, has a product comparison page searchers can sort multiple ways.
To take advantage of shopping search engines, search marketers should ensure that no data is missing for products. For example, make sure you provide availability data (in stock, ship within two weeks, and so on) for your products. If you do not, when shoppers sort the product list by availability, your products will fall to the bottom of the list. Figure 1-11 shows the leading shopping search engines. If your site sells products available in shopping search engines, do not ignore this opportunity. We review specific strategies in more detail in Chapter 14, "Optimize Your Paid Search Program."
Figure 1-11. Shopping search market share. Yahoo! Shopping and Shopping.com are the leaders.
Source: Hitwise Research (October 2003)
Specialty Search Engines
Whereas shopping search engines locate a wide range of products, specialty search engines focus on just one or two product categories. Figure 1-12 shows a great example of a specialty search engine that focuses on information technology solutions. Because the content is limited to pages about a specific subject, the searcher receives more relevant results.
Figure 1-12. A specialty search engine. IT.com carefully limits its search results to IT solutions, providing more relevance to its niche market than Google can.
Most industries have at least one of these specialty engines, but consumer marketing has specialties, too. For example, the search facility at CNET (www.cnet.com), the computer and electronics site, shows products (as shopping search engines do), but also shows subject category matches and matching Web pages. So, searchers for "digital cameras" get a list of cameras along with their CNET reviews. This blend of product content, reviews, and comparison shopping is a near-perfect environment for electronics product marketers.
Search marketers should research the specialty search engines that cover their product lines, because specialty searchers are ready to buy.