The AI (Artificial Intelligence) heart of a knowledge base system. The inference engine is the technology which directs the reasoning process. The inference engine contains the general problem-solving knowledge such as how to interact with the user and how to make the best use of the domain information.
In all networks ” whether electronic, plumbing or highway ” the gating factor on the network's speed is the choke point. That may the accident up ahead, the tiny pipe in your bathroom or the PCI bus in your PC. That PCI bus only transmits at 132 megabytes per second. It is now slower than many of the microprocessors that use it. InfiniBand is an important new standard designed to speed up servers ” inside them, and from them to other servers. The InfiniBand Trade Association says initially InfiniBand Technology will be used to connect servers with remote storage and networking devices, and other servers. It will also be used inside servers for inter-processor communication (IPC) in parallel clusters. Customers requiring dense server deployments, such as ISPs (Internet Server Providers) and companies with many servers (for example, those serving a popular web site), will also benefit from the small form factors being proposed." The Economist Magazine of December 6, 2001 explained it thus: "Despite all the work that goes into making microprocessors and network connections ever faster, the biggest problem in computing today is neither crunching numbers nor moving data. It is getting the data into and out of the machines themselves . Long ignored in the bowels of networks, the input/output (I/O) function in computers and servers has emerged as their most significant bottleneck-sapping the performance of high-speed chips and adding myriad complications in networks, no matter how quickly chips and fibre-optics move the data. A new I/O standard called InfiniBand aims to fix all that, promising to boost I/O speeds and to make server connections as easy as plugging a toaster into an outlet. InfiniBand in effect turns the server inside out, eliminating the bottleneck by removing the I/O function from the server entirely, and allowing disparate server components to be networked together as if they were all part of a single unit. At the heart of the problem is lagging innovation in computer I/O infrastructure. Almost all computers and servers today rely on the decade -old Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus design to move information from the microprocessor to peripheral devices and out to the network. PCI connects the peripherals directly over individual copper wires, translating from the language spoken inside the machine to the languages spoken by the peripherals. For years , PCI proved more than adequate for most computing needs, handling the workflow from databases and the relatively slow network traffic. Yet PCI development has lagged far behind progress on other components of servers and computers. As processor speeds doubled every 18 months, following the venerable rule of Gordon Moore, one of the founders of Intel, and networking speeds also accelerated at breakneck pace, growth of I/O bandwidth trudged along, doubling only once every three years or so. Today, as processor speeds cross the 2 gigahertz barrier and network speeds approach 10 gigabits per second, typical PCI connections have still reached only 133 megahertz .
"Nowhere has this proved more troublesome than in data-centers ” the bunker-like facilities that house corporate information in hundreds of racks of high-speed servers. As engineers work to squeeze every scrap of power from their servers to meet the growing demand for services, the additional milliseconds taken up by PCI are proving a real drag along the information highway. Worse, the general inflexibility of PCI when increasing the capacity of a data-center has made adding new servers almost a daily chore... InfiniBand seeks to solve most of these problems by eschewing direct copper connections in favor of signals that are processed and handled by logic circuitry . In short, it adds intelligence to the communication that takes place between the various peripherals and components, forming what amounts to an I/O network among them. The new standard borrows from the design of mainframe computers, which use a so-called "channel-model" to permit components in different machines to share data simultaneously with each other in a special network channel. In much the same way, InfiniBand uses channels of data to create a "network fabric" in which all components are connected into a weaving of pathways capable of supporting multiple channels of data simultaneously. The concept is not unlike that of the USB (universal serial bus) connector found on the back of most new personal computers, which allows all manner of devices to be connected simultaneously with a simple, high speed connection. The initial I/O function into the server rests in the hands of a dedicated switch at the gateway, which carries the brunt of the work done in translating the standards used on the network (such as Internet Protocol) into the control language used internally by the server. Within the system created by InfiniBand, special adapters connect logic and memory to devices such as storage and network controllers. In theory, that allows a microprocessor on one side of a room to connect to a hard-drive and CD-ROM on the other side at blazing speeds. The net result, say InfiniBand backers, will be a dramatic increase in performance ” at least a two- to four-fold increase over the speed of PCI. Better still, the new design promises a more reliable and more easily expandable system, which is also simpler to manage. Users can add an unlimited number of devices and servers to an InfiniBand network, simply by plugging them in, with no effect on performance. And because InfiniBand servers can be made to function as foot -soldiers, doing only what they are commanded to do, they can be made without bulkier peripherals ” allowing more to be stuffed into smaller areas such as server racks and so saving money." www.infinibandta.org.
A state in which specific steps of a program are executed repeatedly, not allowing the program execution to advance further.
Also called Harmonic Bug. Infinity transmitters got their name because the original manufacturers claimed they could pick up conversations from an infinite distance. They are sometimes called harmonica bugs because original versions were activated by a 440 Hz tone created by a harmonica. An infinity transmitter is a room listening device that uses the telephone lines to send audio back to the surveillance operator. An infinity transmitter is attached to a telephone line as if it were an extension or it can be installed on a telephone instrument. To use an infinity transmitter, the target telephone is dialed and the tone or signal is sent down the telephone line before the target phone has a chance to ring. The infinity transmitter closes the telephone circuit and activates its microphone to pick up room conversations and transmit the audio down the telephone line. The disadvantage of the infinity transmitter is that it is easily detected . Telephone calls cannot be made by the target phone when the device is operating. Some telephone systems may not send audio to the target telephone line until after the phone is picked up.
A voice pager technology used in the transmission and storage of voice messages. It uses the ReFLEX protocol providing privacy and guaranteed message delivery with message receipt acknowledgement .
See Mobile IP.
A satellite TV and cable TV term . An info banner is a display that appears on a channel when a TV program is selected, or when the Info button is pressed on the remote control. The display indicates channel name and number, current date and time, program name, time remaining in the program, the start and stop times of the program and a brief description of the program's content.
A new term for the Information Superhighway.
Contraction of Information Intermediary. John Hagel III and Marc Singer invented the term infomediary in the 1999 book, "Net Worth," subtitled, "The emerging role of the infomediary in the race for customer information." In the book, the authors write, "Consumers won't have the time, the patience, or the ability to work out the best deals with information buyers on their own (nor will vendors have time to haggle, customer by customer). In order for consumers to strike the best bargain with vendors, they'll need a trusted third party ” a kind of personal agent, information intermediary, or infomediary ” to aggregate their information with that of other consumers and to use the combined market power to negotiate with vendors on their behalf . In this book, we argue that companies playing the infomediary role will become the custodians, agents , and brokers of customer information, marketing it to businesses (and providing them with access to it) on consumers' behalf, while at the same time protecting their privacy. These new entities will emerge from combinations of companies that provide unique brand franchises, strong relationships with their customers, and radically new strategies. They will become the catalyst for people to begin demanding value in exchange for data about themselves. By offering a variety of agent and targeted marketing services, they will help consumers reduce the 'interaction' cost of searching for goods at favorable prices in an environment of proliferating increasingly complex products." In short, a lot of a big words for an expansion of services that already exist in our economy ” from personal shoppers, to private banks, to shopping clubs to the AARP (American Association of Retired Persons). The book sold well, however.
A short segment shown on the video system of a plane purporting to be informational/newsy and educational. In fact, the segment is a commercial paid for by the company whose products and/or services are featured. According to research, infomercials create three types of phone calls ” order calls, inquiry/incomplete calls and customer service calls.
The sciences of collecting, organizing and reporting scientific data.
A poorly-defined term for a device which transmits and receives emails and has a browser, allowing it to browse the Internet and surf the Web. the theory is that an information appliance is cheaper than a full-blown PC. That's the theory. But PCs have been coming down in price and information appliances getting more complex and going up in price.
At Fall Comdex 1990 Bill Gates, Microsoft chairman, suggested the idea. With Information at your fingertips, he said, PC users can easily access company wide information " anywhere at anytime " through an icon- based graphical user interface. In the speech, Gates demonstrated applications that used Object Linking and Embedding (OLE), Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE), handwriting recognition, cellular communications and multimedia. See OLE.
Technique used to optimize performance on large metadirectories by storing some information locally in participating directories. The metadirectory will search for and locate the information in the local directory if necessary. See also Metadirectory and Web Services.
An Octel term for a voice bulletin board on a voice mail system. Here's their explanation: Multiple callers can access, directly or indirectly, recorded announcements containing information that would otherwise have been given live by employees . Callers are frequently "outside" users of the system. One type of "listen only" mailbox simply plays the messages to the callers. This technology, sometimes known as audiotex, makes it possible to create a verbal database so callers can select which information they want to hear. Another type of Information Center Mailbox prompts callers to reply to announcements. Callers wanting further information can be given the opportunity to leave their names and phone numbers after listening to a product description. They can also be transferred to a designated employee who can immediately take an order. If desired, a password can be required before confidential or controlled access information can be heard .
CDR call type options. Two digit codes which precede the 7- or-10 digit destination number and inform exchange carriers and IECs about the type of line that originated the call, any special characteristics of the billing number, or certain service classes. These codes plus the destination number are part of the signalling protocol of equal access offices. These codes are defined by Bellcore. Examples: 00 - POTS, 01 - Multiparty, 02 - ANI Failure, 06 - Hotel/Motel, 07 - Special Operator Handling, 20 - AIOD, 24 - 800, 27 - Coin, 30 - Unassigned DN, 31- Trouble/Busy, 32 - Recent change or disconnect, 34 - Telco Operator, 52 - Outward WATS, 61- Cellular 1, 62 - Cellular 2, 63 - Roaming, 70 - Private Pay Phone, 93 - Private virtual Network.
The name for the data fields within an ISDN Layer 3 message.
Coined by James Martin, an erstwhile prolific writer in data processing, the term refers to systems within data processing and their impact on giving the corporation a greater competitive edge. In short, a fancy term for Management Information Systems (MIS), which itself was a fancy term for DP, namely Data Processing.
A Frame Relay term referring to the variable length field of data, which can include either user payload or internetwork control data to be passed between routers or other intelligent end user devices. The information field may be 0- 4,096B, although ANSI recommendations are that the field be 1600B, which accommodates most LAN packets.
Frame in HDLC, DDCMP, or related protocols containing user data.
A term coined by Al Gore. This fact affirmed by Dan Lynch, the man who started the trade show, InterOp and who was very heavily involved with Internet from the very beginning. As the term got developed and people got turned on by the idea, it became known as The Information Superhighway. See also Information Superhighway.
IO. Sort of like an AC power outlet, but a little more cerebral. A connecting device designed for a fixed location (usually a wall in the office) on which horizontal wiring subsystem cable pairs terminate and which receives an inserted plug; it is an administration point located between the horizontal wiring subsystem and work location wiring subsystem. Although such devices are also referred to as jacks , the term information outlets encompasses the integration of voice, data, and other communication services that can be supported via a premises distribution system.
A bundle of data sent over a network. The protocol used determines the size and makeup of the packet.
50.112 Mb/s of bandwidth allocated within each SONET STS-1 channel to carry information end-to-end. Also known as STS- 1 envelope capacity.
Data to achieve a desired objective. Also called data processing.
A business or person providing information to the public for money. The information is typically selected by the caller through touchtones, delivered using voice processing equipment and transmitted over tariffed phone lines, e.g., 900, 976, 970. Typically, billing for information providers' services is done by a local or long distance phone company. Sometimes the revenues for the service are split by the information provider and the phone company. Sometimes the phone company simply bills a per minute or flat charge. A typical "information provider" is American Express, which provides a service ” 1-900-WEATHER. By dialing that number you can touchtone in city names and find out temperatures , weather forecasts, etc. Calling 1-900-WEATHER costs several dollars a minute.
The visual and linguistic cues that enable a searcher to figure if a source, a Web site, has the information they seek.
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 defined Information Service as the offering of a capability for generating, acquiring, storing, transforming, processing, retrieving, utilizing , or making available information via telecommunications, and includes electronic publishing, but does not include any use of any such capability for the management, control, or operation of a telecommunications system or the management of a telecommunications service. The basic distinction between information services and normal voice calls is that the former are taxed. The latter aren't. According to some people Voice over IP (VoIP) is an information service. According to others, it's not.
A Bellcore definition. Information signals inform the customer or operator about the progress of the call. They are generally in the form of universally understood audible tone (for example, dial tone, busy, ringing) or recorded announcements (for example, intercept, all circuits busy).
A very vague concept which Senator Al Gore created in the early 1990s and which gained great popularity when he became vice president and the Clinton/Gore administration started pushing the concept. The Information Superhighway is a term sufficiently vague that it can mean anything to anyone . It can mean a gigantic Internet reaching everybody in North America, or the planet (if you're that expansive). It could just as easily mean a combination 500-channel interactive cable TV system with full video on demand to every household in North America. Somewhere in all this is the idea that easy access to large amounts of information will enrich our lives immeasurably. Who's going to get first access to it all, what the precise technical details will be, and who's going to pay for it are, naturally, minor details to be worked out. We can be assured that the details will be worked out, since the idea originated in Washington, DC., home of so many practical ideas.
IT. A fancy name for data processing, which became management information systems (MIS), which became information technology. All the same thing, essentially . See also IT.
The Information Technology District (ITD) is New York City's fastest growing totally-wired community. Anchored by the New York Information Technology Center @ 55 Broad Street and sharing the Downtown Business Improvement District's boundaries of City Hall to the southern tip of Manhattan, the ITD serves as the headquarters for Silicon Alley. The ITD is home to more than 250 IT companies, from web page developers to financial modeling firms. According to promotion from ITD, these companies are quickly emerging as the City's prime economic generators, creating jobs and innovative products, and serving as pioneers in the ongoing revitalization of Downtown into a 24- hour , 21st Century global community.
I got this email from Ferrell Mallory, Managing Director, IT Operations Brigham Young University, Salt Lake City. "Remember all that preaching you did years back about telecom operations getting swallowed up by MIS types? Well, I'm there again. I was in and out of our campus MIS operation 14 years ago when they decided my telecom operation was a "major misfit" until the campus became so dependent upon the data network we installed - mostly from telecom revenues - AND everyone blamed the network if anything vaguely related to the network was inoperative, e.g., network infrastructure, servers, clients , keyboards, electrical power, air conditioning, etc., etc. So, we reorganized again, this time along functional lines instead of technology and I'm back in what we call "Information Technology Services". I still have the telephone system and data communication system but have added servers, and all campus instructional media systems and services.
A term coined by Digital Equipment Corporation to refer to the transmission of data over airwaves instead of fixed wires.
See Data Warehouse.
A military term for information systems security. See NSA.
A service that helps surfers locate listings of people, businesses, government offices, toll-free numbers, fax numbers, e-mail addresses, maps and URLs, all on one Web site. InfoSpace has developed a patent pending technology that integrates all of these services. www.infospace.com.
A new phone company which started service in July 1998, competing against Italy's erstwhile monopoly, Telecom Italia. Infostrada is controlled by Olivetti SpA and the German company, Mannesmann AG.
IR. The band of electromagnetic wavelengths between the extreme of the visible part of the spectrum (about 0.75 um) and the shortest microwaves (about 100 um). This portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used in some fiber- optic transmission systems, but more commonly for communications through the air. In such free-space optics applications, the system typically consists of a two transmitter/receivers. The infrared light signal is transmitted through a focused lens to a collecting lens in the receiving device. Transmission rates of as much as 622 Mbps can be achieved over distances of as much as several miles, and systems running in the Gbps range are being developed for WLL (Wireless Local Loop) application. Typically deployed in campus environments or other very short-haul applications where cabled systems are not possible or practical, infrared offers the advantage of no FCC licensing requirements, thereby sometimes making it preferable to microwave. Infrared also is commonly used for short haul (up to 20 feet) through-theair data transmission. With the adoption of infrared standards at a meeting of over 50 manufacturers in June 1994, many PC device manufacturers began development of the Infrared Serial Data Link (IRDL) with speeds up to 1.5 Mbps. This standard is designed to ensure that products sporting this link will work together and interchangeably. See also IrDA and WLL.
Optical fibers with best transmission at wavelengths of 2 um or longer, made of materials other than silica glass.
As a result of a meeting at Microsoft of over 50 manufacturers in June 1994, many PC devices will begin sporting something called the "Infrared Serial Data Link," an infrared through-the-air (up to 20 feet) link with speeds up to 1.5 million bytes per second. This standard is designed to insure that products sporting this link will work together and interchangeably. There is now an organization called I.R.D.A., the Infrared Data Association, representing over 80 manufacturers.
IR. Infrared communications systems use very high frequencies, just below visible light in the electromagnetic spectrum to carry data. Like light. IR cannot penetrate opaque objects; it is either directed (line of sight) or diffuse technology Inexpensive directed systems provide very limited range (three feet) and typically are used for personal area networks but occasionallY used in specific wireless LAN applications. High performance directed IR is impractical for mobile users and is therefore used only to implement fixed subnetworks. Diffuse (or reflective) IR wireless LAN systems do not require line of sight, but cells are limited to individual rooms. See also Infrared.
A collection of those telecommunications components, excluding equipment, that together provide the basic support for the distribution of all information within a building or campus.
CallING party. The ING calls the ED, or callED party, to set up a data transfer. ING and ED apply to any type of data transfer, including both voice and data.
See Indeo Video.
Ingress is a cable TV term. Ingress occurs when strong outside signals leak into a CATV coaxial cable and interfere with the signal quality inside the home and nearby homes . Picture a car driving along outside a house. The car has a strong CB radio. It sends the signal out. It is picked up by the coaxial CATV cable in the house, which then sends it to nearby houses. The primary cause of ingress is cheap wiring and/or loose connectors. But the interfering signal is caused by radio transmitters of all types (including short wave transmitters), electrical appliances, motors with brushes, light dimmers or speed controls on toys. Leakage is really a shielding problem. The number of houses that can be affected by ingress depends on the strength of the signal and the number of service areas around a CATV node, which could be as many as 1,000. Companies like Trilithic in Indianapolis are expert in measuring ingress. See also Leakage.
The act of entering a network. It derives from the classic definition of the word meaning the act of going in or entering.
A term from object oriented programming. Data abstraction can be carried up several levels. Classes can have super-classes and subclasses. In moving to a level of greater specificity, the application developer has the option to retain some attributes and methods of the super-class, while dropping or adding new attributes or methods . This allows greater flexibility in class definition. It is even possible in some languages to inherit from more than one parent. This is referred to as multiple inheritance. See Object Oriented Programming.
ISDN Network Identification Code.
ISDN Network Interface Module (INIM) is both hardware and software. It does the job of an NT-1, so the physical network interface is ISDN-U. When calls arrive , the INIM collects the number dialed and Caller ID. This data is passed on to the Call Processing Module, which does the actual call handling. When you go off hook to place an outbound call, the INIM assigns an available ISDN B-channel to the call. For 'Find Me' scenarios, the INIM lets Front Desk place multiple, simultaneous out-bound calls. During data calls, the INIM constantly monitors the data transmission rate on the ISDN line. The INIM will automatically build up or tear down the second ISDN B channel from a data call to match bandwidth requirements. Because telcos charge for usage per B-channel, the INIM uses both B channels only when necessary. If both B channels are doing data when a new voice or fax call arrives, the INIM instantly tears down one of the B channels to let the new call through. Ditto for when you make an outbound voice or fax call.
An INIT is the Macintosh System 7 equivalent of a terminate and stay resident (TSR) program . An init might load to initialize a fax modem, screen saver, etc. Similar to the DOS environment, some inits conflict. When troubleshooting operating system problems, remove inits first.
A Verizon definition. An indicator that identifies whether Local Calling Plan usage charges are billed at the Initial or Additional rate.
IAM. A SS7 signaling message that contains the address and routing information required to establish a point-to-point telephone connection.
Initial answer refers to the point in time at which a computer telephony system answers an incoming call. Many computer telephony systems require significant processing to set up to answer incoming calls. For example, the system may examine the incoming ANI, DNIS, or PBX integration data to determine how to answer (which prompt to use), or where to switch the call. This can involve significant database access and processing time. Therefore, the ability to handle large number of incoming calls ( especially in burst mode) may delay the initial answer. The delay from when a call reaches a computer telephony system until the computer telephony system answers the call (the initial answer) is usually a key response time to understand when testing a computer telephony system.
IMPDU. A Connectionless Broadband Data Service (CBDS) term that corresponds to the L3 PDU in Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS). CBDS is the European equivalent of SMDS.
The minimum billing period on a call. For interstate or inter-LATA AT&T calls, the initial period is one-minute. Some non-AT&T long distance companies have initial periods under one-minute. This also applies to local calls in Measured areas.
The initial loading of generic and/or configuration software into a PBX or other phone system. The Initial Program Load is a pain in the rear end. But an even bigger pain is what happens when you lose your programming and you've forgotten to back it all up.
IPO. The initial offering of shares in a company to the public to raise capital for any number of reasons (i.e., reduce debt, research and development, expansion). Shares are sold to investment banks, who then sell them to the public via retail brokerage firms.
ISN. Generated at each end of TCP connection to help to uniquely identify that connection.
A group of commands sent to the modem by a communications program at start-up ” before the number has been dialed. Such a string tells the modem to set itself up in a way that will make it easy to correctly communicate with a distant modem.
Setting all counters, switches, addresses or contents of storage to zero at the beginning of, or at prescribed points in the operation of a computer routine or a communications transfer; a major function of "rebooting" a computer, giving everything a "reset".
An ISDN term. These devices, sometimes called self-initializing terminals, are basically ISDN terminals that can generate their own terminal identification number. This makes it easier for the network and the terminal to agree on the number to use.
An event that causes the ASC (AIN Switch Capabilities) to assign an ID to a connection segment for a certain user ID and to communicate with a SLEE (Service Logic Execution Environment) for the first time with respect to the combination of the specific user ID and connection segment ID.
The switch which initiates the Query on Release capability by identifying a portable NPA-NXX and populating a QoR indicator in the Initial Address Message. In the context of Local Number Portability (LNP), a dialed TN is routed to the destination switch as usual, and then a dialed Query on Release (QoR) is accomplished by the donor (destination) switch sending a release cause code back to the originating switch within the IAM (Initial Address Message), and at that point the originating switch would recognize the number as ported and initiate an LNP data base lookup. Latency is an issue with this method of doing LNP.
A SCSI device, usually a host system, that requests an 1/0 process to be performed by another SCSI device.
The Bluetooth device initiating an action to another Bluetooth device. The device receiving the action is called the acceptor. The initiator is typically part of an established link.
Another name for a semiconductor or diode laser. See Injection Laser Diode.
ILD. A solid-state device that works on the laser principle to produce a light source for optical fiber.
See Internode Link.
A format of Web-based advertising in which advertising content is placed on the same layer as site content. They are either graphical, HTML-based, or a mixture of the two. They generally reside within the flow of a page's content, though they may be placed outside the margin of a page. These ads make up the bulk of impressions served . The Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB) defines a number of ad sizes in the inline category; the dominant 468 x 60 pixel banner ad, the 120 x 60 pixel "button #2" ad, and the large 120 x 600 pixel "skyscraper" ad. See also Pop-Up Ad.
A built-in graphic that is displayed by a Web browser as part of an HTML document and is retrieved along with it.
An application that, when inserted into a Web browser that supports it (through an installation procedure), allows greater functionality and flexibility of the browser to view multimedia that would otherwise require an outside application.
Interim Local Number Portability. See LNP and Number Portability.
International Network Management Center.
The INternational MARitime SATellite service that has satellites and provides mobile communications to ships at sea, aircraft in flight, vehicles on the road and to small stationary satellite antennas which people carry with them. Inmarsat provides dial-up telephone, telex, fax, electronic mail, Internet access, data connections and fleet management. Typically you pay a per minute charge for the use of Inmarsat's communications services. Inmarsat describes itself as the international mobile satellite organization. It is based in London. Formed as a maritime-focused intergovernmental organization, Inmarsat has been a limited company since 1999. Inmarsat Ltd is a subsidiary of the Inmarsat Ventures plc holding company. It operates a constellation of geostationary satellites designed to extend phone, fax and data communications all over the world. The constellation comprises five third-generation satellites backed up by four earlier spacecraft. Today's Inmarsat system is used by independent service providers to offer a range of voice and multimedia communications. Users include ship owners and managers, journalists and broadcasters, health and disaster-relief workers, land transport fleet operators, airlines, airline passengers and air traffic controllers, government workers, national emergency and civil defence agencies, and peacekeeping forces. Keystone of the strategy is the new Inmarsat I-4 satellite system, which from 2004 will support the Inmarsat Broadband Global Area Network (B-GAN) ” mobile data communications at up to 432kbit/s for Internet access, mobile multimedia and many other advanced applications. www.inmarsat.com.
A typical inmate call management application package serves the special requirements of correctional institutions. By assigning Personal identification Numbers (PINs), inmates may be allowed debit calling only, collect calling only, or a combination of both. Some packages can also access external commissary databases, allowing immediate debit of an inmate's account in real time. They may also do:
billed number screening, reducing billing fraud.
blocking of calls after commissary funds are exhausted, minimizing lost revenue on commissary funds.
identifying announcement to called party.
time-of-day restrictions to specified destination numbers.
temporary call prohibition for specific PINs.
restricted destination numbers for specific PINs.
system-wide deny numbers.
Dennis Squires from Bell Atlantic says, " Prison inmates can get very creative when they have a lot of time on their hands, like 20 years." So, to avoid stealing of phone calls by prisoners , some phone companies have a service called "Inmate Calling." The inmate enters his authorization code, which allows him to make phone calls ” but only to authorized phone numbers, i.e. mothers, lawyers , bail bondsmen, etc.
International Network Management Center.
Integrated Network Manager Link Module.
Integrated Network Management Services.
See InterNode Network.
A flexible plastic conduit that's placed in larger conduits . It's used for two reasons: when different companies lease space in the same conduit and/or to provide yet another layer of protection for precious, fragile optical fibres.
For a standard four wires connection, the wires fastened to the inner two pin positions in a jack or connector. For example, in a six position connector, the inner wires are pins 3 and 4.
A nonmetallic raceway, usually circular, placed within a larger raceway.
The Washington Post's Style Invitational asked readers to take any word from the dictionary, alter it by adding, subtracting or changing one letter, and supply a new definition. This one is one of the winners. Inoculatte means to take coffee intravenously.
Integrated Node (SSP and STP).
Intelligent Network Operations System. An operations system designated to manage, monitor, and control elements of an intelligent telecommunications network.
iNOW! is a standards-based, multi-vendor initiative announced in December 1998 to provide interoperability among IP telephony platforms. Ascend, Cisco, Clarent, Dialogic, Natural MicroSystems and Siemens will be working with the iNOW! Profile to make their gateways and gatekeepers interoperable with each other's products and with those from Lucent and VocalTec. The specs on the standard are due to be published in January 1998. According to the January, 1998 release, the iNOW! Interoperability Profile will detail how to achieve interoperability between gateways from different vendors and interoperability between gatekeepers from different vendors. Up until recently, carriers and callers were limited in the destinations they could reach since calls had to be terminated on the exact same platform from which they originated. Internet telephony service providers had to choose between dependence on a single vendor or operating multiple parallel networks of incompatible gateways. According to the release, Lucent and VocalTec are responsible for the development of the programming and engineering for the iNow! Interoperability Profile. The interoperability guidelines are based on the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) H.323 standard, and the upcoming H.225.0 Annex G standard.
Interim Number Portability. Interim method of porting a LEC owned phone number to a CLEC via remote call forwarding when a LEC switch does not fully support LNP functionality. See Number Portability.
International Network Provisioning.
Interchangeable Numbering Plan Area. An area code that looks like an office code. There is no particular name for an office code that looks like an area code, according to Lee Goeller.
Intelligent Network Product Support.
A signal fed into a circuit.
Buffering strategy that divides buffer at a mode into two classes, both available to transit packets but only one available to packets input at the node.
The grid circuit of an electron tube.
I/O. Input and output are two of the three functions that computers perform (the other is processing). Input/Output describes the interrelated tasks of providing information to the computer and providing the results of processing to the user. I/O devices include keyboards (input) and printers (output). A disk drive is both an input and an output device, since it can both provide information to the computer and receive information from the computer.
A request for specific information.
A term for a digital T-1 line transmitting at 1.544 million bits per second.
A term for a digital ISDN BRI line transmitting at 144,000 bits per second.
Doing the same thing again and again, but expecting a different result the next time.
The demand for telecommunications services was insatiable, according to common myth around the late 1990s ” just before the telecom bubble burst.
The gain resulting from the insertion of a device in a transmission line, expressed as the ratio of the power delivered to that part of the line following the device to the power delivered to that same part before insertion. If more than one component is involved in the input or output, the particular component used must be specified. If the resulting number is negative, an "insertion loss" is indicated. This ratio is usually expressed in decibels. See Insertion Loss.
Also called attenuation. The difference in the amount of power received before and after something is inserted into the circuit (viz. another telephone instrument) or a call is connected. In an optical fiber, insertion loss is the optical power loss due to all causes, usually expressed as decibel/kilometer. Causes of insertion loss may be absorption , scattering, diffusion, dispersion, microbending, or methods of coupling power outside the fiber. In lightwave transmission systems, the power lost at the entrance to a waveguide due to causes, such as fresnel reflection, packing fraction, limited numerical aperture, axial misalignment, lateral displacement, initial scattering, or diffusion. See also Attenuation and Insertion Gain.
The dial tone provided by a PBX. This lets you dial an internal number. When you dial 9 (internal extensions never start with 9), you get the dial tone provided by your local RBOC. Outside North America, you often dial 0 to get an outside line.
An ATM term. Synonymous with horizontal link.
Everything inside a telephone company central office. Thus, electronic equipment in buildings . Includes central office switches, PBX switches, broadband equipment, distribution frame, power supply equipment, etc. It doesn't include telephone poles, cable, terminals, cross boxes, cable vaults or equipment found outdoors. See also Inside Wiring and Plant.
Telephone Wiring: For a residence, the wiring usually starts where the line enters the house. It's called the demarcation line. For businesses, the location of the demarcation point varies. See also Inside Wiring.
That telephone wiring located inside your premises or building. Inside Wiring starts at the telephone company's Demarcation Point and extends to the individual phone extensions. Traditionally, Inside Wiring was installed and owned by the telephone company. But now you can install your own wiring. And most companies installing new phone systems are installing their own new wiring because of potential problems with reusing the old telephone company cable. See also Inside Plant.
Insider trading occurs when a person sells or buys shares based on information that had a material effect on the company or its shares but was not public knowledge. The typical "insider" is a director or officer of the company. But it can also be the company's investment banker or lawyer, or friend of the CEO. For the insider to be prosecuted he or she typically must have benefited financially by the information.
The physical hook-up and diagnostic testing of a PBX switch, cabinet, or peripheral item prior to a cutover and maintenance acceptance by the maintaining vendor.
How many of whatever are in and working. Installed base is often confused with annual shipments. They're very different. Shipments is what goes out the factory. Installed base is what's out there. The equation is: Installed base at beginning of year plus annual shipments less equipment taken out of service during the year is equal to the installed base at the end of the year.
Also called test tone. A small box that runs on batteries and puts an RF tone on a pair of wires. If the technician can't find a pair of wires by color or binding post, they attach a tone at one end and use an inductive amplifier (also called a banana or probe) at the other end to find a beeping tone.
An ATM term. A subset of an object's attributes which serve to uniquely identify a MIB instance.
Trademark for MICOM's family of local data distribution and data private automatic branch exchange (PABX) products.
I'm logged into the Internet. I load some software. It shows me that you're also logged into the Internet. I type you a message. You see it on your screen the moment I hit "send." You type your reply and send it. I see it. Bingo, an Internet service that has come to be called "instant messaging." Instant messaging is essentially real-time, on-line electronic mail. Popular Instant Messaging started in November 1996 with software called ICQ, created by an Israeli firm called Mirabilis. ICQ had over 850,000 users in six months and was bought up by America Online in 1998. AOL introduced its hugely-popular variation (AOL Instant Messenger). Then Microsoft introduced its software called MSN Messenger. As of writing, none of these instant messaging softwares is compatible with the other. But there is talk in the trade press of eventual standards. There are serious reasons we need standards. Instant messaging is evolving into much more than a tool for sending typed messages to buddies online. Just as the original Web browsers revolutionized the way average users connect to Internet content, today's instant message screens are evolving into easy-to-use connections for linking people at any given moment on the Internet via text, voice and video. All the new capabilities will be built on a single critical assumption: knowing that a person is online. That, in turn , makes it possible for electronic merchants and providers of online services to reach Internet users with information or incentives ” at the precise time they are able to react , namely when they are online in front of their screen, an easy target. Tools are being integrated into instant messaging software that permit the immediate delivery of an increasing array of data that does not come from friends or family. America Online has unveiled a version of its instant messaging software that automatically delivers tailored news headlines and stock quotes. Instant Messaging began life as a humble notification system in MIT's computer science department in the late 1980s. In 1983, MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science began Project Athena, a network of workstations and servers for undergraduate use. By 1987, there were thousands of workstations and several servers, it had become difficult to quickly get users vital messages, such as warnings of that a building's network was about to go down. Administrators needed something faster than e-mail, which could take hours to deliver. A team led by C. Anthony DellaFera began work on "Zephyr", the first widely used instant-messaging system, which was deployed in 1988. Though the system was intended to send system status notifications and alerts to users, students began to use it to pass messages amongst themselves. When a user logged on, notifications went out and friends could send that user messages which would pop up in separate windows on the screen.
Buy a PC (Personal Computer). Turn it on. Bingo, it's already loaded with Windows or OS/2. Instant On is a new term for preloading software onto hard disks of new computers and shipping those computers already pre-loaded with that software.
IOEF. A feature of the AT&T PBX Dimension Energy Communications Service Adjunct (ECSA), which allows the user to turn all the ECSA energy functions ON or OFF. IOEF is most often used for periodic maintenance, or to adjust to sudden changes in weather.
ITS is the research and engineering branch of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), which is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce (DoC). www.ntia.doc.gov. See NTIA.
The register which contains the instruction to be executed and functions as the source for the subsequent operations of the arithmetic unit.
ITFS. A service provided by one or more fixed microwave stations operated by an educational organization and used mainly to transmit instructional, cultural and other educational information to fixed receiving stations .
Wire which has a nonconducting covering.
Those substances which oppose the passage of an electric current through them.
A material which does not conduct electricity but is suitable for surrounding conductors to prevent the loss of current.
IDC. The IDC has replaced wire wrap and solder and screw post terminations as the way for connecting conductors (i.e. wires carrying telecom) to jacks, patch panels and blocks. Insulation Displacement Connections are typically two sharp pieces of metal in a slight V. As the plastic-covered wire is pushed into these metal teeth, the teeth pierce the plastic jacket (the insulation) and make connection with the inside metal conductor. This saves the installer having to strip off the conductor's insulation. This saves time. Since IDCs are very small, they can be placed very close together. This reduces the size of jacks, patch panels and blocks. IDCs are the best termination for high speed data cabling since a gas-tight, uniform connection is made. The alternate method of connecting wires is with a screw-down post. There are advantages and disadvantages to both systems. The IDC system, obviously, is faster and uses less space. But it requires a special tool. The screw system takes more time, but may produce a longer- lasting and stronger, more thorough (more of the wire exposed) electrical connection. The most common IDC wiring scheme is the 66-block, invented by Western Electric, now Lucent. But there are other systems ” from other telecom manufacturers. See Punchdown Tool.
That property of an insulating material which resists electrical current flow through the insulating material when a potential difference is applied.
Some atoms hold onto their electrons tightly. Since electrons cannot move freely these material can't easily conduct electricity and are know as non-conductors or insulators. Common insulators include glass, ceramic, plastics, paper and air. Insulators are also called dielectrics.
When insurance on ships and their cargoes was introduced in 14th-centu- ry Europe, it met opposition on the grounds that it was an attempt to defeat financial disasters willed by God.
In an ATM network, the largest burst of data above the insured rate that temporarily is allowed on a PVC and not tagged by the traffic policing function for dropping in the case of network congestion. The insured burst is specified in bytes or cells.
Long-term data throughput, in bits or cells per second, that an ATM network commits to support under normal network conditions. The insured rate is 100 percent allocated; the entire amount is deducted from the total trunk bandwidth along the path of the circuit. Compare with excess rate and maximum rate.
Traffic within the insured rate specified for an ATM PVC. This traffic should not be dropped by the network under normal conditions.
Induction Neutralizing Transformer. A specially designed multipair longitudinal inductor that is spliced into a wireline facility to substantially reduce low frequency steady-state or surge induced voltages and currents that may be causing noise, equipment malfunctions and/or damages or creating a personnel safety hazard . See TEN.
The Washington Post's Style Invitational asked readers to take any word from the dictionary, alter it by adding, subtracting or changing one letter, and supply a new definition. This one is one of the winners. Intaxication is the euphoria at getting a refund from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), which lasts until you realize it was your money to start with.
A software interrupt designed to communicate with the com (serial) port in a PC. Communications programs use interrupt 14h to talk to a modem physically attached to another computer on the network.
A computing procedure for solving or finding the optimum solution for complex problems in which the variables are based on integers. Integers include all the natural numbers, the negatives of these numbers, or zeros.
An AT&T term for the provision of access for multiple services such as voice and data through a single system built on common principles and providing similar service features for the different classes of services.
IC. After the transistor and other solid state devices were invented, electronic circuits were designed that were more complex than ever. It became a real problem wiring all the components together. In 1958-1959, Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce independently invented the integrated circuit. An integrated circuit is a piece of silicon or other semiconductor called a chip on which is etched or imprinted a network of electronic components such as transistors , diodes, resistors, etc. and their interconnections.
IDE. A Windows program within which a developer may perform all the essential tasks of development including editing, compiling and debugging.
IDLC. Access equipment which extends Central Office services; it connects to a SONET ring on the network side while providing telephony services on the subscriber side (POTS, ISDN, leased lines, etc.).
iDEN. A wireless technology developed by Motorola, iDEN operates in the 800 MHz, 900 MHz and 1.5 GHz radio bands; the 900 MHz development is aimed at operators of digital Commercial Mobile Radio Service (CMRS), also known as ESMR (Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio). iDEN is a digital technology using M16QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) for compression, and TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access). Through a single proprietary handset, iDEN supports voice in the form of both dispatch radio and PSTN interconnection, numeric paging, SMS (Short Message Service) for text, data, and fax transmission. See also ESMR, QAM, SMS and TDMA.
A term applied to the direct entry of information received electronically into the recipient's computer system. It eliminates the manual checking that is still frequently done by many recipients of EDI information, saving time and costs. It requires the sender to adhere strictly to standard and pre-agreed formats.
Formerly Dual IS-IS. Routing protocol based on the OSI routing protocol IS-IS, but with support for IP or other networks. Integrated IS-IS implementations send only one set of routing updates, regardless of protocol type, making it more efficient than two separate implementations .
Also called Unified Messaging. Integrated messaging is one of many benefits of running your telephony via a local area network. Here's the scenario: Voice, fax, electronic mail, image and video. All on the one screen. You arrive in the morning. Turn on your PC. It logs onto your LAN and its various servers. In seconds, it gives you a screen listing all your messages ” voice mail, electronic mail, fax mail, reports , compound documents .... Anything and everything that came in for you. Each is one line.
Each line tells you whom it's from. What it is. How big it is. How urgent. Skip down. Click. Your PC loads up the application. Your LAN hunts down the message. Bingo, it's on screen. If it contains voice ” maybe it's a voice mail or compound document with voice in it ” it rings your phone and plays the voice to you. Or, if you have a sound card, it can play the voice through your own PC. If it's an image it may hunt down (also called launch) an imaging application which can open the image you have received, letting you see it. Ditto, if it's a video message.
Messages are deluging us. To stop them is to stop progress. Run your eye down the list, one line per entry. Pick the key ones. Junk the junk ones. Postpone the others.
It gets better. You're out. Dial in on a gateway with your laptop. Skim your messages. Dial in on a phone. Punch in some buttons . Hear your voice mail messages. Or if you're not on laptop, have your e-mail read to you. Better, have your fax server OCR your faxes and image mail and have it read them to you. A LAN server is the perfect repository for messages. It can search for them, assemble them, process them, store them, convert them, compress them, shape them, shuffle them, interpret them. Integrated messaging essentially applies intelligence and order to the messages deluging you each day. See Unified Messaging and Telephony Services.
Also called INMS. INMS is customer-premises based network management platform, which allows users to monitor and manage their circuits on the MCI network. The INMS Platform is made up user workstations and a communications/database server. The server interfaces with MCI's INMS Host, which collects and forwards to the INMS server all of the customer-net- work related data. The INMS Host also interfaced with the CSM for service inquiry management.
IPCI. A ROLM-designed communications printed circuit card designed to provide an IBM PC with asynchronous data transmission over two- strand wiring to and from a Rolm CBX PBX.
Integrated photonics are devices that include optical waveguides embedded in a semiconductor or ferroelectric substrate, and which perform some type of signal processing function under electrical control. These functions include: routing of light signals in different directions, filtering out one or several wavelengths, emitting light or modulating the intensity and/or phase of an incoming light signals. An optical waveguide consists of a region in which the refractive index is higher than in the surrounding material so that a light signal can propagate without spreading ( diffraction ). In any applications, only single mode waveguides are useful. This definition courtesy Ericsson.
IPND. A database of information about customers of telecommunications services in Australia, arranged by number, for all carriers and carriage service providers.
See ISDN and Signaling System 7.
The part of SS7 (Signaling System Number 7) that encompasses the signaling functions required to provide voice and non-voice services in ISDN and pre-ISDN architectures. The basic service offered by the ISDN-UP is the control of circuit switched connections between subscriber line exchange terminations. Definition from Bellcore in reference to its concept of the Advanced Intelligent Network.
There are many different meanings to this concept. The most common (we'll get arguments on this) is that a workstation or a combination telephone/personal computer on a desk can combine voice and data signals over a single communications channel. That channel might be carried digitally on one pair of wires. That is "the most integrated" voice/data. Less integrated is when you carry voice and data digitally on two pairs ” one pair for transmitting and one pair for receiving. Even less integrated are some systems which use three pairs of cabling set up as one voice analog pair, one digital data pair and one power/signaling pair. In short, "integrated voice/data" means different things to different people and depends on the technology. See also ISDN.
See ISDN, IVDT and Integrated Voice/Data.
If your business is like Technology Investor Magazine, it has different software programs for each business task ” accounting, sales automation, order entry, inventory, etc. If you could get those pieces of software to talk to each other, and to talk sense to each other, you could save time, lower labor costs, improve your products and provide better customer service. Better yet, if you could get your internal software programs talking to software at your suppliers and customers, you could save even more money, labor and time. That's what integration software does. Every business of any size can use it to improve how their business works.
Integration (or single thread) testing is the phase in the computer telephony lifecycle that begins as individual modules are pulled together to make a complete system. Testing in this phase is related to making sure the interfaces between the various modules function correctly, and is oriented to functional issues. Inter-module functions are be checked for load stability by exposing them to a variety of real-world stimuli. Definition courtesy Steve Gladstone, from his book "Testing Computer Telephony Systems."
The decision you make when nobody is watching. Definition courtesy Alocholics Anonymous.
Military for intelligence. Also the world's largest semiconductor manufacturer.
Specifications required to provision the ISDN line to meet the needs of Intel's ISDN-based products. When ordering your ISDN phone line and you want to use it for data or video, tell them it's "Intel Blue." That should tell your local phone company the correct technical specifications for your line. And when you come to plug in your ISDN equipment ( assuming your chosen manufacturer has made it compatible with Intel Blue), it should work. This is not a guarantee, but a probability. See ISDN.
Intellectual property is produced by effort of the mind, as distinct from real or personal property. Intellectual property may or may not enjoy the benefit of legal protection. In the November 4, 2002 issue of Information Week, Tony Kontzer wrote that intellectual property generally takes one of four forms: inventions , ideas, trade secrets, and goodwill. Each has its own method of protection.
A patent issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office grants an inventor exclusive right to an invention for 20 years from the date of application. According to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office's Web site, a patent can be obtained by anyone who "invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof." In addition to being new and useful, an invention also must meet one other condition before a patent can be issued: It must not be obvious.
A copyright registered with the Copyright Office of the Library of Congress gives authors the exclusive right to reproduce, adapt, distribute copies of, perform, or display literary , dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. While the bulk of copyrights are issued for works in the arts, they're also granted to business ideas, such as source code and mission statements.
Trade secrets fall under state law and are defined as confidential information that provides indisputable economic value. A business owner can turn to trade-secret laws if such information is improperly disclosed ” by a former employee, for instance ” or is otherwise illegally acquired by a competitor.
A trademark registered with the Patent and Trademark Office grants ownership of a word, name, symbol, or device that indicates the source of traded goods and distinguishes those goods from the goods of others. The owner of a trademark can prevent others from using a confusingly similar mark, protecting the goodwill that a brand carries with it. But the trademark can't be used to prevent them from selling the same goods under a clearly different mark. See Copyright, Patent, Trademark, Trade Secret, and WIPO.
The part of a computer which performs the arithmetic and logic functions. Also, the information impressed or modulated on a transmission carrier ” either voice or data.
Software that has been taught something of your desires or preferences and acts on your behalf to do things for you. It might, for example, search through incoming material on networks (e-mail and news) and find what you're interested in or looking for. It might, for example, monitor your TV viewing habits, accept general instructions about your preferences and then, on its own, browse through huge databases of available videos and make recommendations about programs you might be interested in viewing.
A Rolm term, explained thus: "When your customers call ” or you call them ” the Rolm 9751 CBX system can use automatic number identification (ANI) or dialed number identification service (DNIS) to identify the caller and the reason for that call."
A concept Apple is pushing for its Newton PDA. Newton can anticipate what you want to do and provide a bit of help. This is how Fortune Magazine explained it: For example, scrawl "lunch with John Thursday." My Newton would assume that Thursday means next Thursday and that John is the John I've been meeting with a lot lately, John Sculley, and that I want to eat at 12:30, my usual lunch hour. Newton updates my calendar, and presto, displays the entry for my approval. I can okay it or change it.
If your business is like Technology Investor Magazine, it has different software programs for each business task ” accounting, sales automation, order entry, inventory, etc. If you could get those pieces of software to talk to each other, and to talk sense to each other, you could save time, lower labor costs, improve your products and provide better customer service. Better yet, if you could get your internal software programs talking to software at your suppliers and customers, you could save even more money, labor and time. That's what integration software does. Every business of any size can use it to improve how their business works. There are three types of integration software: enterprise application, business-to-business, and business-to-community. What's the difference? All integration software lets two or more software applications ” e.g. accounting and inventory ” exchange (transport) and understand (transformation) each other's data. That's why it's often called plumbing software. Enterprise application integration (EAI) software links a company's "inside" applications ” the software only its employees use. It's what used to be called middle- ware, but with better management and more features. Plus, it connects all applications ” a universal translator of sorts. Middleware usually connects just two specific applications. EAI also does intelligent business process routing ” telling each piece of software where to send its data to complete all the necessary business processes. Think of what customer relationship management software should do after a salesperson enters an order: notify accounting to register the income, advise accounts receivable to issue a bill, tell inventory to see if the product is in stock, let shipping know to print a packing slip, and tell logistics to schedule delivery, etc.
ICM. A generic name for a system that distributes phone calls across geographically distributed call centers. The ICM system provides pre-routing, post-routing, and performance monitoring.
A concentrator which receives signals from a device on one port and retransmits them to devices on other ports. An intelligent concentrator is one that has software and therefore has programming capabilities.
A hub that performs bridging and routing functions in a collapsed backbone environment. In short, it functions both as a bridge and multiprotocol router.
IMASS. A method of automatically determining the presence of existing private operational fixed microwave (OFM) systems in the areas near base stations, and avoiding the use of frequencies for the PCS or cellular base station which might cause unacceptable interference. Instead the PCS or cellular systems will use frequencies in each area, which are not being used by nearly OFM systems. Techniques such as this will be helpful to PCS service providers coexisting with the incumbent OFM systems, until they can be relocated to difference frequencies according to the FCC rules.
IN. A network that allows functionality to be distributed flexibly at a variety of nodes on and off the network and allows the architecture to be modified to control the services. The most familiar intelligent network is the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). In North America, the Intelligent Network is an advanced network concept that is envisioned to offer such things as (a) distributed call-processing capabilities across multiple network modules, (b) real-time authorization code verification, (c) one-number services, and (d) flexible private network services (including (1) reconfiguration by subscriber, (2) traffic analyses, (3) service restrictions, (4) routing control, and (5) data on call histories). Levels of IN development are:
IN/1. A protocol intelligent network targeted toward services that allow increased customer control and that can be provided by centralized switching vehicles serving a large customer base.
IN1+. A protocol intelligent network targeted toward services that can be provided by centralized switching vehicles, e.g., access tandems, serving a large customer base.
IN/2. A proposed, advanced intelligent-network concept that extends the distributed IN/1 architecture to accommodate the concept called the "service independence." Traditionally, service logic has been localized at individual switching systems. The IN/2 architecture provides flexibility in the placement of service logic, requiring the use of advanced techniques to manage the distribution of both network data and service logic across multiple IN/2 modules. See AIN, which stands for Advanced Intelligent Network.
See also Dumb Network.
IP. A network system in the Advanced Intelligent Network Release 1 architecture containing an Resource containing an Resource Control Execution Environment (RCEE) functional group that enables flexible information interactions between a user and the network.
When the Bell operating companies get bored they occasionally fantasize about applications for the networks they provide. Here are some of their ideas for what intelligent phones could, if motivated, do:
Select entertainment on demand (movies, music, video); Order groceries or other services or products; Record customized news and sports programming; Enroll and participate in education programs from the convenience of subscribers' living rooms; Find up-to-minute medical, legal and encyclopedic information; Pay bills and manage finances; Make airline, rental car and hotel reservations and buy sports and entertainment tickets.
This refers to modern equipment, such as routers and intelligent switches. These devices are often capable of taking on roles traditionally performed by the network service, such as error correction.
A voice call comes in. Your voice mail machine recognizes it as being urgent, so it gives the caller a message, "Please hold. Harry is away from his desk. I'll find Harry for you." Meantime, it dials several numbers looking for me. It also beeps me. Eventually I call in. It tells me, "John Smith is calling for you. You want him?" Yes, I say and we're connected. This is a simple form of a broad concept that many are beginning to call intelligent routing. See also At Work and Windows Telephony.
A terminal is an input/output device to a distant computer. The terminal may communicate with the computer over a dedicated collection of wires or over phone lines. In the early days, terminals contained no processing power. They simply reflected what the user typed in and what the distant computer responded. As computers became cheaper and with the advent of the "computer on a chip," so it was economically possible to put computing power into a terminal. This reduced the load on the main computer and cut down on communications costs. There are levels of "intelligence" in terminals. An intelligent terminal might perform simple arithmetic functions or it might check the accuracy of input data (does the zip code match the state?). It may perform far more comprehensive processing ” as doing virtually all the local processing, and only transmitting summary results to corporate headquarters once a day. A personal computer can be used and act as an Intelligent Terminal. Many personal computer communications software can emulate terminals, the most common being the DEC VT-100.
A hardware device which generates one-time passwords. In turn, the passwords are verified by a secure server, yielding additional security.
Crosstalk from which information can be derived.
INternational TELecommunications SATellite organization. At its formation, Intelsat was a worldwide consortium of national satellite communications organizations. Intelsat was originally is owned by 138 governments and Intelsat itself owned 24 satellites worldwide. At one stage, INTELSAT owned and operated the world's most extensive global communications satellite system. In June 2001, Intelsat, Ltd. was formed as a result of the privatization of the former intergovernmental organization INTELSAT is now privately owned by an international group of over 200 shareholders; major owners include Lockheed Martin Corporation (beneficial owner), Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited, France Telecom, Telenor Broadband Services A.S., and British Telecommunications plc. The U.S. Open-Market Reorganization for the Betterment of International Telecommunications Act ("ORBIT") required that Intelsat conduct an initial public offering ("IPO") of its equity securities no later than December 31, 2002.
IM. In optical communication, a form of modulation in which the optical power output of a source is varied in accordance with some characteristic of the modulating signal. In intensity modulation, there are no discrete upper and lower sidebands in the usually understood sense of these terms, because present optical sources lack sufficient coherence to produce them. The envelope of the modulated optical signal is an analog of the modulating signal in the sense that the instantaneous power of the envelope is an analog of the characteristic of interest in the modulating signal. Recovery of the modulating signal is by direct detection, not heterodyning.
Means between two things, as opposed to intra, which means inside one thing. Interstate means phone calls and communications between states. Intrastate means communications inside one state. Calling between New York and California is interstate. Calling from Los Angeles to San Francisco is intrastate .
There is some argument about whether words should be spelled intra-state or interframe . In this dictionary, I spell them all without the dash. It seems to make more sense, since the word intra or inter has become an integral part of so many words.
IXC mileage. The airline mileage between two cites. Synonym of Long Haul Mileage and Airline Mileage. See Airline Mileage.
Interaction recording is the automatic recording of discussions between customers and call centers, whether those contacts occur via phone, web chat, or email. Interaction recording also includes automatically recording what how a browsing customer floats around a web site. Once all this information is captured, the job is then to analyze the information for effectiveness ” how many and what type of sales? Did the customer find the answers to his questions?