1 In its early years, like most other telecom firms worldwide, Telecom Finland (TF) operated as a division of the Finnish national post office. TF changed its name to Sonera in 1997. Now, Sonera and Sweden's Telia merged.
2 The U.S.-based author of this chapter had an interesting experience in Helsinki in 2000. From his apartment in Helsinki, the author called the mobile phone of a Nokia executive. The Nokia executive said: "I was surprised to get this call. I hardly ever get a call from a fixed line!"
3 ICT refers to Information and Communications Technologies.
4 See, e.g., www.medialinnakkeet.com for more information.
5 By 2002, Japan and South Korea were being mentioned as the most advanced mobile countries globally.
6 The case studies are based on publicly available news materials from www.digitoday.fi, www.talentum.com, and www.itviikko.fi.
7 A comprehensive listing of Finnish companies operating in the ICT industry can be found at, e.g., http://www.swbusiness.fi/.
8 In mobile telecommunications, there are two kind of network operators: a mobile network operator (MNO, incumbent operator) builds and operates its own network, while a mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) rents transmission capacity from the MNOs but operates under a separate brand and with separate customer billing systems.
9 See, e.g., http://www.gsacom.com/, Mobile Portal Surveys.
10 Such a model can be applied to any content creation business, be it telecommunications or another sector.
11 See, e.g., http://www.franticmedia.com/, http://www.waterwar.tv/, or www.matchem.com.