A directed graph in which assignments to and references to variables are represented by the nodes and information flow is represented by the arcs.
The process of determining why a given set of inputs causes a nonacceptable behavior in a program and what must be changed to cause the behavior to be acceptable.
That aspect of the design or implementation that will result in a symptom.
The process of manually evaluating each statement in a program in the order in which they would be executed by a computer.
Literally, “through time.” A diachronic approach observes the evolution of something over a period of time.