SOAP, Web Services, and the REST Architecture


The World Wide Web (WWW) is unquestionably the largest and, by implication, the most scalable distributed system ever built. Though its original goal of simple content delivery was modest, the way that the Web has scaled is nothing short of miraculous.

Given the success of the Web, there is a body of opinion involved in designing the fundamental Web services architecture (that includes the SOAP specification) for which the means to achieving the same level of application scalability through Web services mirrors that of content scalability in the WWW.

The members of this group are proponents of the REST (REpresentational State Transfer) architecture, which it is claimed is "Web-Friendly." The REST architecture sees a distributed system as a collection of named resources (named with URIs) that support a small set of common verbs (GET, PUT, POST, DELETE) in common with the WWW.

The REST idea of defining global methods is similar to the UNIX concept of pipelining programs. UNIX programs all have three simple interfaces defined (STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR) for every program, which allows any two arbitrary programs to interact. The simplicity of REST as compared to custom network interfaces is analogous to the simplicity of UNIX pipelines vs. writing a custom application to achieve the same functionality. REST embraces simplicity and gains scalability as a result. The Web is a REST system, and the generic interfaces in question are completely described by the semantics of HTTP.[5]


[5] See RESTwiki, http://internet.conveyor.com/RESTwiki/moin.cgi/FrontPage

What this means to the SOAP developer is that certain operations involving the retrieval of data without changing the state of a Web resource should be performed in a manner that is harmonious with the Web. For example, imagine that we want to retrieve the balance of our account from our bank Web service. Ordinarily we might have thought that something like that shown in Figure 3-23 would be ideal. If this message was sent as part of a HTTP POST, then it would be delivered to the SOAP server, which would then extract the parameters and deliver the results via the getBalanceResponse message.

Figure 3-23. A "Web-Unfriendly" message.
 <?xml version="1.0" ?> <env:Envelope      xmlns:env="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/soap-envelope" >   <env:Body>     <bank:getBalance   env:encodingStyle="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/soap-encoding"   xmlns:bank="http://bank.example.org/">       <bank:accountNo>            12345678       </bank:accountNo>     </bank:getBalance>   </env:Body> </env:Envelope> 

However, this is now discouraged by the SOAP specification and instead we are encouraged to use HTTP directly to retrieve the information, rather than "tunneling" SOAP through HTTP to get the information. A "Web-friendly" equivalent of Figure 3-23 is shown in Figure 3-24 where the HTTP request directly identifies the information to be retrieved and informs the Web service that it wants the returned information delivered in SOAP format.

Figure 3-24. A "Web-Friendly" message.
 GET /account?no=12345678  HTTP/1.1 Host: bank.example.org Accept: application/soap+xml 

Figure 3-24 is certainly Web friendly since it uses the Web's application protocol (HTTP). However, there are a number of obstacles that have not yet been overcome at the time of writing that may prove detrimental to this approach:

  1. A service may be exposed over other protocols than HTTP (e.g., SMTP that does not support the GET verb).

  2. This scheme cannot be used if there are intermediate nodes that process SOAP header blocks.

  3. There is no guidance yet provided by the SOAP specification authors on how to turn an RPC definition into its Web-friendly format.

  4. Too much choice for little gain since we have to support the "Web-Unfriendly" approach anyway for those interactions that require the exchange of structured data.

While these techniques may yet come to fruition, it may be a long time before resolution is reached. When architecting applications today, the best compromise that we can offer is to be aware of those situations where you are engaged in pure information retrieval, and ensure that your architecture is extensible enough to change to a Web-friendly mechanism for those interactions tomorrow. Make sure the code that deals with Web services interactions is modular enough to be easily replaced by Web-friendly modules when the W3C architectural recommendations become more specific.



Developing Enterprise Web Services. An Architect's Guide
Developing Enterprise Web Services: An Architects Guide: An Architects Guide
ISBN: 0131401602
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2003
Pages: 141

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