Chapter Summary

[Previous] [Next]

The following points summarize the key concepts of this chapter:

Introduction to Protocols

  • Protocols in a networking environment define the rules and procedures for transmitting data.
  • To send data over a network successfully requires a series of separate steps that must be carried out in a prescribed order.
  • The sending and receiving computers use protocols to:
    • Break data into packets.
    • Add addressing information to the packets.
    • Prepare the packets for transmission.
    • Take the packets off the cable.
    • Copy the data from the packets for reassembly.
    • Pass the reassembled data to the computer.

  • Several stacks are used as standard protocols; the most prominent standard protocols are based on the OSI reference model layers.
  • Protocols are implemented and removed in the same manner as drivers.


  • TCP/IP is an industry-standard suite of protocols providing communication in a heterogeneous environment.
  • The four layers of TCP/IP are the network interface layer, Internet layer, transport layer, and application layer.
  • The TCP protocol works in the transport layer and provides connection-oriented communication between two computers.
  • The UDP protocol works in the transport layer and provides connectionless communication between two computers.
  • The network interface layer of TCP/IP maps to the physical and data-link layers of OSI.
  • The Internet layer of TCP/IP maps to the network layer of OSI.
  • The transport layer of TCP/IP maps to the transport layer of OSI.
  • The application layer of TCP/IP maps to the session, presentation, and application layers of OSI.

NetWare Protocols

  • NetWare protocols were developed before the OSI reference model and therefore do not match the OSI reference model.
  • The five protocols used with NetWare are Media Access Protocol, Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange Protocol (IPX/SPX), Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Service Advertising Protocol (SAP), and NetWare Core Protocol (NCP).

Other Common Protocols

  • Many protocols are used for networking; each has unique advantages and disadvantages.
  • NetBIOS and NetBEUI are commonly used for Microsoft-based, peer-to-peer networks.
  • NetBIOS and NetBEUI are nonroutable protocols.
  • X.25 is a protocol for packet switching.
  • AppleTalk is the protocol developed for Macintosh networks.
  • DECnet is Digital Equipment Corporation's proprietary protocol stack.

MCSE Training Kit Networking Essentials Plus 1999
MCSE Training Kit: Networking Essentials Plus, Third Edition (IT Professional)
ISBN: 157231902X
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2005
Pages: 106

Similar book on Amazon © 2008-2017.
If you may any questions please contact us: