Section C.4. FIPS by the Numbers

C.4. FIPS by the Numbers

The Federal Information Processing Standards Publications describe how the U.S. government acquires computer systems. If you or your company sells computers or anything that connects to them to the government, you will need to be aware of the FIPS PUBS that deal with that equipment and the procedures that surround it. There are actually some computer security industry certifications that are based largely on the mastery of the FIPS PUBS.

The FIPS PUBS list is maintained by the NIST, an agency of the U.S. Computer Departments Technology Administration. In 2005, over a dozen FIPS PUBS were withdrawn. Current information can be obtained by checking the FIPS web site at: or calling the department at 301-975-2832.

Some of the following references include dates, which are written in the government format of YR(YR)-MONTH-DATE.

FIPS 4-2, Representation of calendar date to facilitate interchange of data among information systems.

Adopts American National Standard ANSI X3.30-1997: Representation of Date for Information Interchange (revision of ANSI X3.30-1985 (R1991)). FIPS 4-2 supersedes FIPS PUB 4-1, dated January 27, 1988, and updates the standard for representing calendar date and implements the U.S. government's commitment to use four-digit year elements (e.g., 1999, 2000, etc.) in its information technology systems.

FIPS 5-2 Codes for the Identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the Outlying Areas of the United States, and Associated Areas87 May 28

Provides a set of two-digit numeric codes and a set of two-letter alphabetic codes that represent the 50 states, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas such as the Federated States of Micronesia and Marshall Islands, and the trust territory of Palau.

Additional information on the content of this FIPS may be obtained from the Bureau of the Census at (301) 763-1522.

FIPS 6-4 Counties and Equivalent Entities of the U.S., Its Possessions, and Associated Areas90 Aug 31

Provides the names and three-digit codes that represent the counties and statistically equivalent entities of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the possessions and associated areas of the United States, for use in the interchange of formatted machine-sensible data. Implements ANSI X3.31-1988. Minor editorial corrections made in January 2005.

Additional information on the content of this FIPS may be obtained from the Bureau of the Census at (301) 763-9031.

FIPS 10-4 Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions95 Apr

Provides a list of the basic geopolitical entities in the world, together with the principal administrative divisions that comprise each entity. Each basic geopolitical entity is represented by a two-character, alphabetic country code. Each principal administrative division is identified by a four-character code consisting of the two-character country code followed by a two-character administrative division code. These codes are intended for use in activities associated with the mission of the Department of State and in national defense programs.

Note: Change notices for FIPS 10-4 are issued by the National Geospatial-Intelligency Agency (NGA), and are available on NGA's GEOnet Names Server (GNS) at

Additional information on the content of this FIPS may be obtained from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) at (301) 227-1407.

FIPS 113 Computer Data Authentication85 May 30

Specifies a data authentication algorithm (DAA) which, when applied to computer data, automatically and accurately detects unauthorized modifications, both intentional and accidental. Based on FIPS PUB 46, this standard is compatible with requirements adopted by the Department of Treasury and the banking community to protect electronic fund transfer transactions.

FIPS 140-2 Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules01 May 25

This Federal Information Processing Standard (140-2) was recently approved by the Secretary of Commerce. It specifies the security requirements that will be satisfied by a cryptographic module, providing four increasing, qualitative levels intended to cover a wide range of potential applications and environments. The areas covered, related to the secure design and implementation of a cryptographic module, include specification; ports and interfaces; roles, services, and authentication; finite state model; physical security; operational environment; cryptographic key management; electromagnetic interference/electromagnetic compatibility (EMI/EMC); self-tests; design assurance; and mitigation of other attacks.

This version supersedes FIPS PUB 140-1, January 11, 1994.

FIPS 161-2 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)96 May 22

FIPS 161-2 adopts, with specific conditions, the families of EDI standards known as X12, UN/EDIFACT, and HL7 developed by national and international standards developing organizations. FIPS 161-2 does not mandate the implementation of EDI systems within the federal government but requires the use of the identified families of standards when federal agencies and organizations implement EDI systems.

FIPS 180-2 Secure Hash Standard (SHS)02 Aug

Specifies a secure hash algorithm to be used by both the transmitter and intended receiver of a message in computing and verifying a digital signature.

FIPS 180-2 superseded FIPS 180-1 as of February 1, 2003.

FIPS 181 Automated Password Generator (APG)93 Oct 05

Specifies a standard to be used by Federal organizations that require computer-generated pronounceable passwords to authenticate the personal identity of an automated data processing (ADP) system user, and to authorize access to system resources. The standard describes an automated password generation algorithm that randomly creates simple pronounceable syllables as passwords. The password generator accepts input from a random number generator based on the DES cryptographic algorithm defined in Federal Information Processing Standard 46-2.

FIPS 183 Integration Definition for Function Modeling (IDEF0)93 Dec 21

Describes the IDEF0 modeling language (semantics and syntax), and associated rules and techniques, for developing structured graphical representations of a system or enterprise. Use of this standard permits the construction of models comprising system functions (activities, actions, processes, and operations), functional relationships, and data (information or objects) that support systems integration.

FIPS 184 Integration Definition for Information Modeling (IDEFIX)93 Dec 21

Describes the IDEF1X modeling language (semantics and syntax), and associated rules and techniques, for developing a logical model of data. IDEF1X is used to produce a graphical information model that represents the structure and semantics of information within an environment or system. Use of this standard permits the construction of semantic data models, which may serve to support the management of data as a resource, the integration of information systems, and the building of computer databases.

FIPS 185 Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES)94 Feb 09

This nonmandatory standard provides an encryption/decryption algorithm and a Law Enforcement Access Field (LEAF) creation method that may be implemented in electronic devices and may be used at the option of government agencies to protect government telecommunications. The algorithm and the LEAF creation method are classified and are referenced, but not specified, in the standard. Electronic devices implementing this standard may be designed into cryptographic modules that are integrated into data-security products and systems used in data-security applications. The LEAF is used in a key escrow system that provides for decryption of telecommunications when access to the telecommunications is lawfully authorized.

FIPS 186-2 Digital Signature Standard (DSS)00 Jan 27

Specifies algorithms appropriate for applications requiring a digital, rather than written, signature. A digital signature is represented in a computer as a string of binary digits; it is computed using a set of rules and a set of parameters such that the identity of the signatory and integrity of the data can be verified. An algorithm provides the capability to generate and verify signatures. Signature generation uses a private key to generate a digital signature; it uses a public key that corresponds to, but is not the same as, the private key. Each user possesses a private and public key pair. Private keys are kept secret; public keys may be shared. Anyone can verify the signature of a user by using that user's public key. Signature generation can be performed only by the possessor of the user's private key.

This revision supersedes FIPS 186-1 in its entirety.

FIPS 188 Standard Security Label for Information Transfer94 Sept 6

Defines a security label syntax for information exchanged over data networks and provides label encodings for use at the Application and Network Layers. ANSI/TIA/EIA-606-1993

FIPS 190 Guideline for the Use of Advanced Authentication Technology Alternatives94 Sept 28

Describes the primary alternative methods for verifying the identities of computer system users, and provides recommendations to federal agencies and departments for the acquisition and use of technology that supports these methods.

FIPS 191 Guideline for the Analysis of Local Area Network Security94 Nov 9

Discusses threats and vulnerabilities and considers technical security services and security mechanisms.

FIPS 192 Application Profile for the Government Information Locator Service (GILS)94 Dec 7

Describes an application profile for the GILS, which is based primarily on ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1992. GILS is a decentralized collection of servers and associated information services that is used by the public either directly or through intermediaries to find public information throughout the federal government.

FIPS 192-1 (a) & (b) Application Profile for the Government Information Locator Service (GILS)97 Aug 1

Describes the U.S. federal government use of the international application profile for the GILS. The GILS Profile is based primarily on ISO 23950, presently equivalent to the ANSI/NISO Z39.50-1995/Version 2. GILS is a decentralized collection of servers and associated information services that is used by the public either directly or through intermediaries to find public information throughout the federal government.

FIPS 196 Entity Authentication Using Public Key Cryptography1997 Feb 18

Specifies two challenge-response protocols by which entitites in a computer system may authenticate their identities to one another. These protocols may be used during session initiation, and at any other time that entity authentication is necessary. Depending on which protocol is implemented, either one or both entities involved may be authenticated. The defined protocols are derived from an international standard for entity authentication based on public key cryptography, which uses digital signatures and random number challenges.

FIPS 197 Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)01 Nov 26

The AES specifies a FIPS-approved cryptographic algorithm that can be used to protect electronic data. The AES algorithm is a symmetric block cipher that can encrypt (encipher) and decrypt (decipher) information. Encryption converts data to an unintelligible form called ciphertext; decrypting the ciphertext converts the data back to its original form, called plaintext.

FIPS 198 The Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC)02 March

This standard describes a keyed-hash message authentication code (HMAC), a mechanism for message authentication using cryptographic hash functions. HMAC can be used with any iterative approved cryptographic hash function, in combination with a shared secret key. The cryptographic strength of HMAC depends on the properties of the underlying hash function. The HMAC specification in this standard is a generalization of Internet RFC 2104, HMAC, Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication, and ANSI X9.71, Keyed Hash Message Authentication Code.

FIPS 199 Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems04 Feb

FIPS 199 addresses one of the requirements specified in the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) of 2002, which requires all federal agencies to develop, document, and implement agency-wide information security programs for the information and information systems that support the operations and the assets of the agency, including those provided or managed by another agency, contractor, or other source. FIPS 199 provides security categorization standards for information and information systems. Security categorization standards make available a common framework and method for expressing security. They promote the effective management and oversight of information security programs, including the coordination of information security efforts throughout the civilian, national security, emergency preparedness, homeland security, and law enforcement communities. Such standards also enable consistent reporting to OMB and Congress on the adequacy and effectiveness of information security policies, procedures, and practices.

FIPS 201 Personal Identity Verification for Federal Employees and Contractors05 Feb

This standard specifies the architecture and technical requirements for a common identification standard for federal employees and contractors. The overall goal is to achieve appropriate security assurance for multiple applications by efficiently verifying the claimed identity of individuals seeking physical access to federally controlled government facilities and electronic access to government information systems.

Computer Security Basics
Computer Security Basics
ISBN: 0596006691
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 121

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