Throughout this handbook, specific security vectors and configuration settings are suggested. Each HP NonStop server may have unique security requirements. In researching those requirements, three distinct types of security levels were identified:
Highly secure system
Commercially secure system
Moderately secure system
A highly secure system contains both strict user authorization and enforced user - operation-object restrictions (Access Control Lists).
When corporate needs require this level of security, only the most complete implementation of Safeguard software or a third party equivalent will suffice. Each user's identity must be positively verified , often with an additional identification mechanism such as a cryptographic token. There must be explicit permission for each user to access each object necessary for the user's job function, with no implicit security measures acceptable. All access attempts not explicitly permitted must be denied .
Authorized system activity and audit reports must be reviewed often and violations must be aggressively and rapidly pursued to a resolution.
A commercially secure system has strict user authorization and user-operation-object restrictions, ensuring that the system is functionally secure.
When a corporation uses this level of security, the amount of time spent on security implementation is balanced against the chance of loss. The user must be positively identified, though an additional identification mechanism such as a cryptographic token is unusual. Both implicit and explicit user-operation-object controls are acceptable. All user access attempts that are not explicitly permitted are denied, but users who are otherwise authorized may depend on implicit access.
System activity that has been authorized is reviewed as necessary. Failed activity reports are reviewed often and violations must be pursued to a resolution.
A moderately secure system is one that does not handle confidential information and has all resources generally available to all users on the system. The user is positively identified when logging on to the system, but there are generally few or no user- operation-object controls. Many general users have access to system tools, configuration files, and applications. While these systems may be secured from external entry, the internal security is very open to the users of the system.
With this level of security, the system must be available only to internal personnel; external access to the system must be restricted. If external access to such a system is permitted, the system must be considered insecure and cut off from accessing more highly secured systems.
Failed activity reports are reviewed on this system on a regular basis. External violations must be pursued, but internal violations are often handled by direct contact.
The Corporate Security Policy and/or Security Standards should specify how the HP NonStop server should be secured in the environment. The following questions can help determine a general security level:
Is this system connected via an interactive network to other systems?
Does this system supply data to another system?
Will users from networked systems have access to this system?
What is the primary use of the system?
What is the level of sensitivity of the data contained on the system?
What is the level of confidentiality of the data contained on the system?
What methods are used to physically secure the system?
What methods are used to secure user access to the system?
Third party tools
Are there outside security requirements that must be met, such as governmental regulations?
For the purpose of reading this handbook, the security standards that are implied are those for the "commercially secure" system.
This book primarily addresses the security of HP NonStop server system files, processes, users, security controls, and security products.
Please note that while addressing the higher level issues surrounding the security requirements for applications, this book cannot address specific application security needs since each application has unique security needs. In addition, methods of physical security are not directly addressed in this handbook, but are very important to the overall security of any computer system.