To help you understand and follow what is going on throughout this text, and to maintain consistency, we have used a number of different styles of text and layout. Here are some examples of these, and what they mean:
Note text is a style that is used to display some information aside from the general discussion, such as advice, hints, and other sideline information.
When important words are introduced for the first time, they are displayed in italics to stand out from the page.
We use three styles to display code. The first is used when we are referring to code within the main body of the text. In this case, code in text appears in a monospaced font.
The second is used when there are full pieces of standalone code you can run, or when there is code that is new or important to take in. The third type of formatting is used when there are snippets of code, or code that you have seen before.
Shading in code is also sometimes used when command lines are shown, with the output of a command being displayed without shading, as in the following example:
> ls file.txt This is the output from the command