Performing Localization

As mentioned in Rendering Components for Selecting Multiple Values (page 349), data and messages in the Duke's Bookstore application have been localized for French, German, Spanish, and American English.

This section explains how to produce the localized error messages as well as how to localize dynamic data and messages.

Rendering Components for Selecting Multiple Values (page 349) describes how page authors access localized data from the page.

If you are not familiar with the basics of localizing web applications, see Chapter 14.

Creating a Resource Bundle

A ResourceBundle contains a set of localized messages. To learn how to create a ResourceBundle, see

After you create the ResourceBundle, put it in the same directory as your classes. Much of the data for the Duke's Bookstore application is stored in a ResourceBundle called BookstoreMessages, located in <INSTALL>/javaeetutorial5/examples/web/bookstore/src/java/com/sun/bookstore/messages/.

Localizing Dynamic Data

The Duke's Bookstore application has some data that is set dynamically in backing beans. Because of this, the beans must load the localized data themselves; the data can't be loaded from the page.

The message method in AbstractBean is a general-purpose method that looks up localized data used in the backing beans:

   protected void message(String clientId, String key) {      // Look up the requested message text      String text = null;      try {         ResourceBundle bundle =            ResourceBundle.getBundle("messages.BookstoreMessages",              context().getViewRoot().getLocale());         text = bundle.getString(key);      } catch (Exception e) {         text = "???" + key + "???";      }      // Construct and add a FacesMessage containing it      context().addMessage(clientId, new FacesMessage(text));    }

This method gets the current locale from the UIViewRoot instance of the current request and loads the localized data for the messages using the getBundle method, passing in the path to the ResourceBundle and the current locale.

The other backing beans call this method by using the key to the message that they are trying to retrieve from the resource bundle. Here is a call to the message method from ShowCartBean:

   message(null, "Quantities Updated");

Localizing Messages

The JavaServer Faces API provides two ways to create messages from a resource bundle:

  • You can register the ResourceBundle instance with the application configuration resource file and use a message factory pattern to examine the ResouceBundle and to generate localized FacesMessage instances, which represent single localized messages. The message factory pattern is required to access messages that are registered with the Application instance. Instead of writing your own message factory pattern, you can use the one included with the Duke's Bookstore application. It is called MessageFactory and is located in <INSTALL>/javaeetutorial5/examples/web/bookstore6/src/java/com/sun/bookstore6/util/.

  • You can use the FacesMessage class to get the localized string directly from the ResourceBundle instance.

Registering Custom Error Messages (page 470) includes an example of registering a ResourceBundle in the application configuration resource file.

Creating a Message with a Message Factory

To use a message factory to create a message, follow these steps:


Register the ResourceBundle instance with the application. This is explained in Registering Custom Error Messages (page 470).


Create a message factory implementation. You can simply copy the MessageFactory class included with the Duke's Bookstore application to your application.


Access a message from your application by calling the getMessage(FacesContext, String, Object) method of the MessageFactory class. The MessageFactory class uses the FacesContext to access the Application instance on which the messages are registered. The String argument is the key that corresponds to the message in the ResourceBundle. The Object instance typically contains the substitution parameters that are embedded in the message. For example, the custom validator described in Implementing the Validator Interface (page 412) will substitute the format pattern for the {0} in this error message:

Input must match one of the following patterns {0}

Implementing the Validator Interface (page 412) gives an example of accessing messages.

Using FacesMessage to Create a Message

Instead of registering messages in the application configuration resource file, you can access the ResourceBundle directly from the code. The validateEmail method from the Coffee Break example does this:

   ...    String message = "";    ...    message = CoffeeBreakBean.loadErrorMessage(context,      CoffeeBreakBean.CB_RESOURCE_BUNDLE_NAME,         "EMailError");    context.addMessage(toValidate.getClientId(context),      new FacesMessage(message));    ...

These lines also call the loadErrorMessage to get the message from the ResourceBundle. Here is the loadErrorMessage method from CoffeeBreakBean:

   public static String loadErrorMessage(FacesContext context,      String basename, String key) {      if ( bundle == null ) {         try {            bundle = ResourceBundle.getBundle(basename,              context.getViewRoot().getLocale());         } catch (Exception e) {            return null;         }      }      return bundle.getString(key);    }

The JavaT EE 5 Tutorial
The JavaT EE 5 Tutorial
Year: 2004
Pages: 309 © 2008-2017.
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