Section 5.5. So Many Distributions, So Little Time


5.5. So Many Distributions, So Little Time

At last count on http://www.linux.org, there were over 350 different Linux distributions. In an annoyance-free world, everyone could download her favorite distribution and get courteous and free support from the wide variety of Linux geeks dedicated to support online. So much for the perfect world!

Many people think of Linux as a free operating system. Linux geeks know that isn't quite true. Support takes time, which is valuable. Many Linux distributions, including Red Hat and SUSE, provide fee-based support for licensed installations of their distributions. If you're willing to get your support directly from the community, there are alternatives to the well-known licensed Linux systems.

Red Hat network entitlements are expensive. They start at $179 for Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS (workstation) and can reach above $2,500 per system for Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS (advanced server). While Red Hat is the "name brand" Linux distribution, there are ways to get the same software for the cost of support. Novell's support fees for SUSE are similar: they start at $60 for SUSE 10.0 and can reach $14,000 for SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 9 for IBM Z Series servers.

Red Hat's move away from standard supported distributions has dismayed a significant part of the Linux community. However, Red Hat continues to release the source code for all but the proprietary packages of their Enterprise distribution. This means the Linux community has access to the same software that Red Hat is licensing. Similarly, SUSE releases many of the binary packages for its latest workstation and server distributions, with ISOs available some weeks later.

5.5.1. Alternative Distributions

As a Linux geek, you probably already know something about the variety of available Linux distributions. You may already have your favorites. In most cases, distributions organize packages in one of two camps: RPMs or DEBs. In other words, they work with the RPM Package Manager or the Debian package system.

In this book, we've focused on Red Hat/Fedora, Novell/SUSE, and Debian. This is patently unfair to the wide variety of available distributions. I've included in Table 5-5 an arbitrary sample of alternative distributions that include some level of support, assuming you've purchased an official version of their product. The list is less than fair, as it does not mention many of the benefits of distributions such as Knoppix and Ubuntu (both derivatives of Debian). A more complete list is available from http://www.linux.org/dist/list.html.

Table 5-5. Alternative Linux distributions

Name

URL

Support

Comments

Gentoo

www.gentoo.org

Mailing lists

Focused on developers and power users; uses portage for package management

Mandriva

www.mandriva.com

Support incidents

Based on the merger of Mandrake and Conectiva

Knoppix

www.knopper.net/knoppix/index-en.html

From knopper.net in Germany

Based on Debian Linux

Slackware

www.slackware.com

Support providers listed on web site

From Patrick Volkerding

Yellow Dog

www.yellowdoglinux.com

Phone, install, and mailing list

For PowerPCs; home of yum

Turbolinux

www.turbolinux.com

Limited installation support

Largest distribution in Asia

Linspire

www.linspire.com

Email and on-call support

Formerly known as Lindows; sold with Wal-Mart PCs

Ubuntu

www.ubuntu.com

Focused on usability in all languages

Based on Debian Linux

Xandros

www.xandros.com

Email support

Also known for compatibility with Microsoft Windows; based on Debian


5.5.2. Red Hat Enterprise Rebuilds

Red Hat builds the software for its distributions from source code, organized in source RPMs. Red Hat releases this enterprise-quality source code on public FTP servers. When others compile this source code into a distribution, it is known as a "rebuild." The process is considerably more complex than just compiling source RPM files.

Several groups have sprung up to provide "rebuilds" based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux source code. I personally prefer the cAos rebuild (http://www.caosity.org), as the cAos Foundation keeps its rebuilds up-to-date with the latest Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3/4 updates. (Its rebuilds of these distributions are officially known as CentOS-3/CentOS-4.) While others have also kept their "rebuilds" up-to-date, cAos at this time appears to have the most active community. But even with volunteers, maintenance and download servers are expensive, and cAos has requested that users contribute $12/year per system.

I've found the cAos updates are available about a month after Red Hat releases its updates. While cAos has modified the icons and other graphics to avoid Red Hat trademarks violations, the software is identical to what is released in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3/4 in almost every respect. One exception is that it uses the yum (Yellow Dog Updater, Modified) for updates, as is done with Fedora Linux. Others follow a similar model. Table 5-6 lists a few Red Hat clones, along with their web sites.

Table 5-6. Rebuilds of Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Name

URL

Notes

CentOS

www.caosity.org

Author preference

White Box Linux

www.whiteboxlinux.org

First with an official rebuild

TaoLinux

www.taolinux.org

From Alfred University, New York

Lineox

www.raimokoski.com/lineox

European distribution; CDs/apt-based support available from its web site

Scientific Linux

www.scientificlinux.org

Based on a consortium of labs and universities

Rocks

www.rocksclusters.org

Configured for cluster management; CDs available through CheapBytes


If you need an official level of support, there are alternatives to Red Hat. Progeny supports the most recent versions of Red Hat Linux (8 and 9), released before 2003. cAos has links to corporate levels of support at www.caosity.org/support/commercial. But if you are a Linux geek, you may be able to support your Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3/4 rebuild installations on your own, with a little help from the community, as described in the next annoyance.

The third-party rebuilds of Red Hat Enterprise Linux are an inexpensive way to practice for the Red Hat certifications. For more information, see http://www.redhat.com/training/certification.




Linux Annoyances for Geeks
Linux Annoyances for Geeks: Getting the Most Flexible System in the World Just the Way You Want It
ISBN: 0596008015
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 144
Authors: Michael Jang

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