6.

c++ neural networks and fuzzy logic C++ Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic
by Valluru B. Rao
M&T Books, IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.
ISBN: 1558515526   Pub Date: 06/01/95
  

Table of Contents


Index

A

ABAM see Adaptive Bi-directional Associative Memory
abstract class, 138
abstract data type, 22
accumulation-distribution, 402, 404,
activation, 3, 18, 89
zero, 182
Adaline, 81, 82, 102, 103, 112
adaptation, 77, 120
Adaptive Bi-directional Associative Memory, 181, 212
Competitive, 212
Differential
Competitive, 212
Hebbian, 212
adaptive filters, 120
adaptive linear element, 102
adaptive models, 120
adaptive parameters, 373
adaptive resonance, 118
Adaptive Resonance Theory I, 104, 107, 108, 115, 117, 243
algorithm for calculations, 246
equations for, 246
F1 layer calculations, 247
F2 layer calculations, 247
modifying connection weights, 248
Top-down inputs, 247
two-thirds rule, 244, 245
Adaptive Resonance Theory II, 248
Adaptive Resonance Theory III, 248
additive composition method, 506
advancing issues, 387
aggregation, 82, 87, 98
Ahmadian, 513
Aiken, 405
algorithm, 1
backpropagation, 7, 103, 271, 373, 375
constructive, 121
data clustering, 245
encoding, 94, 96
learning algorithm , 61, 79, 102, 118
adaptive steepest descent, 410
alpha, 273, 274, 330, 372, 373, 384
alphabet classifier system, 320
Amari, 104
analog, 73, 74, 322
signal, 8
AND operation , 64
Anderson, 105
annealing
process, 430
schedule 113
simulated annealing, 113, 114
Anzai, 456, 472
application, 102, 374, 511
nature of , 74
approximation, 109
architecture, 7, 81, 120, 373
Artificial Intelligence , 6, 34
artificial neural network , 1
ART1 see Adaptive Resonance Theory I
ART2 see Adaptive Resonance Theory II
ART3 see Adaptive Resonance Theory III
artneuron class, 249
ASCII, 305, 306, 307, 329
graphic characters, 306
assocpair class
in BAM network, 186
association, 218
asynchronously , 1, 14
asynchronous update, 13, 62
attentional subsystem, 107, 243
Augusteijn, 512
autoassociation , 7, 8, 82,, 92, 102, 180
autoassociative network, 7, 64, 97, 375
average winner distance, 296
Azoff, 410

B

backpropagated errors, 144
Backpropagation, 10, 103, 104, 120, 123, 302, 325, 329, 374
algorithm, 7, 103, 271, 373, 375
beta, 330
calculating error, 396
calculations, 128, 130
changing beta while training, 337
choosing middle layer size, 372
convergence, 372
momentum term, 330
noise factor, 336
self-supervised, 375
simulator, 134, 173, 337, 375, 377, 396
training and testing, 396
training law, 333
variations of , 373
Baer, 516
BAM see Bi-directional Associative Memory
bar
chart, 403, 404
features, 513
Barron’s, 377, 378, 388
base class , 25, 28, 138
beta, 136, 337, 372, 373, 384
bias, 16, 77, 125, 128, 378
Bi-directional Associative Memory, 81, 92, 104, 115, 117, 179, 185, 215
connection weight matrix, 212
continuous, 211
inputs, 180
network, 104
outputs, 180
training, 181
Unipolar Binary, 212
bin, 325
binary , 8, 15, 51, 65, 73, 74, 104
input pattern, 51, 98
patterns 11, 97
string, 16, 62
binary to bipolar mapping, 62, 63
binding
dynamic binding , 24, 139
late binding , 24
static binding, 139
bipolar, 15, 17, 104
mapping, 97
string, 16, 62, 180
bit pattern, 13
Blending problem, 418
block averages, 393
bmneuron class, 186
Boltzmann distribution, 113
Boltzmann machine, 92, 112, 113, 118, 419, 512
Booch, 21
boolean logic, 50
bottom-up
connection weight, 248
connections, 107, 244
Box-Jenkins methodology, 406
Brain-State-in-a-Box, 81, 82, 105
breadth, 387, 389
Buckles, 484
buy/sell signals, 409, 410

C

cache, 137
Cader, 406
CAM see Content-Addressable-Memory
Carpenter, 92, 107, 117, 243, 269, 517
car navigation, 374
cartesian product, 479
cascade-correlation, 512
Cash Register game, 3, 65
categorization of inputs, 261
category, 37
Cauchy distribution, 113
Cauchy machine, 112, 113, 419
cells
complex cells, 106
simple cells, 106
center of area method, 504
centroid, 507, 508
character recognition, 305
characters
alphabetic, 305
ASCII, 306, 307
garbled, 322
graphic, 306, 307
handwritten, 320
Chawla, 514
Chiang, 513
cin, 25, 58, 71
clamping probabilities, 114
Clinton, Hillary, 405
C language, 21
class, 22
abstract class, 138
base class, 25, 28, 138, 139
derived class, 23, 25, 26, 144
friend class, 23
hierarchy, 27, 138, 139
input_layer class, 138
iostream class, 71
network class, 53, 66
output_layer class, 138
parent class, 26
classification, 322
C layer, 106
codebook vectors, 116
Cohen, 212
Collard, 405
column vector, 97
combinatorial problem, 422
comparison layer, 244
competition, 9, 94, 97
competitive learning, 243
compilers
C++ compilers, 27
compilation error messages, 27
complement, 33, 185, 201, 202
complex cells, 106
composition
max-min, 220
compressor, 375
Computer Science, 34
conditional fuzzy
mean, 491
variance, 491
conjugate gradient methods, 373
conjunction operator, 505
connections, 2, 93, 102
bottom-up, 107
excitatory, 272
feedback , 82
inhibitory , 272
lateral, 93, 97, 107, 272, 276
recurrent, 82, 107, 179
top-down, 107
connection weight matrix, 220
connection weights, 89, 98
conscience factor, 302
constraints, 417
constructor, 23, 28, 55, 66
default constructor, 23
Consumer Price Index, 387
Content-Addressable-Memory, 5
continuous
Bi-directional Associative Memory, 211
models, 98
convergence, 78, 79, 96, 118, 119, 132, 323, 372, 373, 375
cooperation, 9, 94
correlation matrix, 9, 63
correlation-product encoding, 220
cost function, 124, 373
Cottrell, 374
counterpropagation, 106
network, 92, 93, 302
cout, 25, 58
C++, 21
classes, 138
code, 36
comments, 58
compilers, 27
implementation, 185
crisp, 31, 73, 74
data sets, 475
rules, 48, 217
values, 50
cube, 84, 87, 89, 90
cum_deltas, 331
cycle, 78, 125
learning cycle, 103
cyclic information, 380

D

data biasing, 378
data hiding, 21, 22
data clustering, 109, 245
data completion, 102
data compression, 102, 302
Deboeck, 406
Davalo, 457
de la Maza, 410
Decision support systems, 75
declining issues, 387
decompressor, 375
decorrelation, 384
default
constructor, 23, 66
destructor, 23
defuzzification, 504, 506
degenerate tour, 424
degree of
certainty, 31
membership, 32, 477
degrees of freedom, 383
delete, 24, 144
delta rule, 110-113
derived class, 23, 25, 26, 144
descendant, 139, 143
DeSieno, 302
destructor, 23, 24
digital signal processing boards, 325
dimensionality, 381, 382, 384
directed graph, 65
discount rate, 35
discretization of a character, 98
discrete models, 98
discriminator, 517
disjunction operator, 506
display_input_char function, 308
display_winner_weights function, 308
distance
Euclidean, 13
Hamming, 13
DJIA see Dow Jones Industrial Average
DOF see degrees of freedom
domains, 479, 484
dot product, 11, 12, 51, 64, 65
Dow Jones Industrial Average, 378, 386
dual confirmation trading system, 408
dynamic allocation of memory, 24
dynamic binding, 24, 139
dynamics
adaptive, 74
nonadaptive, 74

E

EMA see exponential moving average
encapsulate, 29
encapsulation, 21, 22
encode, 375
encoding, 7, 81, 220
algorithm, 94, 96
correlation-product, 220
phase, 94
thermometer, 380
time, 120
energy, 422
function, 119
level, 113, 422
surface, 177
Engineering, 34
epoch, 125
Ercal, 514
error signal, 103
error surface, 113
error tolerance, 136
Euclidean distance, 13, 280, 296
excitation, 94, 98, 276, 303
excitatory connections, 244, 272
exclusive or, 83
exemplar, 181-183, 201
class in BAM network, 186
pairs, 135, 177
patterns, 135, 177
exemplar pattern, 16, 64
exemplars, 64, 65, 74, 75, 115, 181
Expert systems, 48, 75, 217
exponential moving average, 399
extended (database) model, 486
extended-delta-bar-delta, 406

F

factorial, 420
FAM see Fuzzy Associative Memories
Fast Fourier Transform, 374
fault tolerance, 374
feature detector, 328
feature extraction, 7, 513
Federal Reserve, 388, 388
feedback, 4, 5, 93
connections, 123, 179
feed forward
Backpropagation, 81, 92, 112, 115, 123, 384,
network , 145, 406, 409, 511,
architecture, 124,
layout, 124,
network, 10
operation, 185
type, 2
field, 82
filter, 322
financial forecasting, 377
fire, 3, 71, 87, 89
first derivative, 380
fiscal policy, 36
fit values, 32, 217
fit vector, 32, 217, 221
floating point calculations, 519
compilation for, 519
F1 layer, 245
calculations, 247
Fogel, 76, 77
forecasting, 102
model, 378
T-Bill yields, 405
T-Note yields, 405
forward, 93, 104
Fourier transform, 380
Frank, 515
Freeman, 246, 248
frequency
component, 380
signature, 374
frequency spikes, 380
friend class, 23, 66, 68
F2 layer, 245
calculations, 247
Fukushima, 92, 106
function
constructor function, 28
energy function, 119
evaluation, 109
fuzzy step function, 101
hyperbolic tangent function, 100
linear function, 99, 102
logistic function, 86, 100
Lyapunov function, 118, 119
member function, 28, 308
objective, 417
overloading, 25, 139
ramp function, 99, 101, 102
reference function, 493
sigmoid
function, 99, 100, 126, 129, 133, 164, 177, 395
logistic function, 100
step function, 99, 101
threshold function, 52, 95, 99, 101
XOR function, 83-85, 87
fuzzifier, 35, 36, 47
program, 50
fuzziness, 48, 50
fuzzy adaptive system, 49
fuzzy ARTMAP, 517
fuzzy association, 217
Fuzzy Associative Memories, 49, 50, 81, 92, 104, 115, 117, 217, 218, 473
encoding, 219, 220
Fuzzy Cognitive Map, 48, 49
fuzzy conditional expectations, 490, 509
fuzzy control , 497, 509
system, 47, 48, 473
fuzzy controller, 47
fuzzy database, 473, 475, 509
fuzzy expected value, 490
fuzzy equivalence relation, 481
fuzzy events, 488, 509
conditional probability of, 491
probability of , 490
fuzzy inputs, 47, 73
fuzzy logic, 31, 34, 50, 473
controller, 473, 497, 509
fuzzy matrix, 217
fuzzy means, 488, 490, 509
fuzzy numbers, 493, 496
triangular, 496
fuzzy OR method, 505
fuzzy outputs, 47, 74
fuzzy quantification, 488
fuzzy queries, 483, 488
fuzzy relations, 479, 509
matrix representation, 479
fuzzy rule base, 502-504
fuzzy rules, 47, 50
fuzzy set, 32, 50, 218, 477, 488
complement, 218
height, 218
normal, 218
operations, 32, 217
fuzzy systems, 50, 217
fuzzy-valued, 34
fuzzy values, 477
fuzzy variances, 488, 490, 509
fzneuron class, 221

G

Gader, 513
gain , 107
constant, 273
parameter, 429, 467
gain control, 243, 248
unit, 244
Gallant, 117
Ganesh, 514
Gaussian density function, 458, 459, 524
generalization, 121, 320, 382
ability, 121, 336
generalized delta rule, 112, 176
genetic algorithms, 75, 76, 385
global
minimum, 113, 177
variable, 28
Glover, 471
gradient, 112, 113
grandmother cells, 117
gray scale, 305, 306, 322, 374
grid, 214, 305
Grossberg, 19, 92, 93, 107, 117, 243, 269
Grossberg layer, 9, 19, 82, 92, 106, 302

H

Hamming distance, 13, 201, 202
handwriting analysis, 98
handwriting recognition, 102
handwritten characters, 92
heap, 144
Hebb, 110
Hebbian
conditioned learning, 302
learning, 105, 110
Hebb’s rule, 110, 111
Hecht-Nielsen, 93, 106, 302
Herrick Payoff Index, 401
heteroassociation, 7, 8, 82, 92, 102, 104, 180, 181
heteroassociative network, 7, 97
hidden layer, 2, 4, 75, 86, 89
hierarchical neural network, 407
hierarchies of classes, 27, 29
Hinton, 114
Hoff, 102, 112
holographic neural network, 408
Honig, 515
Hopfield, 422, 427, 429
memory, 73, 115, 117, 181
Hopfield network, 9, 11-14, 16, 19, 51, 79, 81, 82, 93, 111, 119, 120, 181, 472
Hotelling transform, 384
Housing Starts, 387
hybrid models, 75
hyperbolic tangent function, 429
hypercube, 218
unit, 218
hyperplane, 84
hypersphere, 273

I

image, 106, 302
compression, 374
processing, 98, 102
five-way transform, 516
recognition, 375
resolution, 322
implementation of functions, 67
ineuron class, 66
inference engine, 47
inheritance, 21, 25, 26, 138
multiple inheritance, 26
inhibition, 9, 94, 98
global, 428, 456
lateral, 272, 276
inhibitory connection, 272
initialization of
bottom-up weights, 250
parameters, 246
top-down weights, 250
weights, 94
inline, 165
input, 98
binary input, 98
bipolar input, 98
layer, 2, 10
nature of , 73
number of , 74
patterns, 51, 65
signals, 65
space, 124
vector, 53, 71, 272, 112
input/output, 71
inqreset function, 251
instar, 93
interactions, 94
interconnections, 7
interest rate, 387
internal activation , 3
intersection, 32, 33
inverse mapping, 62, 182
Investor’s Business Daily, 388
iostream, 54, 71
istream, 58
iterative process, 78

J

Jagota, 514
January effect, 380
Jurik, 381, 384, 392

K

Karhunen-Loev transform, 384
Katz, 377
Kimoto, 408
kohonen.dat file, 275, 298, 300, 317
Kohonen, 19, 116, 117, 245, 271, 303, 456
Kohonen feature map, 16, 271, 273, 303, 305, 323
conscience factor, 302
neighborhood size, 280, 299, 300
training law, 273
Kohonen layer, 9, 19, 82, 92, 106, 298, 302, 322
class, 276
Kohonen network, 275, 276, 280, 300, 303, 322
applications of, 302,
Kohonen output layer, 275
Kohonen Self-Organizing Map, 115, 456, 471, 472
Kosaka, 409,
Kosko, 49, 50, 104, 215, 242, 506
Kostenius, 408, 409
Kronecker delta function 428, 524

L

lambda, 136, 433
late binding, 24
lateral, 93
lateral competition, 303
laterally connected, 65
lateral connections, 93, 97, 107, 272, 276
lateral inhibition, 272, 276
layer, 2, 81
C layer, 106
comparison, 244
complex layer, 106
F1, 244
F2, 244
Grossberg layer, 82, 92, 302
hidden layer, 75, 81, 86, 89
input layer, 2, 3, 82
Kohonen layer, 82, 92, 302, 322
middle layer, 329, 372
output layer, 2, 82
recognition, 244
S layer, 106
simple layer, 106
layout, 52, 86, 124
ART1, 244
BAM , 180
Brain-State-in-a-Box, 105
FAM, 219
Hopfield network, 11
for TSP, 427
LVQ, 117
Madaline model, 103
LBS Capital Management, 377
learning, 4, 74, 98, 109, 110, 117, 118
algorithm, 61, 79, 102, 118
cycle, 103
Hebbian, 105, 110
one-shot, 117
probabilistic, 113
rate(parameter), 111, 112, 123, 125, 127, 136, 175
supervised learning, 5, 110, 112, 117, 121
time, 120
unsupervised
competitive learning, 271
learning, 5, 110, 117, 121
Learning Vector Quantizer, 115-117, 302
least mean squared error, 111, 119, 123, 419
rule, 111
Le Cun, 375
Lee, 512
Levenberg-Marquardt optimization, 373
Lewis, 377
Lin, 512
linear function, 99, 102
linear possibility regression model, 493, 496, 509
linear programming, 417
integer, 417
linearly separable, 83- 85
LMS see least mean squared error rule
local minimum, 113, 177, 325
logic
boolean logic, 50
fuzzy logic, 31, 34, 50, 473
logical operations, 31
AND, 64
logistic function, 86, 100
Long-term memory, 6, 77- 79, 118, 472
traces of, 243
look-up
memory, 5
table, 106
LTM see Long-term memory
LVQ see Learning Vector Quantizer
Lyapunov Function, 118, 119

M

MACD see moving average convergence divergence
Madaline, 102, 103
main diagonal, 63, 480
malignant melanoma, 514
malloc, 24
Mandelman, 378
MAPE see mean absolute percentage error
mapping, 123, 180
binary to bipolar, 62, 63
inverse, 62, 182
nonlinear, 109
real to binary, 180
mapping surface, 109
Markowitz, 470
Marquez, 406
Mason, 516
matrix, 97, 521
addition, 521
correlation matrix, 9
fuzzy, 217
multiplication, 11
product, 104, 522
transpose, 11
weight matrix, 97
max_cycles, 326
maximum, 33, 219
max-min composition, 220, 221
McClelland, 103
McCulloch, 6
McNeill, 508
mean absolute percentage error, 406
mean squared error, 111, 410
Mears, 212, 214
membership, 32
functions, 50
triangular, 499, 506
rules, 49
memorization, 121, 320, 336, 382, 397
memorizing inputs, 273, 320
memory, 98
adaptive, 471
fuzzy associative, 218, 221
long-term memory, 6, 77-79, 118, 472
recency based, 471
short-term memory, 6, 77, 78, 79, 107, 118, 471
Mendelsohn, 407, 408
methods, 22, 145
metric, 5, 103
mexican hat function, 272, 273, 274, 276
middle layer, 329, 372
choosing size 372
minimum, 33, 219
global, 113, 177
local, 113, 177, 325
Minsky, 83
model
ART1, 245
continuous, 98
discrete, 98
Perceptron model, 65, 68, 81, 83
modulo, 423
Mohamed, 513
momentum, 325, 330, 337, 372, 400
implementing, 331
parameter, 119, 123, 134, 384
term, 330, 375
Morse, 514
Moss, 514
moving average convergence divergence, 401
moving averages, 380, 399
simple, 399
weighted, 399
multilayered, 92
network, 106
multilayer feed-forward neural network, 7
multilayer networks, 123
multiple inheritance, 26
Munro, 374

N

NF see noise factor
NP-complete, 419, 427, 457
NYSE see New York Stock Exchange
Naim, 457
neighborhood, 276, 303, 457
size, 274, 280, 299, 300
neighbors, 272
Neocognitron, 81, 92, 106
Nellis, 516
NETTalk, 374
network
adaptive, 77
architecture, 77, 384, 388
autoassociative network, 97
backpropagation network, 329
bi-directional associative memory network, 104,, 88
Brain-State-in-a-Box network, 105
class, 53, 66
heteroassociative networks, 97
Hopfield network, 9, 11-14, 16, 19, 51, 79, 81, 82, 93, 111, 119, 120, 181, 472
layout, 86
modeling, 73
multilayer network, 123
nodes, 65
Perceptron network, 65, 66, 68, 79
radial basis function networks, 112, 114, 115
RBF networks see radial basis function networks
self-organizing , 269
statistical trained networks, 112
NeuFuz, 49
neural network, 1, 2
algorithms, 176
artificial neural network, 1
autoassociative, 375
biological, 272
counterpropagation, 302
fault tolerance of, 374
FAM, 218
hierarchical, 407
holographic, 408
Kohonen, 271, 322
multilayer, 123
Perceptron, 65
plug-in boards, 325
self-organizing, 107, 269
Tabu, 471
two-layer, 92
neural-trained fuzzy systems, 49
neuromimes 2
neuron, 1, 3
input neurons, 82
output neuron, 99
new, 24, 144
Newton’s method, 373
New York Stock Exchange, 387
new highs, 389
new lows, 389
noise, 5, 330, 336, 337, 372, 375
random, 375
noise factor, 336
noise-saturation dilemma, 79
noise tolerance, 105
noisy data, 320
nonlinear function, 120
nonlinear mapping, 109
nonlinear scaling function, 10
nonlinear optimization, 417, 422, 472
nontraining mode, 135
Normal distribution, 524
normal fuzzy set, 218
normalization of a vector, 272
normalized inputs, 271, 381
normalized weights, 280
notation, 132
nprm parameter, 433
number bins, 43
NYSE see New York Stock Exchange

O

object, 22
objective function, 417
object-orientation, 21
object-oriented programming language, 21
Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, 21
on-balance volume, 402
on center, off surround, 97, 98
one-shot learning, 117
oneuron class, 66
Operations Research, 34
operator overloading, 25, 139
optical character
recognition, 245
recognizer, 514
optimization, 102, 109, 417
nonlinear, 417, 422, 472
stock portfolio, 470
ordered pair, 32
organization of layers for backpropagation program, 144
orienting subsystem, 107, 243
orthogonal, 11, 12, 51, 64, 98
bit patterns, 64
input vectors, 299
set, 65
ostream, 58
output, 99
layer, 2, 10
nature of , 74
number of , 74
space, 124
stream, 58
outstar, 93, 106
overfitting of data, 383
overlap composition method, 506
overloading, 21, 24
function overloading, 25, 139
operator overloading, 25, 139
overtrained network, 329

P

Papert, 83
Parker, 103
partitioning, 87, 88
past_deltas, 331
Patil, 406
pattern
association, 16
binary pattern, 11, 97
bit pattern, 99
character, 17
classification, 8, 98, 109
completion, 105, 109
matching, 8, 98
recognition, 16, 34, 102, 108, 305, 322
studies, 380
system, 121
spatial, 99, 214
Pavlovian, 5
Perceptron, 3, 4, 66, 73, 82, 87, 90, 93, 102, 112
model, 65, 68, 81, 83
multilayer Perceptron, 85, 88
network, 65, 66, 68, 79
single-layer Perceptron, 85
permutations, 420
Perry, 484
perturbation , 5, 113
phoneme, 303, 374
phonetic typewriter, 303
Pimmel, 513
Pitts, 6
pixel, 16, 322, 329, 374
values, 214, 305
plastic, 107
plasticity, 78, 79
plasticity-stability dilemma, 243
Pletta, 515
polymorphic function, 24, 28
polymorphism, 21, 24, 27, 138
Pomerleau, 374
portfolio selection, 470, 472
possibility distributions, 486, 487, 509
relational model, 486, 487
postprocess, 35
postprocessing, 50
filter , 50
potlpair class
in BAM network, 186
preprocess, 35, 50
preprocessing , 87, 379, 399
data, 389
filter, 50
fuzzifier, 35
Price is Right, 3, 65
principal component analysis, 384
private, 23, 26
probabilities, 31, 419
probability, 31, 43
distributions, 113
processing
additive, 75
hybrid, 75
multiplicative, 75
PROJECT operation, 485
proposition, 31
protected, 23, 26, 54, 143
public, 23, 26, 53, 54

Q

quadratic form, 119, 120, 418
quadratic programming problem, 418
quantification, 473, 475
quantization levels, 322
queries, 475, 476, 488
fuzzy, 483, 488

R

radial basis function networks, 112, 114, 115
ramp function, 99, 101,, 102
Ramsay, 515
random number generator, 37
range, 394
normalized, 394, 395
rate of change, 392, 400, 404
function, 392
indicator, 393, 394
real-time recurrent learning algorithm, 515
recall, 7, 81, 184, 220
BAM , 184
FAM, 220, 221
recency based memory, 471
recognition layer, 244
recurrent, 13, 179
recurrent connections, 82, 107, 179
reference
activation level, 456
function, 493
regression analysis, 406
risk-adjusted return, 410
relations, 476
antisymmetric, 480, 481
reflexive, 480, 481
resemblance, 509
similarity, 481, 509
symmetric, 480, 481
transitive, 480, 481
relative strength index, 400, 404
remainder, 423
reset, 243, 247, 251, 262
reset node, 244
reset unit, 244
resonance, 104, 107, 117, 118, 181, 215, 243, 269
responsive exploration, 471
Ressler, 512
restrmax function, 251
return type, 23
reuse, 26
Robotics, 34
ROC see rate of change
Rosenberg, 374
Ross, 517
row vector, 97, 104
RSI see relative strength index
rule
delta, 110, 111
generalized delta, 112
Hebbian, 111
Hebb’s, 110
rules
fuzzy rules, 50
Rumbaugh, 21
Rummelhart, 103

S

S&P 500 Index see Standard and Poor’s 500 Index
Sathyanarayan Rao, 515
saturate, 381
scalar, 61
scalar multiplier, 64
second derivative, 380
Sejnowski, 114, 374
self-adaptation, 115
self-connected, 53
self-organization, 5, 6, 74, 115, 116
self-organizing feature map, 116
Self-Organizing Map, 245, 271
self-organizing neural networks, 107, 117, 121
self-supervised backpropagation, 375
sensitivity analysis, 384
separable, 84, 86, 88
linearly separable, 83, 84
subsets, 87
separability, 84, 86
separating
line, 86
plane, 85
Sethuraman, 515
set membership, 32
Sharda, 406
shift operator, 25
Short Term Memory, 6, 77, 78, 79, 107, 118, 471
traces of, 243
Sigma Pi neural network , 75
sigmoid
activation function, 381, 387
function, 77, 99, 126, 129, 133, 164, 177, 395
squashing, 381
signal filtering, 102
signals
analog, 98
similarity, 486
class, 481, 509
level, 486
relation, 481
simple cells, 106
simple moving average, 399
simulated annealing, 113, 114
simulator, 372, 396
controls, 173
mode, 138
Skapura, 246, 248
Slater, 515
S layer, 106
SMA see simple moving average
SOM see Self-Organizing Map
sonar target recognition, 374
spatial
pattern, 99, 214
temporal pattern, 105,
speech
recognition, 303,
synthesizer, 374,
spike, 380
squared error, 103
squashing
function, 384, 458, 459
stable, 79, 107
stability 78, 79, 118
and plasticity, 77
stability-plasticity dilemma, 79, 107,, 269
STM see Short Term Memory
Standard and Poor’s 500 Index, 377, 378
forecasting, 386
standard I/O routines, 519
state energy, 118
state machine, 48
static binding, 139
Steele, 514
steepest descent, 112, 113, 177, 373
step function, 99, 101
stochastics, 402, 404
Stoecker, 514
Stonham, 516
string
binary, 62
bipolar, 62
structure, 7, 7
subsample, 322
subset, 221
subsystem
attentional, 107, 243
orienting, 107, 243
Sudjianto, 516
summand, 422
summation symbol, 422
supervised , 109
learning, 5, 110, 112, 115, 117, 121
training 94, 110, 115, 121, 125
Sweeney , 516
symbolic approach, 6

T

TSR see Terminate and Stay Resident
Tabu , 471
active, 471
neural network, 471
search, 471, 472
Tank, 422, 427, 429
target 378, 395
outputs, 110, 115
patterns, 105
scaled, 395
tau, 433
technical analysis, 399
temperature, 118
Temporal Associative Memory, 92
Terano, 496
Terminate and Stay Resident programs, 519
terminating value, 298
termination criterion, 322
test.dat file, 327, 328
test mode, 135, 137, 138, 164, 173, 327, 396
Thirty-year Treasury Bond Rate, 387
Three-month Treasury Bill Rate, 387
threshold
function, 2, 3, 12, 17, 19, 52, 95, 99, 101, 125, 183
value, 16, 52, 66, 77, 86, 87, 90, 101, 128, 456
thresholding, 87, 185
function, 133, 177, 182, 184, 214
Thro, 508
Tic-Tac-Toe, 76, 79
time lag, 380
time series forecasting, 406, 410
time shifting, 395
timeframe, 378
tolerance, 119, 125, 173, 245, 318, 322, 328, 329, 372
level, 78, 123
value, 119
top-down
connection weight , 248
connections, 107, 244
top-down inputs, 247
topology, 7
Topology Preserving Maps, 116
tour, 420
traces, 243
of STM, 243
of LTM, 243
trading
commodities, 405,
system, 378
dual confirmation, 408
training, 4, 74, 75, 98, 109, 110, 119, 181, 396
fast, 107
law, 272, 273, 274, 330, 333
mode, 135, 137, 138, 164, 173, 396
supervised, 94, 110, 115
slow, 107
time, 329
unsupervised, 107, 110
transpose
of a matrix, 11, 179, 181, 183
of a vector, 11, 63, 97, 181
traveling salesperson(salesman) problem, 118, 119, 419
hand calculation, 423
Hopfield network solution-Hopfield, 427
Hopfield network solution-Anzai, 456
Kohonen network solution, 456
triple, 217
truth value, 31
tsneuron class, 430
TS see Tabu search
TSP see traveling salesperson problem
turning point predictor, 409
turning points, 407
two-layer networks, 92
two-thirds rule, 107, 244, 245, 269

U

Umano, 486
Unemployment Rate, 387
undertrained network, 329
uniform distribution, 77
union, 32
Unipolar Binary Bi-directional Associative Memory, 212
unit
circle, 299
hypercube, 218
unit length, 273
universal set, 33
universe of discourse, 498, 499
unsupervised , 107
competitive learning, 271
learning, 5, 110, 115, 117, 121
training, 107, 110

V

value
fit value, 32
threshold value, 16, 52, 66, 77, 86, 87, 90, 101, 128, 456
variable
external, 28
global, 28
vector, 17
codebook vectors, 116
column vector, 97, 104, 181
fit vector, 32, 33
heterassociated, 181
input vector, 53, 71, 272, 112
normalization of, 272
potentially associated, 181
quantization, 302
row vector, 97, 181
weight vector, 9, 96
vector pairs, 181
vertex, 88
vertices, 88
vigilance parameter, 107, 243, 245, 247, 262
virtual, 24, 139
trading, 377
visibility, 26
visible, 53

W

walk-forward methodology, 408
Wall Street Journal, 388
Wasserman, 516
weight matrix, 9, 17, 51, 65, 97, 181, 183
weight sharing, 375
weight surface, 113
weight update, 276
weight vector, 9, 96
quantizing, 307
weighted sum, 2, 3, 19, 271
weights , 4, 181
bottom-up, 250
connection , 89, 98
top-down, 250
Werbos, 103
Wetherell, 514
Widrow, 102, 112
winner indexes, 298
winner, 98
neuron, 323
winner-take-all, 97, 98, 115, 116, 243, 271, 274
World Wide Web, 388
Wu, 515

X

XOR function, 83-85, 87

Y

Yan, 473, 497
Yu, 212, 214
Yuret, 410

Z

zero pattern, 65
zero-one programming problem, 471
Zipser, 374


Table of Contents

Copyright © IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.



C++ Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic
C++ Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic
ISBN: 1558515526
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 1995
Pages: 139

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