Configuring AAA Services

Several steps are involved in configuring a system for AAA services. The next section walks you through some of the steps needed to configure a system for AAA services, but here is an overview of the basic steps:

  1. Configure AAA usernames and passwords.

  2. Configure AAA server locations.

  3. Configure authentication.

  4. Configure authorization (optional).

  5. Configure accounting (optional).

Configuring AAA Usernames

The first step when configuring AAA services is to create usernames and passwords. As stated previously, three main locations exist for usernames and passwordslocal, an AAA server, or an external database. However, in this chapter we discuss only local and CSACS.

Local Username and Password Commands

The PIX enables you to create a username and password list inside the configuration file. This list can be referenced by the AAA commands when users log in. The syntax used to accomplish this is shown here:

 pixfirewall(config)# username <username> {nopasswordpassword                 <password>}[privilege <level>] 

Table 10.1 displays the possible options for the username command.

Table 10.1. username Command Options




The name of the user .


The nopassword option specifies that no password is necessary. The password option specifies the password for the username.


This is the level of access you want to give the user. The default is 2 , and level 15 is for the privileged exec access level.

Listing 10.1 clears all users from the PIX, creates four users, and shows all the users that exist inside the PIX configuration file.

Listing 10.1 Configuring Username and Passwords
 pixfirewall(config)# clear user pixfirewall(config)# username daniel password 1234 privilege 15 pixfirewall(config)# username kristina password 1234 privilege 15 pixfirewall(config)# username jack password 1234 pixfirewall(config)# username peter password 1234 pixfirewall(config)# show user username daniel password fOpmsyD0svtnnlr/ encrypted privilege 15 username peter password GCbahPTC/hAylaFE encrypted privilege 2 username kristina password wTsW2QC6pRXaJrTT encrypted privilege 15 username jack password 5zVJhD5YUb6zO7VH encrypted privilege 2 
Adding Users with CSACS

To add a user to the CSACS database, you must open the user Web interface. First, you turn on the TACACS+ advanced features so you can configure privileged exec access on your user accounts. The steps to enable these advanced features are as follows :

  1. On the left menu, click the Interface Configuration button.

  2. Click the TACACS+ (Cisco IOS) link.

  3. Scroll down until you find the Advanced Configuration Options section and place a check in the box labeled Advanced TACACS+ Features.

  4. Click the Submit button at the bottom of the screen to enable the features.

The following are the steps to create a user account in Cisco Secure ACS:

  1. Click the User Setup button from the menu list on the left side.

  2. Enter the username daniel into the User: box and click the Add/Edit button.

  3. Scroll down to the User Setup section and enter a password of 123456789 .

  4. Now scroll down to the Advanced TACACS+ Settings section and select the Max Privilege for Any AAA Client radio button option. Then use the pull-down menu to select level 15. This will provide privilege-level access to the user named daniel .

  5. Just below the advanced TACACS+ settings is a section called TACACS+ Enable Password. Select Use CiscoSecure PAP Password. This will use the password you previously set; alternatively, you could set a separate enable password if you wanted.

  6. Click the Submit button to save the user.

Now that the usernames have been created, you are ready to configure AAA services on the PIX firewall.

Configuring the aaa-server Command

The aaa-server command is used to configure group tags that define where the AAA server is located. If the AAA server is remote, either RADIUS or TACACS+ security protocols can be used to request the remotely located AAA services. However, if the AAA server is local, no security protocol is required to communicate with the internal PIX configuration file. Table 10.2 describes the three possible locations and protocol used to acquire AAA services.

Table 10.2. aaa-server Locations




This tells the PIX to look locally in the PIX configuration file for the usernames and passwords.


This configures the PIX to use a RADIUS security protocol and to request remotely located AAA services.


This configures the PIX to use a TACACS+ security protocol and to request remotely located AAA services.

The following is the syntax of the aaa-server command:

 pixfirewall(config)# [no] aaa-server <group_tag> protocol tacacs+radius pixfirewall(config)# [no] aaa-server <group_tag> [<(if_name)>]                 host <ip_address> [<key>] 

Table 10.3 displays the possible options for the aaa-serve r command.

Table 10.3. aaa-server Command Options




This option is a grouping of server settings that can be referenced by all the AAA commands. You can create up to 14 group tags.


This is the interface where the AAA server is located.


This is the IP address of the AAA server.


This is the key value used on the TACACS+ server to encrypt the data between the client and server.


This option defines one of the three protocol locations: local, RADIUS, or TACACS+.

The following example displays the current aaa-server group tags and then creates a new group tag called PIXAuth . This new group tag configures TACACS+ as the security protocol and as the AAA server:

 pixfirewall(config)# show aaa-server aaa-server TACACS+ protocol tacacs+ aaa-server RADIUS protocol radius aaa-server LOCAL protocol local pixfirewall(config)# aaa-server PIXAuth protocol tacacs+ pixfirewall(config)# aaa-server PIXAuth (inside) host dog 

Configuring Authentication

AAA authentication can be used to control access into the PIX console, privileged exec mode, and access through the PIX. This section covers console access and access technologies used to control traffic through the PIX.

Authentication and Console Access

Console access requires a username and password. Access methods for AAA authentication to the PIX can be via serial, Telnet, SSH, HTTP, and privileged exec mode. The aaa authentication command syntax is as follows:

 pixfirewall(config)# [no] aaa authentication serialtelnetsshhttpenable                console <group_tag> 

Table 10.4 displays the possible options for the aaa-authentication command.

Table 10.4. aaa authentication Options




This causes the user to be prompted to enter a username and password when connecting using the serial port.


This requires Telnet connections to enter a username and password before entering the PIX console.


When users SSH into the PIX, AAA authentication is required.


This option is used when connecting to the PIX using the PDM Web interface, requiring AAA logon.


Before a user can enter the privileged exec mode, a username and password must be supplied.


The tag option defines the group name to associate the command with.

The following example displays the commands needed to configure the PIX firewall to use a TACACS+ server ( for console authentication. As users connect via Telnet or enter privileged exec mode, they will be prompted to enter a username and password before allowing them to proceed:

 pixfirewall(config)# aaa-server PIXAuth protocol tacacs+ pixfirewall(config)# aaa-server PIXAuth (inside) host dog pixfirewall(config)# aaa authentication enable console PIXAuth pixfirewall(config)# aaa authentication telnet console PIXAuth 

Authorization and Console Access Commands

Console access can be controlled by the AAA authentication, whereas console commands can be controlled by using AAA authorization. Controlling command access enables the PIX to contain several levels of users, some with full command access (level 15) and others with specifically allocated commands.

The privilege command is used to associate a specific command with a level of access. The command syntax is shown here:

 pixfirewall(config)# [no] privilege [{show  clear  configure}]                 level <level> [mode {enableconfigure}] command <command> 

Table 10.5 displays the possible options for the privilege command .

Table 10.5. privilege command Options




These options enable you to specify the type of command you want to put in the list.


This option is used for the level of the list.


This defines the area where the command is being restricted: enable mode or configure mode.

This defines the command related to the first showclearconfigure option.

The privilege command shown in Listing 10.2 creates two users with different levels of access. Commands designated to access levels 11 and 12 are then assigned.

Listing 10.2 Creating Users and Setting Privilege Mode Commands
 pixfirewall(config)# username jimmy password 123456 privilege 11 pixfirewall(config)# username richard password 123456 privilege 12 pixfirewall(config)# privilege show level 11 command access-list pixfirewall(config)# privilege show level 11 command running-config pixfirewall(config)# privilege show level 12 command interface pixfirewall(config)# aaa authorization command LOCAL 

In Listing 10.2, because Jimmy has privilege level 11, he will be able to execute any command assigned to level 11 and below. Richard, on the other hand, has a level that is higher and will therefore be able to execute any command associated with level 12 and below. The last aaa authorization command LOCAL designates the local username and password list for command authorization.

Authorization for commands can also be set up using the CSACS Web interface by clicking the Group Setup button, selecting the group options, and setting the commands.


The privilege command enables you to associate a command with an access level.

Authentication for Cut-through Proxy

Using cut-through proxy enables you to control HTTP, FTP, and Telnet services through the PIX firewall. Access lists provide general packet filtering, whereas cut-through proxy requires a username and password before allowing access. For example, if Jack wants to control which users can use HTTP through the PIX, he could implement cut-through proxy and prompt HTTP traffic with a username and password dialog box, as shown in Figure 10.4. This username and password would be forwarded to the AAA server for authentication and authorization using TACACS+ or RADIUS security protocols.

Figure 10.4. The cut-through proxy HTTP dialog box.



Cut-through proxy works with FTP, HTTP, and Telnet.

The following shows two aaa authentication commands that can be used to implement cut-through proxy:

 pixfirewall(config)# [no] authentication includeexclude <service>                           inboundoutbound <if_name>                           <internal_ip> <internal_mask>                           [<external_ip> <external_mask>] <group_tag> pixfirewall(config)# [no] aaa authentication match <access_list_name>                           inboundoutbound <if_name> <if_name> <group_tag> 

Table 10.6 displays the possible options for the aaa authentication command.

Table 10.6. Cut-through Proxy aaa authentication Command Options




The include option is used to create a new rule, whereas the exclude option is used to create an exception to an include statement.


This option states the type of service to include or exclude. The following options are valid: any, ftp, http , and telnet .


This is the interface where the AAA server is located.

internal_ip internal_mask

This defines what internal traffic IP addresses are included. Using 0 0 defines all IP addresses.

external_ip external_mask

This defines what external traffic IP addresses are included. Using 0 0 defines all IP addresses.


The tag option defines the group name to associate the command with.


This command works in conjunction with an access list. This allows you to use an access-list to define traffic.

The example shown here enables cut-through proxy authentication on the inside interface:

 pixfirewall(config)# aaa-server PIXAuth protocol tacacs+ pixfirewall(config)# aaa-server PIXAuth (inside) host dog pixfirewall(config)# aaa authentication include http                 outbound 0 0 0 0 PIXAuth 

Cut-through proxy can be used to authenticate both users in the inside interface going out and users coming in on the outside interface.

Authorization for Cut-through Proxy

After cut-through proxy authentication is configured, users are automatically allowed to pass through the firewall. However, authorization can be added to further control where your users are allowed to go. The commands used are similar to the authentication commands; the command syntax for authorization is as follows:

 pixfirewall(config)# [no] authorization includeexclude <service>                           inboundoutbound <if_name>                           <internal_ip> <internal_mask>                           [<external_ip> <external_mask>] <group_tag> pixfirewall(config)# [no] aaa authorization match <access_list_name>                           inboundoutbound <if_name> <if_name> <group_tag> 

Configuring Accounting

After authentication and authorization have been configured, configuration of accounting is often the next step. Accounting information enables you to track users who have logged on and accessed the device and the amount of time they're logged on. These two commands enable the accounting process:

 pixfirewall(config)# [no] accounting includeexclude <service>                           inboundoutbound <if_name>                           <internal_ip> <internal_mask>                           [<external_ip> <external_mask>] <group_tag> pixfirewall(config)# [no] aaa accounting match <access_list_name>                           inboundoutbound <if_name> <if_name> <group_tag> 

The format of the commands is similar to the authorization and authentication commands. The includeexclude parameters define the connections that need accounting, whereas the match parameter uses an ACL to define who needs accounting. The service parameter specifies the connection, such as any , ftp , http , telnet , or a protocol/port number.

The following is an example of enabling accounting for all internal traffic:

 pixfirewall(config)# aaa accounting include any inbound 0 0 0 0 PIXAuth pixfirewall(config)# aaa accounting include any outbound 0 0 0 0 PIXAuth 

You do not need to configure any settings on the CSACS server itself; accounting requests should automatically be accepted. However, you should verify that traffic is being accounted by clicking the Reports and Activity button and the TACACS+ Accounting link.

CSPFA Exam Cram 2 (Exam 642-521)
CCSP CSPFA Exam Cram 2 (Exam Cram 642-521)
ISBN: 0789730235
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2003
Pages: 218 © 2008-2017.
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