Section 9.5. Windows Kerberos Tools


9.5. Windows Kerberos Tools

Up to now, this chapter has presented Kerberos largely from a Linux perspective. Kerberos, though, is a cross-platform tool, and you can use it to help integrate Linux and Windows systems. You can use Windows in any of the main Kerberos roles (KDC, application server, or client).

9.5.1. Windows Kerberos Implementations

Broadly speaking, three approaches to Kerberos are possible under Windows:


Microsoft's Kerberos implementation

Microsoft provides a Kerberos implementation as part of Windows 200x/XP (but not Windows XP Home). As described in Section 9.1.4, Microsoft's Kerberos implementation deviates from others, which can make using it with a non-Microsoft KDC tricky. In the Section 9.5.3, some pointers for using Microsoft's Kerberos clients with non-Microsoft KDCs are presented.


Conventional non-Microsoft Kerberos implementations

You can obtain non-Microsoft Kerberos implementations for Windows. For instance, a Windows binary version of MIT Kerberos (http://web.mit.edu/kerberos/) is available for all versions of Windows since Windows 98. (Windows 95 and earlier are not supported.) This tool can be configured and used much like Linux versions of Kerberos. The main difference is that configuration file locations differ. Most importantly, instead of editing /etc/krb5.conf, you edit C:\WINDOWS\krb5.ini. (This file may reside in another directory if you installed Windows to a directory other than C:\WINDOWS.) This package also includes a GUI tool called Leash, which manages Kerberos tickets.


Limited non-Microsoft Kerberos implementations

Some tools provide limited Kerberos supporttypically, Kerberos-enabled versions of a handful of protocols, with their own Kerberos libraries. One of the more popular of these is Kerberos Telnet (http://www.stacken.kth.se/~thn/ktelnet/), which provides Kerberized Telnet, FTP, and POP implementations for Windows. Tools like this don't work in conjunction with either Microsoft's Kerberos or broader non-Microsoft Kerberos tools on the same system, although, of course, they can interact with such systems as KDCs and application servers.

Each tool type has its advantages and disadvantages. Broadly speaking, you're most likely to find Kerberized Windows clients and application servers that work with the Windows implementation of Kerberos; however, this implementation is limited to just a few recent versions of Windows, and it doesn't always interoperate well with non-Microsoft KDCs. Kerberized Windows clients and servers can also be very difficult to locate, aside from those provided with Windows. Microsoft's Kerberos implementation can function well as a KDC for non-Microsoft application servers and clients. Full non-Microsoft Kerberos implementations work best with Unix tools ported to Windows (say, running in conjunction with Cygwin) or with Kerberized Windows clients and application servers. These tools interoperate well with Kerberized Linux programs, but the implementation is awkward when it comes to providing single-login authentication for Windows desktop systems. Limited non-Microsoft Kerberos implementations can be handy on desktop systems when you want to use Kerberos authentication for security reasons or to provide single-login authentication but when you're not concerned about Kerberizing the initial logon to Windows.

9.5.2. Windows Kerberized Servers

Windows 200x/XP systems that are members of an AD domain automatically use the AD controller's Kerberos features to authenticate file and printer sharing access. Thus, configuring this aspect of Kerberized server use is relatively straightforward.

By treating the AD controller as an NT domain controller, Linux systems running Samba and older Windows NT servers can authenticate against the AD controller even if these domain member servers don't use Kerberos. Thus, many of the benefits of Kerberos extend even to some non-Kerberos systems.


As with Linux servers, Kerberos support in most third-party servers is a hit-or-miss proposition. Windows doesn't ship with Kerberized Telnet, FTP, or other servers, and these servers are lacking even in some third-party Kerberos packages.

9.5.3. Windows Kerberized Clients

In principle, Windows Kerberos clients can be as varied as Linux Kerberos clients. If you have specific needs, you may need to consult the documentation for the Kerberized clients you've selected. It's even possible that your choice of client programs will dictate your choice of overall Windows Kerberos implementation (Microsoft's, a third party's, or Kerberos integrated into a server). As a couple of examples, I present information on using Microsoft's Kerberos to authenticate against a non-Windows KDC and using the Kerberos Telnet package.

9.5.3.1 Using Windows' Kerberos

Microsoft supports Kerberos as part of its Active Directory domain authentication. If you're using an AD domain controller, Windows clients automatically use the AD controller's KDC features when they're configured as members of the domain. This support also extends to use of Windows file and printer shares offered by domain members.

You can use a non-Windows Kerberos KDC as a way to authenticate Windows 200x/XP users' initial sign-ons, but the process is awkward. One way to do it is to establish a cross-realm trust relationship between a Windows AD controller and the non-Windows KDC. This procedure is quite advanced, though, and is beyond the scope of this book. A somewhat simpler, but more limited, approach is to configure local user accounts on the Windows desktop system and tell it to use the KDC, thus centralizing the password database. The following list shows you how:

  1. Create a host key for the Windows client using kadmin on the KDC. This key must use DES encryption. In MIT Kerberos, you can do this with the -e option to addprinc, as in addprinc -e des:normal host/mimbulus.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM to add a principal for the Windows system mimbulus.example.com. Don't randomize the password when you create this principal, as you do when creating a principal for a Linux application server.

  2. Run the ksetup program on the Windows client, and tell it how to locate the KDC. In the last step, you'll need to enter the password you used when you created the host key for the Windows system:

    C:\>ksetup /setdomain EXAMPLE.COM C:\>ksetup /addkdc EXAMPLE.COM kdc.example.com C:\>ksetup /addkpasswd EXAMPLE.COM kdc.example.com C:\>ksetup /setmachpasswd  password

  3. Use the Windows ksetup tool to map a Kerberos principal name to a local username. For instance, typing ksetup /mapuser fluffy@EXAMPLE.COM Cerberus maps the Kerberos principal name fluffy@EXAMPLE.COM to the local account Cerberus. As a shortcut, you can type ksetup /mapuser * *. This command maps local users to like-named Kerberos principals; for instance, the local user fluffy maps to the fluffy@EXAMPLE.COM principal.

Once this is done, you should be able to log on and have the Windows desktop system use the KDC for authentication. You will, however, have to maintain local accounts corresponding to those on the KDC, or at least mapped to it using ksetup /mapuser.

9.5.3.2 Using Kerberos Telnet

If you want to use Kerberos only for Telnet, FTP, or POP access, Kerberos Telnet (http://www.stacken.kth.se/~thn/ktelnet/) may be just what you need. This program, shown in Figure 9-1, is a Kerberized POP proxy, FTP, and Telnet implementation for Windows that doesn't rely on any other local Kerberos tools.

Figure 9-1. Kerberos Telnet provides an all-in-one Kerberos client tool for Windows


When you install Kerberos Telnet, you'll be asked for basic information, such as your realm name. The tool then uses that information when you request a connection to a server. The first time you do this, you'll be asked for principal information (in the "User data" dialog box shown in Figure 9-1. Thereafter, you won't have to type your password again. Kerberos Telnet provides integrated ticket management tools (also shown in Figure 9-1), so you can check on tickets' expiration dates, destroy them, and so on.



    Linux in a Windows World
    Linux in a Windows World
    ISBN: 0596007582
    EAN: 2147483647
    Year: 2005
    Pages: 152

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