Section 8.1. The Principles Behind LDAP


8.1. The Principles Behind LDAP

At its core, LDAP is a protocol for exchanging data between computers. The LDAP protocol has been independently implemented in several packages, but understanding what problems LDAP is intended to solve will help you understand its features and implementations. As a practical matter, you must also pick an LDAP implementation to run on your LDAP server, as well as LDAP clients for systems that should authenticate against the server.

8.1.1. The Problem: Providing a Network-Accessible Directory

Directories, and LDAP in particular, are tools for storing data. At this level of analysis, directories are similar to databases. In order to understand directories, though, you should understand a couple of key differences between directories and databases:

  • Directories are designed to be read more often than they're written; databases are designed for more equal distribution of read and write accesses. This characteristic simplifies many aspects of a directory's design and can lead to faster lookups in directories.

  • The internal structure of databases is designed to support easy sorting and cross-referencing, but the entries are otherwise unstructured. Directories, by contrast, use a hierarchical structure but are less easily sorted than database entries.

LDAP provides tools that enable accessing directories across a network, with the goal of centralizing this information. The central directory can host a variety of information. For instance, it might hold individuals' computer account information, telephone numbers, office numbers, birth dates, departmental affiliations, and so on. This information is unlikely to change frequently, and individuals throughout an organization may have need to access it. Thus, a network-accessible directory protocol is the ideal way to store such information.

LDAP, and directories more generally, can handle more than just account or even personal information. For instance, you might store computer help documentation in a directory. This chapter focuses on LDAP as a tool for storing computer account information. For more information on LDAP, including additional potential uses, consult a book on the subject, such as LDAP System Administration (O'Reilly).


One important characteristic of LDAP is that it's a protocol description. The actual data storage can be in any of several different forms, depending on the features of the LDAP server you choose. For instance, an LDAP server might use plain-text files, a proprietary binary format, or a well-documented database file format. The choice of backend data file format doesn't affect the operations that can be performed by clients, but it may influence the server's overall performance level.

8.1.2. LDAP Terminology and Features

LDAP documentation is filled with its own jargon. Some LDAP terms should be familiar to most Linux administrators, but some of it is unique or used oddly:


Directory

This term, as already described, refers to a data-storage system. Note that the term is unrelated to a filesystem directory, although the two types of directories do have certain common features, such as being methods of data storage. A directory tree refers to the entire collection of structured entries in the directory.


Attributes

An LDAP attribute is similar to a variable in a programming language; it's a named identifier for data stored in the directory. Attributes, though, can sometimes hold multiple values.


Object class

Every entry in a directory is a member of an object class, which defines a collection of attributes for data. You set the object class by setting the objectClass attribute to a particular value. For instance, when using LDAP to handle accounts, you'll use the posixAccount class, among others. This class defines attributes called uid, userPassword, and so on, to store account information.


Schema

This is a way to define several object classes at once. LDAP implementations ship with standardized schema files that provide many predefined object classes, including some that are useful for handling user accounts. (The schema is a structure for holding data, not the data itself.)


DC

A domain component identifies the scope of an entry or of an entire tree. Typically, you'll set dc= attributes that correspond to your DNS domain or subdomain name.


DN

A distinguished name is the name of an attribute along with a description of where the entry belongs in the directory tree. It's described in more detail later in this chapter.


OU

An organizational unit is a common subdivision in a directory. It's often used to separate departments from one another within a single organization, enabling (for instance) duplication of usernames in two different departments.


LDIF

The LDAP Data Interchange Format describes information in a way that LDAP can understand. It's covered in more detail later in this chapter.

LDAP directories are often represented in graphical form, such as that shown in Figure 8-1. In practice, these trees are constructed through the data you place in individual entries, which appear at the nodes in the tree. The topmost entry in the tree (dc=pangaea,dc=edu in Figure 8-1), or its root, defines the naming context of the directory. In this example, the naming context includes two DCs, which together are equivalent to the pangaea.edu DNS domain.

Figure 8-1. LDAP enables you to define a hierarchical tree of entries


8.1.3. LDAP Software

Of course, you need actual software to implement an LDAP server. In Linux, the most popular LDAP package is OpenLDAP, which is headquartered at http://www.openldap.org. Other LDAP packages are available, though, and some are popular on non-Linux systems. The most notable of these is probably Microsoft's Active Directory, which incorporates LDAP and Kerberos functionality. Other products include Sun's SunOne and Novell's eDirectory.

Because OpenLDAP is the most common LDAP package for Linux, the rest of this chapter uses it as an example, at least for server operations. In particular, this chapter describes OpenLDAP 2.2. LDAP client configuration should be the same even if you use another LDAP server, though. Many details differ for other LDAP servers, so if you choose to use one, you'll have to consult its documentation to learn how it differs from OpenLDAP.



    Linux in a Windows World
    Linux in a Windows World
    ISBN: 0596007582
    EAN: 2147483647
    Year: 2005
    Pages: 152

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