Chapter 1. Facilis Descensus Averni 
When we decided to write this book, we chose the topic "Tuning Client/Server SQL Programs" because we had a specific plan. Each word in the topic narrows the focus. Let's look at the main words.
Tuning means enhancing speed. It's possible to make a distinction between tuning and optimizingtuning is what you do to a database (e.g., change cache size , repartition , rebuild indexes) while optimizing is what you do to a program (e.g., adjust queries, take advantage of existing resources, rewrite application code). But we do not make such a fine distinction in this book. As for speed, the word can mean two things: response time (the time a statement takes to execute) and throughput (the number of operations the DBMS can do in a time unit). Our concern here is mostly with throughput.
SQL is a language that is supported by a Database Management System (DBMS) implementation. We decided to use a generic term so you'll know that we're not talking about a particular brandthis book is about what's in common for all major brands. There really is a standard core that they all share, so we can be specific in our recommendations without having to be specialists. Where there are many differences between DBMSs, you'll see charts outlining the differences. Where there are few differences, you'll see a discussion of what's normal and (if necessary) a sidebar about the exceptional case.
Programs are things you write in a language such as SQL, C, or Java. So don't expect to see long discussions about how to choose equipment, what flags to set when you install, or which tools you'll need to monitor the users. Those tasks properly belong to the Database Administrator (DBA). We know that much of this book will interest DBAs; we know that many readers are both DBAs and programmers. That's great. We only want to make it clear that, in this book, we are addressing the people who write applications.