Outline view can be a great help while you're planning or organizing a document, and even while you're entering the bulk of the document text. The following are among the important features and advantages of Outline view:
In Outline view, paragraph formatting isn't displayed and you can't open the Paragraph dialog box to apply paragraph formatting. (You can control whether character formatting is displayed or not, as explained later.) Therefore, to modify the formatting of your paragraphs, you should switch out of Outline view.
To switch to Outline view, choose Outline from the View menu, or click the Outline View button on the horizontal scroll bar. Word will display the document as an outline, and it will show the Outlining toolbar, as illustrated in Figure 13-1. In Outline view, the term heading refers to any paragraph that has been assigned one of the built-in heading styles: Heading 1 through Heading 9. A heading assigned the Heading 1 style is at the highest level and is not indented. A heading assigned Heading 2 is at a lower level and is indented a small amount when displayed in Outline view. A heading assigned Heading 3 is at an even lower level and is indented more, and so on. The term body text refers to all paragraphs visible in Outline view that have not been assigned a heading style.
Figure 13-1. A Word document in Outline view.
ON THE WEB
The Teas.doc Word document, used in the examples in this section, is on the Running Office 2000 Reader's Corner page. For information about connecting to this Web site, read the Introduction.
Switching to Outline view doesn't change your document. It merely displays the document in a different way and allows you to work with it differently.
In Outline view, Word displays one of the following symbols in front of each paragraph. The term subtext refers to either subheadings or body text that immediately follows a heading.
|Symbol||Type of Paragraph|
|Heading with subtext|
|Heading without subtext|
If you have already assigned the Heading 1 through Heading 9 styles to your document headings (as recommended in Chapter 7, "Formatting a Word Document"), Word will indent the headings appropriately in Outline view and the document will look like an outline, as shown in Figure 13-1. If, however, you haven't already assigned the built-in heading styles to your heading paragraphs, the document will consist of a simple list of body text paragraphs, as shown in Figure 13-2, and it won't look much like an outline. Don't worry—by using the buttons on the Outlining toolbar, you can easily apply heading styles and convert the document into outline form.
For a general description of styles, see "Applying Styles" For information about modifying styles, see "Modifying Styles"
Because each level of heading is assigned a different style, it generally has different formatting. Higher-level headings are typically formatted with larger, bold fonts to convey their relative importance; lower-level headings are typically formatted with smaller, nonbold fonts. To quickly change the appearance of a particular level of heading throughout your document, you can modify the corresponding heading style.
Figure 13-2. A document in Outline view containing headings that haven't been assigned the built-in heading styles.
You can use the first three buttons on the Outlining toolbar to change the level of a heading, to convert a paragraph of body text to a heading, or to convert a heading to a paragraph of body text.
In general, you can perform outlining operations on more than one paragraph (headings or body text) by selecting several paragraphs prior to issuing the command. For simplicity, however, the discussions on outlining use the singular terms heading or paragraph.
To select a heading together with all its subtext, just click the symbol in front of the heading:
To change the level of a heading, do the following:
Alternatively, you can press the Alt+Shift+Left arrow key combination or Shift+Tab to promote the heading, and you can press the Alt+Shift+Right arrow key combination or Tab to demote it.
To enter a tab character while you're in Outline view, press Ctrl+Tab.
You can also change the level of a heading as well as any subheadings that follow it by dragging the heading symbol to the left to promote it, or to the right to demote it:
When Word changes the level of a heading, it assigns it a new heading style. For example, if you demote a top-level heading, Word changes the style from Heading 1 to Heading 2.
For information on applying built-in styles, see "Applying Styles".
You can convert a paragraph of body text to an outline heading by either promoting it or demoting it, using the methods just described. You can select more than one paragraph of body text, but don't include a heading in the selection. If you promote a paragraph of body text, it's converted into a heading at the same level as the preceding heading, and if you demote it, it's converted into a heading one level lower than the preceding heading.
Use Styles to Change Outline Levels
You can also change the level of a heading, convert body text to a heading, or convert a heading to body text by directly assigning the paragraph the appropriate style (Heading 1 through Heading 9 for a heading, or a style such as Normal for body text). Recall from Chapter 7, "Formatting a Word Document" that you can quickly apply the Heading 1, Heading 2, or Heading 3 style by pressing Alt+Ctrl+1, Alt+Ctrl+2, or Alt+Ctrl+3, and you can apply the Normal paragraph style by pressing Ctrl+Shift+N.
To convert a heading to body text, place the insertion point within the heading (or select several headings), and click the Demote To Body Text button, or, if Num Lock is off, press Alt+Shift+5 (5 on the numeric keypad). Word will assign the paragraph the Normal style.
You can also create an outline heading by assigning outline-level formatting to a paragraph that hasn't been assigned a Heading style. To do this, switch out of Outline view, select the paragraph, choose Paragraph from the Format menu, click the Indents And Spacing tab, and choose the desired heading level (Level 1 through Level 9) in the Outline Level list box. (You can choose the Body Text item in this list to convert an outline heading to outline body text.)
In general, however, it's much better to create outline headings by assigning the Heading 1 through Heading 9 built-in styles, for several reasons:
Automatically Number Your Outline Headings
You can apply automatic outline numbering to all the outline headings throughout your document (that is, to all paragraphs assigned the standard heading styles, Heading 1 through Heading 9). To do this, place the insertion point within any heading, choose Bullets And Numbering from the Format menu, click the Outline Numbered tab of the Bullets And Numbering dialog box, select one of the four outline-numbering styles on the bottom row, and click OK. (Notice that the sample on the Outline Numbered tab for each of these styles contains the names of Heading styles.) For general information on automatic numbering of paragraphs, see "Creating Bulleted and Number Lists"
You can move one or more paragraphs quickly using these two buttons on the Outlining toolbar:
The paragraphs can be either headings or body text. The following is the procedure:
Alternatively, you can press the Alt+Shift+Up arrow key combination to move the paragraph up or press the Alt+Shift+Down arrow key combination to move the paragraph down.
You can also quickly move a paragraph by dragging its symbol up or down in the document:
This method always moves a single heading together with all its subtext, because the heading and subtext are selected when you begin dragging the symbol.
You can use the following buttons on the Outlining toolbar to change the level of detail that is visible in the outline:
To hide the subtext—subheadings or body text—that follows a heading, perform these steps:
For example, if a level 1 heading is followed by level 2 headings, level 3 headings, and body text, the first time you click the Collapse button, the body text will be hidden. (Body text is considered to be at the lowest level.) The next time you click Collapse, the level 3 headings will be hidden, and the third time you click Collapse, the level 2 headings will be hidden.
To redisplay collapsed subtext, use this same procedure but in step 2, click the Expand button, or press the plus (+) key on the numeric keypad.
You can also fully collapse a heading (that is, hide all its subtext) by double-clicking its symbol:
To fully expand the heading, double-click again. Notice that when a heading contains collapsed subtext, Word marks it with thick underlining:
You can also change the levels of headings that are displayed throughout the entire document. To display only level 1 headings, click the Show Heading 1 button or press Alt+Shift+1. To display level 1 and level 2 headings, click the Show Heading 2 button or press Alt+Shift+2. In the same way, you can click the Show Heading 3 through Show Heading 7 buttons (or press the Alt+Shift+3 through Alt+Shift+7 key combinations) to include increasingly lower levels of headings. To use the key combinations, you must press the number key on the main part of the keyboard, not on the numeric keypad. Note that all these buttons and key combinations hide body text.
To display all headings, including body text, select the Show All Headings button (click it so it appears pressed), or press Alt+Shift+A or the asterisk (*) on the numeric keypad. To display all headings without body text, deselect the Show All Headings button, or press Alt+Shift+A or the asterisk key again. This will hide body text but leave all headings visible.
You can display only the first line of all paragraphs of body text (together with their headings) by selecting the Show First Line Only button or by pressing the Alt+Shift+L key combination. To show all lines of body text, deselect the Show First Line Only button or press Alt+Shift+L again to disable that option. Word indicates the presence of hidden body text by displaying an ellipsis (...) at the end of the first line of each body text paragraph.
Here are the next two buttons on the Outlining toolbar:
To display all text in the outline (including headings) using the character formatting currently assigned to the Normal style, click the Show Formatting button to deselect it or press the slash (/) key on the numeric keypad. This doesn't remove character formatting, but merely suppresses its display. To restore the display of all character formatting (fonts, character sizes, font styles, and so on), select the Show Formatting button or press the slash (/) key again.
Selecting the Master Document View button activates Master Document view, which is a special mode of Outline view that allows you to divide a long Word document into separate subdocuments, all of which belong to a single master document. The remaining buttons on the Outlining toolbar (those to the right of the Master Document View button) are for working with master documents. (If the Master Document view isn't active, these buttons can be used to divide a document into separate sections.) For information on creating and using master documents, look up the topic "master documents" in the Word online Help.
Word provides two features that let you quickly scroll to a particular outline heading in a document. These features furnish additional reasons for incorporating outline headings into your documents.
When you drag the scroll box on the vertical scroll bar, Word displays the page number of the current position as well as the text of the preceding outline heading (or at least the first part of the text), as shown in Figure 13-3. (This feature will work only if the Show ScreenTips On Toolbars option is selected. To set this option, choose Customize from the Tools menu, and click the Options tab.)
To locate a particular outline heading, simply drag the scroll box until you see the heading displayed, and then release the mouse button. Note that you don't need to be in Outline view to use this feature.
A second feature that makes it easy to scroll to a particular outline heading is the Document Map, which is displayed in a separate pane in the Word window. (See Figure 13-4.) To display the Document Map, choose Document Map from the View menu or click the Document Map button on the Standard toolbar.
Figure 13-3. The ScreenTip that shows your current document position as you scroll.
The Document Map lets you see all your outline headings, even if you're not in Outline view. Notice that when you place the mouse pointer over a heading, Word highlights the heading and displays the full heading text:
To have Word scroll your document to a particular heading, just click that heading within the Document Map. (If not all headings fit in the Document Map, you can use the vertical scroll bar within the Document Map pane to see additional headings.)
Figure 13-4. The Document Map for displaying and scrolling to outline headings in a document.
Notice also that if a heading is followed by one or more subheadings, Word displays a square symbol to the left of the heading in the Document Map. You can hide the subheadings in the Document Map by clicking the box:
You can show the subheadings by clicking the box again:
If you're in Outline view, hiding or showing headings in the Document Map also hides or shows them in the document pane. In Normal, Web Layout, and Print Layout views, hiding or showing headings in the Document Map doesn't affect the document pane.
When you're in Outline view and print your document, Word prints only the headings and body text that are currently visible. To print the whole document, click the All button on the Outlining toolbar or switch out of Outline view before printing.
To review printing, see "Printing Documents" and "Previewing and Printing Documents."
Create a Better-Looking Printed Outline
The appearance of a document printed in Outline view is often disappointing. Paragraph formatting doesn't show, lines are always single spaced, and you can't add extra space between paragraphs. Also, the small box symbols that visually separate paragraphs of body text on the screen don't print. To print an attractively formatted outline, consider switching out of Outline view and formatting the text in the document as an outline-numbered list, as explained in "Creating Bulleted and Number Lists"