Unix provides three levels of file ownership:
Within these groups, you can specify permissions for file access and rights in three categories:
In this chapter, we'll show you some of the commands that can be used (sometimes by you, usually by the root user) to set ownership and permissions. Keep in mind that you can set or change any permissions for files you create and possibly for files created by others; however, exactly which permissions and ownerships you can change depends on the system. Even if you don't currently need to change file ownerships or permissions, you should take a quick read through this chapter to see what options might be available to you.