It's time to learn some other Unix commands. Most of the following programs take multiple arguments, and some have so many options and formats that an unabridged listing would be pointless. This is a simplified list; you don't need to know all of the details just yet.
The ls command lists the contents of a directory. The default is the current directory. Use ls -l for a detailed (long) listing and ls -F to display file type information (for more on file types and the permissions in the left column, see Section 1.17). Here is a sample long listing:
total 3616 -rw-r--r-- 1 juser users 3804 Apr 30 2000 abusive.c -rw-r--r-- 1 juser users 4165 May 26 1999 battery.zip -rw-r--r-- 1 juser users 131219 Oct 26 2000 beav_1.40-13.tar.gz -rw-r--r-- 1 juser users 6255 May 30 1999 country.c drwxr-xr-x 2 juser users 4096 Jul 17 20:00 cs335 -rwxr-xr-x 1 juser users 7108 Feb 2 2001 dhry -rw-r--r-- 1 juser users 11309 Oct 20 1999 dhry.c -rw-r--r-- 1 juser users 56 Oct 6 1999 doit drwxr-xr-x 6 juser users 4096 Feb 20 13:51 dw drwxr-xr-x 3 juser users 4096 May 2 2000 hough-stuff
In the first form shown below, cp copies the contents of file1 to file2 . In the second form, it copies all files to the dir directory:
cp file1 file2 cp file1 ... fileN dir
In the first form below, mv renames file1 to file2 . In the second form, it moves all files to the dir directory:
mv file1 file2 mv file1 ... fileN dir
The touch command creates a file. If the file already exists, touch does not change it, but it does update the timestamp you see with the long listing that you get with the ls -l command.
To delete (remove) a file, use rm . After you remove a file, it's gone. Do not expect to be able to "undelete" anything.
The echo command prints its arguments to the standard output:
echo Hello there.
The echo command is very useful for finding expansions of shell wildcards and variables that you will encounter later in this chapter.