Team development involves the development of competencies to increase the performance of the project. This could include individuals, stakeholders, or group development, which occurs as the project team progresses through the project. As the project evolves, so does the team. Consequently, the team members' knowledge and expertise also increase. Therefore, team development can have a significant positive impact on project performance.
The inputs to team development include project staff, the project plan, staffing management plan, performance reports, and external feedback. All these inputs are covered in other sections of the PMBOK but are listed in this section, too. You must understand these concepts and recognize these terms for the test. Because team development is a general management concept, the majority of workers in today's workplace have experienced it firsthand.
Tools and Techniques for Team Development
Team development encompasses a multitude of activities and events that increase knowledge, team cohesiveness, effectiveness, and efficiency. According to the PMBOK, these include team-building activities, general management skills, reward and recognition systems, collocation, and training.
Team building involves activities that develop camaraderie in order to enhance team performance. They could include conflict-resolution exercises, interpersonal communication skills development, sponsor and stakeholder brainstorming activities, and other group activities that emphasize team development. A key way to create team building is through participation in planning activities. Team building can be provided by individuals or organizations that operate internally or externally to the organization.
General management skills are discussed in Chapter 2 of the PMBOK and are an important facet of the team development process. Reward and recognition systems are defined in the PMBOK as "formal management actions that promote or reinforce desired behavior." Managers frequently use rewards in the workplace (or should) and understand the importance of providing positive feedback to their teams and stakeholders. Providing linkage between positive outcomes and rewards is the key to reinforcing constructive performance on a project. The PMBOK also discusses how cultures can make a difference on a project and the implications of rewards based on different individuals.
Collocation occurs when team members are physically located within a close proximity of each other. The advantages of collocation include the following:
Many times a war room is set up so that team members can be collocated in a single room. Here, they can focus on the project without external interference and complications. The main purpose of a war room is to provide collocation, with a heavy emphasis on the project, and to supply the appropriate tools, such as whiteboards, bulletin boards with schedules, and other project-related materials.
Although you will not likely be asked to provide the definition of training for the PMP exam, you could be provided examples concerning the effectiveness of training and the implications on the project and the fact that the cost of training is usually paid by the organization that performs the project management.
Outputs to Team Development
Team development has only two outputs performance improvements and input for performance appraisals but these can involve a lot of results. Performance improvements can originate from several sources, including individual skills or group behaviors, by increasing competency levels of individuals, teams, or both. The performance of individuals or teams is an element to the overall performance appraisal process for the team or team members.
The role of the project manager and the team in problem solving includes identifying problems and determining the various options for resolution. After the options have been determined, the project manager must make a decision to choose the best alternative. The project manager should solicit feedback from the team members and encourage their buy-in so that everyone takes part in the process.
Problems generally get elevated to senior management when the team cannot resolve the matter itself by utilizing referent power and needs the assistance of a sponsor or upper management. This process involves the identification of the problem, the source or sources of the problem, and recommendations for resolution.
Types of Power
Team development frequently involves utilization of power for resolution of issues. This involves the use of some type of influence to make a decision and determine how to proceed with a project. Power and authority will be covered extensively on the PMP exam. You need to know the types of power and how they can be utilized in various situations. The types of power are detailed in Table 6.3.
Part of building and maintaining a project team is the ability to handle conflict and resolve conflict issues. You need to know and understand five conflict-resolution techniques for the exam. You will encounter situational questions on the exam that require you to determine which type of conflict-resolution technique is best suited for a particular situation, and whether it is a win-win, win-lose, or lose-lose conflict-resolution technique. In a win-win scenario, both parties win. In a win-lose situation, one party wins and the other party loses. In a lose-lose scenario, both parties lose. The five conflict-resolution techniques are detailed in Table 6.4.
Team Development Theories
You will need to know these theories for the PMP exam, which are detailed in the following subsections. Table 6.5 consolidates this information for you, summarizing the theories for the team development section.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
The first theory is Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. This hierarchy is seen as a pyramid with the first level, Physical Needs, at the base of the pyramid. The contents of the pyramid are described in Table 6.6.
This popular theory is included in the PMBOK team development area because it emphasizes how team members can strive to achieve their peak performance. After a person has risen to the highest levels of the hierarchy, this provides him or her with the ability to communicate effectively and provide results to difficult situations that require creativity in a team setting. The exam will likely have some questions associated with this well-known theory.
Herzberg's Hygiene Theory
Also know as the Motivation-Hygiene Theory, Herzberg's theory states that motivation is based on two factors: motivators and hygiene factors. Benefits, pay, and work conditions are examples of hygiene factors. Motivators are related to the challenge and satisfaction associated with actually performing one's job.
Motivators help provide job satisfaction and hygiene factors are job attributes that help prevent job dissatisfaction. The necessity to keep your team satisfied is an important part of maintaining good productivity levels and team development.
Motivating factors include your actual work and the satisfaction you get from doing the work. These involve learning new skills, getting promotions, and facing work-related challenges.
The expectation of being rewarded is the driving motivation behind the Expectancy Theory. Therefore, there is a linkage between behavior and a positive outcome. This positive outcome is what motivates us to respond in a certain way.
The theory also involves a self-fulfilling prophecy aspect in regard to positive reinforcement. In other words, if you praise your team as high performers, they tend to become high performers. Conversely, if team members are repeatedly told that they are low performers, they tend to become low performers.
The need for power, affiliation, and achievement are the only three motivating factors for people, according to the Achievement Theory. Let's examine these factors further. The power of motivation includes the ability to influence others. Affiliation is a feeling of belonging to a team and involves developing relationships. Achievement is the feeling of satisfaction you receive from advancing in your career or completing a project.
McGregor's X and Y Theories
These theories describe how different managers respond to their employees. The X Theory asserts that workers are generally lazy and need an autocratic type of manager to get their work completed; whereas, the Y Theory maintains that employees are generally hard workers and do not need constant supervision in order to complete their duties. Y Theory type managers provide limited supervision and feel that most employees want to positively contribute to the organization.