A code that uses words (especially nouns) instead of figures or letter-groups as the equivalent of plain language units.
A method of testing or defeating the robustness of a watermark. This attack applies "jitter" to a cover by splitting the file into a large number of samples, then deletes or duplicates one of the samples and puts the pieces back together. At this point the location of the embedded bytes cannot be found. This technique is nearly imperceptible when used on audio and video files.
A cryptography principle that states that if the method used to encipher data is known by an opponent, then security must lie in the choice of the key.
A product of Sony, embedded code that prevents playback on a PC or Mac; prevents track ripping or copying.
A type of attack where both the original, unaltered cover and the stego-object are available.
A type of attack where the hidden message is known to exist by the attacker, and the stego-object is analyzed for patterns that may be beneficial in future attacks. This is a very difficult attack, equal in difficulty to a stego-only attack.
An attack where the tool (algorithm) is known and the original cover object and stego-object are available.
A substitution method of steganography where the right-most bit in a binary notation is replaced with a bit from the embedded message. This method provides "security through obscurity," a technique that can be rendered useless if an attacker knows the technique is being used.
The method of steganography where a secret is embedded in a harmless message (
See also Jargon code.
A code name for IBM's Electronic Music Management System (EMMS). EMMS is being designed to deliver piracy-proof music to consumers via the Internet.
A memory media stick from Sony designed to allow users access to copyrighted music or data.
In steganography, the data (text, still images, audio, video, or anything that can be represented as a bitstream)a sender wishes to remain confidential.
A detailed form of microfilm that has been reduced to an extremely small size for ease of transport and purposes of security.
An online music store that provides secure distribution of MP3s over the Internet. A secure player and a download system allow users to play songs an unlimited number of times, but only on a registered player.
A watermarking attack that is particularly useful for images that are distributed over the Internet. It relies on a Web browser's ability to assemble mutiple images so they appear to be one image. A watermarked image can be broken into pieces but displayed as a single image by the browser. Any program trying to detect the watermark will look at each individual piece, and if they are small enough, will not be able to detect the watermark.
An encrypted form of MP3 watermarking technology from MCY Music that protects the music industry and artists from copyright infringments.
An initiative that contributes to the continuing development of intellectual property standards. The MUSE Project focuses on the electronic delivery of media, embedded signaling systems, and encryption technology, with the goal of creating a global standard.
A way of determining the speed and method of stego-object (or virus) movement throughout a network.
A hidden communication technique where small holes are poked just above the letters in a newspaper article that will spell out a secret message. A variant of this technique is to use invisible ink in place of holes.
National Television System Committee: The first color TV broadcast system was implemented in the United States in 1953. This was based on the NTSC (National Television System Committee) standard. NTSC is used by many countries on the American continent as well as many Asian countries, including Japan. NTSC runs on 525 lines/frame. PAL (Phase Alternating Line) standard was introduced in the early 1960s and implemented in most countries except for France.European. The PAL standard utilizes a wider channel bandwidth than NTSC, which allows for better picture quality. PAL runs on 625 lines/frame.
A meaningless symbol that is included within a message to confuse unintended recipients.