Organizations of all types and sizes make significant investments of time and money in technology initiatives, and maximizing their costly investments is of paramount importance. Effective information technology (IT) utilization is key to being competitive in this increasingly competitive economic environment. Learning from the experiences of other organizations' technology initiatives, including the "best practices" of successful projects and the "not-to-do" list from project failures, offers one key to achieving success in information technology projects. The following 37 case studies, authored by over 50 world-renowned academicians and practitioners in IT offer insights into how to succeed in IT projects and how to avoid costly failures. These case studies describe private and public organizations, including educational institutions, electronic businesses, and governmental organizations, ranging in size from small businesses to large organizations. Additionally, they focus on a variety of technology projects, including electronic commerce and electronic business initiatives, enterprise resource planning and reengineering efforts, data mining projects, and the human factors relating to IT projects. This timely new collection offers concrete advice and suggestions for the practitioner seeking to implement similar technologies. Additionally, these cases will prove to be particularly useful to students and teachers of information systems (IS), as they offer opportunities for in-depth discussion on the intricacies of IS success. Following are more detailed descriptions of the cases included in this important publication.
Assessing the Introduction of Electronic Banking in Egypt Using the Technology Acceptance Model by Sherif Kamel, The American University in Cairo, Egypt, and Ahmed Hassan, Maastricht School of Management, Egypt.
Using the Technology Acceptance Model as a starting point, this case covers the introduction and diffusion of retail banking in Egypt and the development in electronic delivery channels and payment systems in its marketplace. The case represents a model for the application of advanced information and communication technology in the context of a developing nation, specifically, and explores the difficulties and unique challenges of information technology management in developing countries, generally.
A Process Approach for Selecting ERP Software: The Case of Omega Airlines by Jacques Verville, Texas A&M International University, USA
This case explores Omega Airlines, an international air carrier providing air transportation services for passengers and cargo to domestic and international arenas, and their implementation of PeopleSoft's ERP solution (finance, human resources, and payroll applications) for the sum of US$86 million. The ERP acquisition process developed by Omega Airlines for this purchase was atypical of their normal purchasing practices and proved to be a significant learning experience for the entire organization. This case provides a useful illustration of "good practice" and sets forth the framework for the ERP acquisition process.
The Relation Between BPR and ERP-Systems: A Failed Project by David Paper and Kenneth B. Tingey, Utah State University, USA, and Wai Mok, University of Alabama in Huntsville, USA
This case discusses Vicro Communication's (a pseudonym) efforts to reengineer its basic business processes with the aid of data-centric enterprise software; specifically, examining Vicro management team's mistake of relying completely on the software to improve the performance of its business processes. This case describes how the reengineering effort failed miserably, even after investing hundreds of millions of dollars in software implementation.
Implementing a Data Mining Solution for an Automobile Insurance Company: Reconciling Theoretical Benefits with Practical Considerations by Ai Cheo Yeo and Kate A. Smith, Monash University, Australia
This case describes an insurance company investigation into the benefits of data mining for an anonymous Australian automobile insurance company. Although the investigation was able to demonstrate quantitative benefits of adopting a data mining approach, there are many practical issues that need to be resolved before the data mining approach can be implemented. This case provides insights into the decision-making process that is involved in exploring emerging technologies.
The T1-Auto Inc. Production Part Testing (PPT) Process: A Workflow Automation Success Story by Charles T. Caine, Thomas W. Lauer, and Eileen Peacock, Oakland University, USA
This case describes the development, design, and implementation of a workflow automation system at a tier one automotive supplier, T-1 Auto. In 1994, Lotus NotesÔ was installed as the corporate standard e-mail and workflow platform. The case goes on to describe the design and development of the Lotus Notes™workflow management system. The case concludes with a discussion of project success factors and planned future enhancements.
Heineken USA: Reengineering Distribution with HOPS by Gyeung-min Kim of Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea, and John Price, Portland State University, Oregon, USA
This case describes Heineken USA's attempt to be more responsive to market demand fluctuation. Heineken USA launched its new Internet-based system called HOPS (Heineken Operational Planning System) to allow the parent company to produce the beer closer to the time when they need to deliver it, so the customer receives a fresher product. The new system enables Heineken USA to achieve 50% reduction in the lead-time from order to delivery and 10% increase in sales. This case discusses how IS can dramatically improve customer relationships and cut costs.
A Dream Project Turns Nightmare: How Flawless Software Never Got Implemented by Vital Roy and Benoit Aubert of Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Canada
This case details the experience of Integra, a large Canadian life insurance institution, and its partner Intex Consulting, the Canadian subsidiary of a large international IS integration firm, in the launch of their Banking and Loan Insurance Software System (BLISS) development project. After 1.3 million dollars of investment from each partner and 12 months of intensive efforts, the project came to an abrupt stop. Specifically, this case looks at the ramifications of introducing a new and unproven IS product and how to avoid and recover from an IS project failure.
Humanware Issues in a Government Management Information Systems Implementation by Susan Lippert, Drexel University, Pennsylvania, USA
This case describes the experience of a United States Government Defense Agency, charged with the acquisition and procurement of weapons systems, that required a comprehensive Management Information System (MIS). Despite a large investment of time and money, the information system was designed and implemented without due consideration or management of the human side of systems development. The lack of human factors planning generated cost overruns, time delays, and ultimately, a partial failure of the system. This case addresses the behavioral, managerial, and organizational shortcomings of the MIS process, which ultimately led to a less than effective implementation.
The Lonely Comate: The Adoption-Failure of an Intranet-Based Consumer and Market Intelligence System by Paul H.J. Hendriks, University of Nijmegen, and Wendy H. Jacobs, PricewaterhouseCoopers, The Netherlands
The case study concerns the disappointing reception of an intranet application at TopTech, a prominent player in the field of electronics. The application in question, called Comate, which stands for "Consumer and Market Intelligence Technology Environment," was conceived and built by the central staff department for Consumer and Marketing Intelligence (CMI) of the company. This case study focuses on the organization's decision to form a project team to investigate why users did not accept the system change.
Managing Information Security on a Shoestring Budget by Varadharajan Sridhar and Bharat Bhasker, Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow, India
This case illustrates the Indian Institute of Management-Lucknow's (IIML) implementation of a robust security management infrastructure with a limited budget on hand. The case discusses the importance of developing security policies and selecting a proper combination of freeware and proprietary software components. The case illustrates the trade-offs involved and presents experiences of IIML in outsourcing the postimplementation phase to a Security Service Provider.
Large-Scale Sustainable Information Systems Development in a Developing Country: The Making of an Islamic Banking Package by Adekunle Okunoye, University of Turku, Finland
This case study explores the difficulties encountered in technology transfer to developing countries, specifically examining a company offering IT services to an Islamic bank. The case highlights the circumstances that led to the bank's decision to develop the systems locally. The case looks at the outsourcing decisions, project management issues, and systems development problems, as they relate to developing countries successful IS projects.
Bankcard Payment System in the People's Republic of China by Michelle W. L. Fong, Victoria University of Technology, Australia
This case explores the needs for and development of an efficient payment system to be used in trading in goods and services in the People's Republic of China, an emerging market economy. The case looks at the "Golden Card" project and discusses the successful implementation and the problems that still need to be overcome before the initial objectives of the project can be met. Some of the problems addressed are low public confidence in the system, weak technological support, and an inadequate regulatory framework that prevent the full realization of a supportive payment system for overall economic development.
Student Laptop Ownership Requirement and Centralization of Information Technology Services at a Large Public University by Gregory B. Newby, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, USA
This case explores a large, highly ranked public university's decision to implement a requirement for all incoming undergraduates to own a laptop computer to potentially control increased expenditures for information technology by shifting some of the cost of technology to students and decreasing the need for centralized general-purpose computing laboratories. This case analyzes the relative success of this endeavor, educationally and in cost savings to the university.
Integration of Third-Party Applications and Web Clients by Means of an Enterprise Layer by Wilfried Lemahieu, Monique Snoeck, and Cindy Michiels, K.U. Leuven, Belgium
This case study reports an Enterprise modeling and application integration project for a young telecommunications company providing broadband applications for the SME market. The project's aim was to define and implement an Enterprise Layer, serving as an integration layer on top of which the existing BSS/OSS would function independently and in parallel. The case details the conception of a unifying Enterprise Model and the formulation of an implementation architecture for the Enterprise Layer, based on the Enterprise JavaBeans framework.
The Impact of E-Commerce Technology on the Air Travel Industry by Susan Gasson, Drexel University, Pennsylvania, USA
This case study examines the impact of online reservation systems and e-commerce on the travel industry and looks at how competitive advantage can be obtained from the exploitation of new information technologies, particularly e-commerce technologies, and how the role of travel agents has changed as a result of the new information technologies being used in the air travel industry. The case study further offers a comparison between U.S. and European travel industries and offers concrete suggestions for attaining and maintaining competitive advantage.
Information Systems Development and Business Fit in Dynamic Environments by Panagiotis Kanellis, Peggy Papadopoulou, and Drakoulis Martakos, University of Athens, Greece
This case describes the effects of privatization on a large industrial organization and sets the context for illustrating the vulnerability of information systems in turbulent environments. The case presents a detailed chronology of the events that lead to an increased awareness of the importance of information systems flexibility. The case examines the difficulties faced by an organization when its information systems were incapable of dealing with frantic changes in environmental contingencies.
Information Technology and FDA Compliance in the Pharmaceutical Industry by Raymond Papp, University of Tampa, Florida, USA
In response to a recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandate that all new drug applications be submitted in paperless form, this case study examines the potential benefits of using information technology to navigate and meet complex FDA requirements. This case study describes the steps pharmaceutical companies can and should be taking to assure that its use of information technology will allow it to not only meet FDA guidelines, but also to achieve its corporate goals of improved efficiency and reduced operating costs.
Web-Enabling for Competitive Advantage: A Case Study of Himalayan Adventures by Luvai Motiwalla and Azim Hashimi, University of Massachusetts-Lowell, USA
This case explores an implementation of an electronic commerce application in a global travel company. The case describes how Web-enabled technologies can lead to an increase in customers. The case presents the Porter electronic business model used by the business owner to analyze the market needs and to identify the appropriate information technology to use to gain a strategic advantage.
Balancing Theoretical and Practical Goals in the Delivery of a University-Level Data Communications Program by Jairo Gutierrez and Koro Tawa, University of Auckland, New Zealand
This case examines the experience of introducing the Cisco Networking Academy Program as part of two data communications courses taught in the School of Business and Economics at the University of Auckland. This case discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the delivery of the combined (traditional content plus the Cisco-based content) material and explores the impact of the program on the learning outcomes and objectives of the existing courses. The course further looks at the steps to developing a successful Web-base course.
ERP Implementation in State Government by Ed Watson, Dan Gutierrez, and Dan Rinks, Louisiana State University, USA, and Sylvia Vaught, State of Louisiana, USA
This case study examines some of benefits associated with the implementation of integrated systems in state government. Specifically, the case describes how the public sector has embraced enterprise resource planning (ERP) as the business standard for enterprise computing and how these same technologies can benefit public organizations. Private-sector organizations embraced this technology for varying reasons. This case looks at the challenges and opportunities faced by state government's ERP implementation.
Business Process Redesign in Travel Management in an SAP R/3 Upgrade Project — A Case Study by Marit Schallert, Queensland University of Technology, Australia
This case describes the initial stages of a process-reengineering project undertaken in a shared service provider for local government departments in Australia. The described project's objectives were to reengineer the process of business travels through an enterprise system. The case looks at the challenges of reducing costs as well as maintaining a high level of service quality for business travelers.
Globe Telecom: Succeeding in the Philippine Telecommunications Economy by Ryan C. LaBrie and Ajay S. Vinzé, Arizona State University, USA
This case examines the role and implications of deregulation in the telecommunications sector on an IT-based services organization in the Philippines. This case study specifically examines the actions of Globe Telecom from just prior to the 1993 Philippine deregulation through the present. This case examines the steps taken by Globe that have allowed it to continue to succeed despite the competition against the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, which at one time, controlled over 90% of the telephone lines in the Philippines.
Modeling Back Office Operations at Greenfield Online's Digital Consumer Store by Gerard M. Campbell, Christopher L. Huntley, and Michael R. Anderson, Fairfield University
This case explores Greenfield Online, the first online market research company. Their core business involves developing and implementing customized market research studies. This case uses three modeling techniques — process mapping, data flow diagramming, and entity-relationship diagramming — to specifically examine operations at Greenfield Online's "Digital Consumer Store." This case is a useful study in comparing manually performed back-office processes with their technological counterparts.
Using Asynchronous Computer Conferencing to Support the Teaching of Computing and Ethics: A Case Study by Pat Jeffries and Simon Rogerson, De Montfort University, UK
This case addresses the challenges educators face in attempting to incorporate appropriate new technologies and facilitate awareness among their students of the ethical and legal issues related to their use. Specifically, the case addresses the development of a computer ethics course at a higher education institution. This case study explores some of the techniques that were employed in seeking to support this course in a pedagogically sound and ethically aware manner.
Computer Service Support at Glenview Hospital by Martha Garcia-Murillo, Paula Maxwell, Simon Boyce, Raymond St. Denis, Shwethan Shetty, and Joan Shroyer-Keno, Syracuse University, New York, USA
This case focuses on the challenges of managing a help desk that supports computer users using the call distributing system and the knowledge base, a Web-based technology. The choice of technologies affected the service provided by the help desk staff. This case describes the benefits and drawbacks of both approaches and examines the challenges faced by management in its attempts to standardize call documentation and knowledge-base entries.
Efficient Data Management in E-Business Transactions by Nikos Karacapilidis, University of Patras, Greece
This case reports on the implementation of an open information management system that integrated modern information technology approaches to address the needs of a Greek medium-scale clothing producer heading toward becoming an e-business. This case explores the necessary steps to ensure seamless integration of a new system and the benefits in terms of cost and time savings, error reductions, and improved customer and supplier relationships due to the new system.
Rx for Integration: Lessons Learned in Health Care EAI by Hamid Nemati and Scott Stewart, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA, and Faye Sherrill-Huffman, Rown Regional Medical Center
This case provides an overview of Enterprise Application Integration (EAI). Then, an examination of the technical and organizational challenges faced by a major medical center in North Carolina attempting to integrate its enterprise applications is presented, and how the project team responded to those challenges is discussed. An appendix featuring a complete list of products covered in this case, as well as a brief glossary of health care IT terms, follows the case.
Enterprise-wide Strategic Information Systems Planning for Shanghai Bell Corporation by Yuan Long and Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA, and Zhanbei Zhu, Shanghai Bell Corporation, China
This case examines Shanghai Bell Corporation, Limited, a leading telecommunications enterprise located in Shanghai, and China's initiative to develop its next generation Information Technology/Information Systems (IT/IS) strategic plan. This case describes the environmental and organizational context of the company and the problems and challenges it encountered in developing an enterprise-wide strategic IT/IS plan. The issues covered include alignment of IT strategy with evolving business needs, application of a methodology to develop the strategic IT/IS plan, and evaluation of strategic planning project success.
Systems Development by Virtual Project Teams: A Comparative Study of Four Cases by David Croasdell, Andrea Fox, and Suprateek Sarker, Washington State University, USA
This case study provides a comparative analysis of four cross-cultural virtual project teams as they analyzed design and develop information systems. It specifically examines the issues organizations face in trying to understand what factors are determinants of success with respect to virtual teams. Additionally, the case examines the factors that cause managers to reconsider traditional IS development practices. These factors include increasing network bandwidth, continuously improving communication technologies, shifting global economies, and changing social practices.
Enabling B2B Marketplaces: The Case of GE Global Exchange Services by Robert Mockler, James Paul, Schiro Withanachchi, William Bistline, and Marc E. Gartenfeld, St. John's University, and Dorothy Dologite, Baruch College, City University of New York, USA
This case provides an overview of the B2B segment of the e-business industry and explores how B2B e-commerce functions. Additionally, the case describes an in-depth example of how to analyze a specific industry and offers an example of how to identify keys of success for a company, GE Global Exchange Services (GXS). The case also describes how an organization can identify opportunities and threats in its industry and analyze competitive market situations.
How to Successfully Manage an IT Department Under Turbulent Conditions: A Case Study by A. C. Leonard, University of Pretoria, South Africa
The case study describes the history of the IT Department of a South African bank and how it started to introduce information technology to gain competitive advantage. The case study explains the problems and frustrations end-users and IT professionals experienced with regard to wrong decisions made by the management team. This case offers management models for problem management and project management that were used by the management team to organize and direct the actions of IT specialists.
The QUIPUDATA Case: Implementing a Quality Initiative in an IT Organization by Martín Santana-Ormeño, Antonio Díaz-Andrade, Jaime Serida-Nishimura, and Eddie Morris-Abarca, Escuela de Administración de Negocios, Peru
This case study illustrates how a subsidiary company of one of the largest corporations in Peru, Backus Corporation, implemented a quality management model, got the ISO 9001: 2000 certification, and evolved from an information technology support center to a center of benefits. It describes the evolution and development of the quality management model based on indicators used in QUIPUDATA and describes the steps followed to get a quality certification.
Spreadsheets as Knowledge Documents: Knowledge Transfer for Small Business Web Site Decisions by Stephen Burgess, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia, and Don Schauder, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
This case describes the creation of a practical decision support tool (using a spreadsheet) for the initiation and development of small business Web sites. Using selected literature from structuration theory, information management, and knowledge management, decision support tools are characterized as knowledge documents (communication agents for explicit knowledge). Understanding decision support tools as knowledge documents sheds light on their potentialities and limitations for knowledge transfer and assists in maximizing their potentialities.
Software Vendor's Business Model Dynamics Case: TradeSys by Risto Rajala, Matti Rossi, and Virpi Kristiina Tuunainen, Helsinki School of Economics, Finland
This case describes the evolution of a small software company through three major phases of its life cycle. During the first phase, the business was founded within a subsidiary of a large multinational information technology (IT) company. At the second phase, the business evolved as a spin-off from the initial organization through a MBO (Management Buy-Out) into an independent software vendor. Finally, at the third phase, the business has established itself as a vertically focused business unit within a publicly quoted company operating in software and consulting businesses. This case highlights the challenges of a business in the three major turning points in its life cycle and the major changes in the business model, accordingly.
Application of an Object-Oriented Metasystem in University Information System Development by Petr C. Smolik and Tomas Hruska, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
This case presents experience from design and implementation of a university information system at the Brno University of Technology. The newly built system is expected to provide students and staff with better tools for communication within the university's independent faculties, departments, and central administration. This case describes the initial success of the project and the subsequent shortcomings that still have to be resolved.
IS Management and Success of an Italian Fashion Shoe Company by Donatella Sciuto, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione of the Politecnico di Milano, Italy, and Giacomo Buonanno, Aurelio Ravarini, Marco Tagliavini, and Paolo Faverio, Universita Carlo Cattaneo, Italy
This case study presents the chronology of a well-known Italian company, LSB, producing and selling high-quality shoes all over the world. During the past few years, LSB has clearly underperformed with regards to its competitors. This case offers an analysis of LSB processes, and organizational structure shows the importance of information management in organizational success. This case study investigates the influence of IS management on the evolution of LSB performance.
Nationwide ICT Infrastructure Introduction and Its Leverage for Overall Development by Predrag Pale, University of Zagreb, Croatia, and Jasenka Gojŝic, Croatian Academic and Research Network, Zagreb, Croatia
This case describes a 10-year effort of creating an information and communications technology infrastructure in Croatia. Although initially an independent agency, five years after it began operation, the Croatian Academic and Research Network (CARNet) had been transformed into a government agency. The case explores the question of whether or not CARNet has truly been successful and seeks to answer the question of whether the initial goals have been realistic and achievements sufficient, considering the low penetration of ICT into the Croatian society.