Numbers: -



  1. To computers double and single quotes are often the same thing.

  2. Put double quote marks around something and it typically means you want to search

  3. Double quotation marks. Typically used to signify something your computer should print (to screen, disk or paper), as in PRINT "Thanks for being a good guy." Some programs allow you to use single quotation marks interchangeably with double ones. Some programs don't. Try one or the other if in doubt.

  4. A " refers to inches. So 8" is the same as saying eight inches. See also U.


  1. The character on the bottom right of your touchtone keypad, which is also typically above the 3 on your computer keyboard. The # sign is correctly called an "octothorpe," but sometimes it is also spelled without the "e" on the end. There is even an International Society of Octothorpians who maintains a web page at The octothorpe is commonly called the pound sign, but it's also called the number sign, the crosshatch sign, the tic-tac-toe sign, the enter key, the octothorpe (also spelled octathorp) and the hash. Musicians call the # sign a "sharp."

  2. On some phones the # key represents an "Enter" key like the Enter key on a computer. On some phones it represents "NO." And on others it represents "YES." MCI, AT&T and some other long distance companies use it as the key for making another long distance credit card call without having to redial. Hold down the # key for at least two seconds before the person at the other end has hung up, you'll get a dial tone, punch in your phone number and you can make another long distance call ” without having to punch in your credit card number again. (This service is often called Call Reorigination or just plain Next Call.)

  3. The # key is used in the paging industry ” national and local. When you dial a phone number which represents someone's beeper , you will typically hear a double beep. At that point you punch in your phone number, ending it with a #. At that point, the machine hangs up on you and sends out the numbers you punched in to the pager you just dialed . Many digital phone pagers allow people to send actual text messages to pagers . Many use the # sign to signal the use of certain digits (c, f, i, l, o, s, v, y) as well as to signal the end of the transmittal. The # character is also the comment character used in UNIX files (configuration, code, etc.). See also Octothorphe.

$100 billion

What cell phone operators worldwide spent in the late 1990s to buy third generation (3G) licenses from their various governments . By the time I wrote this entry in mid-2003, most of the operators had written off most of the money, since few could see any future for 3G cell phone service. See also 3G.


The "and" sign. Its real name is an "ampersand."


Asterisk. Also known as a " splat ," "Nathan Hale," or the "star" sign. The term "splat" comes from the poor quality of some early printers, since "*" often looked like a splat of ink. "Nathan Hale" refers to the misquote "I have only one life to give (i.e., ass to risk) for my country." On IVR systems it typically means "No." In computer languages, it often means a multiplication sign. It's also used to represent a wild card or a joker. For example, the DOS command ERASE JOHN.* will erase all the files in that directory beginning with JOHN, e.g. JOHN.TXT, JOHN.NEW, JOHN.OLD, JOHN.BAK, etc. The asterisk was also called amplicon by the old Bell Telephone system, but I don't know why.


Customer-Originated Trace. The North American universal dialing code which you touchtone in immediately after receiving a harassing, obscene or annoying phone call. By touchtoning that number in, you have alerted your central office to "tag" that phone call. Should a law enforcement agency get involved in investigating your annoying calls, they would be able to go into your records and find the phone number from which the annoying call was made. See also Trap and Trace, and Vertical Service Code.


Usual code in North America to access Automatic Callback.


Customer Number Delivery Blocking, or Call Block Code. Dial *67 before you make a call in North America and the person you call won't see your Caller ID, i.e. the number from which you're calling. See also Vertical Service Code.


Automatic Recall. Dial *69 after you have received a call in North America which you didn't answer and it will dial that calling number for you. See also Vertical Service Code.


The usual code in North America to disable call waiting for an individual call.


The CNI (Calling Number Identification) Call Display Code. This code temporarily overrides the CNIR (Calling Number Identification Restriction) option. You dial it before you place an outgoing call when you want to override your profile restriction, and let the called party see your telephone number when you call them.


In C programming, the expression i++ means use the current variable i and add 1 to it. In more contemporary usage, ++ has come to mean an expansion, an improvement, an upgrading, etc. So, C++ is an improved version of the C programming language. MAE- East++ is an expansion of MAE-West located nearby. See MAE-East.


  1. The hyphen. In typewriting, two of them together are called a dash. in Microsoft Word, two hyphens typed together are usually magically transformed by the program into a dash, which is in typesetting lingo, more properly called an m-dash, because it consumes the width of a lower-case m. Often we take two words and join them with a hyphen into a new word. As the word becomes more and more common, we remove the hyphen and the double word now becomes a single word.

  2. The minus sign.


Microsoft .NET is Microsoft's software platform for XML-based Web Services. It provides a distributed software environment where interactions between computer systems use Web Services as the communications mechanism. .NET spans client, server, service and development tools. Microsoft talks about .NET Services as service-based building blocks for developers, including .NET Passport, .NET Alerts, etc. See also SOAP, UDDI and Web Services.


The forward slash. Lotus made it famous. UNIX uses it as a directory separator. You see the use of forward slashes in Web addresses, e.g. www.ctexpo/index.html.


The double forward slash. Filenames or other resource names that begin with the string // mean that they exist on a remote computer. The convention // is commonly seen on the Internet. See \\.


The backslash. Used for designating directories on your MS-DOS / Windows PC. This dictionary is located in D:\Work\Diction. That means it's in the " diction " subdirectory of the "work" directory, also called folder. If it were under Windows, the file name could be as long as 256 characters and could say something more descriptive, like d:\work\ harry 's great dictionary.


The double backslash. Filenames or other resource names that begin with the string \\ mean that they exist on a remote computer. The double backslash is more common in the NT world, while the // (double forward slash) is more common in the Unix world, and thus on the Internet. See also //.


The character typically above the 6 on your keyboard. In some languages like French, it is a circumflex and it changes the way you pronounce the letter with the circumflex over it. In PC computer language, when you see it on paper, it means the Control (Ctrl) key. In typography, the ^ symbol is used to show where something is to be inserted. The ^ symbol also is used to indicate the power to which a number is raised when the text processing program does not support superscript character formatting. For example, 10^6 means 10 to the 6th power, which equals 10x10x10x10x10x10=1,000,000. As another example, 2^8 means 2 to the 8th power, which equals 256. The latter is particularly important in the digital world, as it is based on bits, each of which has one of two possible values ” a one or a zero. Since most data fields are byte-length with most bytes comprising eight bits, the number of unique values that can be represented by such a field is 256. In most applications, the effective number of values is considered to be 255, as all zeroes value (i.e., 00000000) is considered "nothing."


This character is called a tilde. It is used as the UNIX shortcut for "home directory for this account. In Spanish, it tells you how to pronounce the n in senor. According to William Safire, it's a Spanish word from the Latin term for a tiny diacritical mark used to change the phonetic value of a letter.

0+ Calls

Called "oh plus." 0+ calls are calls made by dialing zero plus the desired telephone number. Calls made this way may be interrupted by a live operator requesting billing information, or a recorded announcement requesting the caller to enter the billing information.

0- Calls

Called "oh minus." O- calls are operator-assisted calls. The caller dials zero and waits for the operator to pick up the line and talk to the caller.


An ISDN BRI circuit missing the voice B channels, and only provisioned with the signalling channel. This is common for automated teller machines, travel agency terminals and authorization services. This uses the D channel for a 9600 baud X.25 connection to a provider instead of a leased line. Monthly cost starts around $20. Some providers offer low cost LATA wide packet services for $1-$4 per month, with worldwide X.25 costs starting about $20+ per month usage fees. Anywhere a low speed data connection is needed, this is usually a low cost alternative. All it takes is an NT-1 that trips off the D channel and supports a serial port for your hardware.

00+ or 00- Dialing

Double zero dialing. Allows a caller to get an IEC Assistance Operator in areas where dialing only one zero would connect the caller with the local operator; occurs as a result of the division of services into Intra- and InterLATA.


The access code for operator-assisted intercontinental calls in North America; after the user inputs the required code and number, an operator is signaled to come on the line, as in domestic "0+" dialing.


The prefix you use in the United States to dial a number to another country, except Canada and most countries in the Caribbean. Must be followed by a country code and the area code and the local phone number.

0345 Numbers

A British Telecom LinkLine service in England where the caller is charged at the local rate irrespective of the distance of the call. The subscriber pays installation and rental charges in addition to a charge for each call. Additional numbers prefixes in England include 0645 and 0845 numbers.


See 0345 Numbers.

0800 Numbers

A British Telecom LinkLine service in England where the caller is not charged for the call. Similar to the North American 800 IN-WATS service.

Ericsson has 0800-type service on cellular systems it's put in. Ericsson describes it as a "network-oriented service ” based on time of day, day of week, or special day ” which allows calls to be redirected to other numbers."


See 0345 Numbers.

0891 and 0898 Numbers

A British Telecom Premium rate service in England where the caller is charged at a premium rate for the call. The calls are normally made to receive information or a service. The service provides revenue for the information provider who receives part of the call charge.

0839 and 0881 Numbers

Mercury's premium rate service numbers in England.


Pronounced "one plus." In North America, dialing 1 as the first digit has come to signal to your local phone company that the phone number you are dialing is long distance, i.e. is designed to reach a long distance number in the United States, Canada, or several of the Caribbean islands (including Bermuda, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Barbados and the Dominican Republic). The number 1 will typically be followed by an area code and then seven digits. For example, to dial me from outside New York City, you would dial 1-212- 691-8215. To reach other international countries, from the United States, you dial the international access code "011." This "1+" will work with your local phone company, signaling it that you want to reach another local area code. (In New York City, calling from Manhattan to Brooklyn means dialing 1+718+the seven digit Brooklyn number.) It also will work with the long distance company you have presubscribed to, through the process known as equal access. To reach another long distance carrier and route calls over its network, you will need to dial 1-0XXX and then the area code and number.


A method of protecting traffic in which a protection channel exists for each working traffic channel. For optical systems, the protection channel fibers can be routed over a path separate from the working fibers. The traffic signal is bridged to both the working and protection transmitters so the protection signal can be selected quickly if the working channel fails.

1.544 Mbps

The speed of a North American T-1 circuit. 1,544,000 bits per second. See T Carrier and T-1.

1.9 GHz

The radio spectrum between 1850 MHz and 1990 MHz used in broadband Personal Communications Services (PCS).


The strange starting date embedded in the original IBM PC.


A method of protecting traffic in which one protection channel exists for n traffic channels. Only one traffic channel can be switched to the protection channel at any given time.

10 Baggers

Venture capital jargon for companies returning 1000% on their investment.

10 Base X

See 10Base X below, e.g. 10Base-2, 10Base-T.

10 Base T

See 10Base-T. T stands for Twisted pair.

10 Digit Trigger

A 10 digit trigger is used when porting a number from the ILEC to the CLEC.

10 Gea

See 10 Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet Alliance.

10 Gigabit Ethernet

10GbE.In many ways, 10 Gigabit Ethernet is the same as the original 10 million bit per second Ethernet that we have today in our offices and in our homes . The only difference is that it's faster ” much faster. It has three more zeros of speeds. It's 10,000,000,000 bits per second versus only 10,000,000 bits per second for normal ten-meg Ethernet. 10 Gigabit Ethernet has the same header. It still has the same header format, the same 8-byte preamble, and the same minimum (64 byte) and maximum (1,518 byte) frame sizes. The biggest change is that CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection) has been eliminated because 10 Gig will be implemented in full-duplex mode only, meaning that collision detection is turned off. This will make our life easier by eliminating the duplexity mismatches that have plagued some Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet installations. Another difference: It will only run on fiber. The seven types of physical interfaces, or PHYs, are all fiber. There's no IEEE working group focusing on a copper standard. If 10 Gig ever does run on twisted pair, distances would be very limited. Each PHY comprises a PCS (Physical Coding Sublayer), which is responsible for controlling the transmitted bit patterns, and a PMD (Physical Media Dependent) layer, which is responsible for converting bits into light signals. The PMD is sometimes referred to as the "optics." These layers were designed to be independent of one another. With Gigabit Ethernet, you have just two types of standardized fiber interfaces to keep straight: those that support multimode fiber and those that support single-mode fiber. The major difference between single mode and multimode is the light frequencies supported and the cor-responding difference in range. Longer wavelengths running on single mode provide more distance. The other major change is that there are now LAN and WAN PHYs for each PMD. Multiplying three optics by two PHYs gives six unique interfaces. The seventh interface, sometimes referred to as the LX4 interface, is a LAN PHY and uses light frequencies in the 1,310-nm range. The main difference is that, though the other PMDs convert bits to light in a serial manner, the WWDM (Wide Wavelength Division Multiplexing) interface uses WDM technology to multiplex the bits across four light waves. This interface is the most versatile because it supports both 62.5 micron multimode fiber for short distances (300 meter) and single-mode 9-micron fiber for long-range (10 kilometers) connections. If you're wondering why there are so many different versions, you're not alone, especially when you consider that there is overlap between LX4 and some of the other standards. A lot of the variation is based on cost, range and the desire to take advantage of existing technologies and installed fiber. For example, the 850-nm optics that drive multimode fiber short distances are less expensive to build than the optics for single-mode fiber going longer distances. The thinking is, Why pay for what you don't need? This makes sense, but distance for the 850-nm PMD is limited to only 26 meters for existing (62.5 micron) fiber. Going 65 meters will require 50-micron fiber, which is much less common. If you're connecting switches and servers with patch cords in a data center, this isn't a big deal ”aside from the burden of keeping track of different fiber types. But for cable installed in structured-wiring plans, it's a different ball of wax. One thing is clear: If you're running fiber today, you should pull some single mode (9 micron) fiber, especially if the runs are more than 300 meters. It will cost you a bit more initially, but the labor cost to add it down the road could be even higher. The newer , higher grades of fiber will increase distances even further. This definition owes much to a wonderful article by Peter Morrissey in the August 5, 2002 issue of Network Computing Magazine.


An original local area network invented by a company called Fox Research, Dayton, OH. 10-Net is a baseband, Ethernet CSMA/CD peer-to-peer LAN running on one twisted pair at one megabit per second. It is easy to install and has many advantages. It's also slow. Very slow. And it's no longer being made. See Ethernet.


An Ethernet/Fast Ethernet designation, referring to having both 10Mbps and 100 Mbps on the same port.

100 Base T

See 100Base-T. T stands for Twisted pair.

100 Test Line

A Nortel Networks' switching term. The 100 test line, also known as a quiet or balanced termination, is used for noise and loss measurements. The S100 provides a quiet termination for noise measurements only. In this 100 family, there are the T100, S100 and N100 tests. The N100, a more recent version of the test, also includes a milliwatt test (i.e., a 102 test line) and therefore can be used for far-to-near loss measurements. The T100 is used when the equipment at the terminating office is unknown. When the T100 test line is performed, a two-second time-out is introduced to detect the presence or absence of a milliwatt tone. If the T100 test detects the milliwatt tone, it executes the N100 version of the test; otherwise , the S100 version is initiated. If the version of the distant office test line is known, then that version of the test line can be performed directly, and thus the two-second delay per trunk of the T100 test line test is eliminated.

The 101 test line is used to establish two-way communications between the test position and any trunk incoming to the system. The connection to the 101 test line is established through the switching network.

The 102 test line, also known as the milliwatt line, applies a 1004 Hz test tone towards the originating office to facilitate simple one-way or automatic transmission loss measurements. The test tone is applied for a timed duration of nine seconds during which answer (off-hook) signal is provided. Then an on-hook signal followed by a quiet termination is transmitted to the originating end until the connection is released by the originating end.

The T103 is used for the overall testing of supervisory and signaling features on inter- toll trunks. The test is performed to the far end to check overall supervisory and signaling features of the trunk. If the test fails or if a false tone signal is detected , the test is abandoned and the condition indicated.

The T104 test, used for two-way transmission loss measurements, far-to-near noise measurements and near-to-far noise checks is normally used in testing toll trunks.

When a 105 test line at a far-end office is called and seized, timing functions are initiated and an off-hook supervisory signal and test progress tone are returned to the originating office. If the responder is idle, the test line is connected to the responder and test progress tone is removed. Transmission tests are then initiated.

The T108 test provides far-end loop-around terminations to which a near-end echo suppression measuring set is connected for the purpose of testing echo suppressors.


IEEE standard (802.3u) for 100 Mbps Ethernet implementation over fiber, with the F denoting fiber. 100Base-FX runs on optical fiber cable, making the specification best suited for a backbone or long cable segment. 100Base-TX and 100Base-T4 as well as existing 10Base-T hubs can all be connected to a fiber backbone using appropriate hardware such as a bridge or router. 100Base-FX also supports full duplex operation. The bit encoding scheme used is 4B5B for purposes of Clock/Data Recovery (CDR). See 100Base-T for fuller explanation of 100 Mbps Ethernet LANs. See also 4B5B and CDR.


100 Mbps, Baseband, Twisted pair. In sort , 100Base-T is a 100 Mbps LAN (Local Area Network) standard known by the generic name of Fast Ethernet, and running over UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) copper cable. There are three basic implementations of Fast Ethernet ” 100Base-FX, 100Base-T and 100Base-T4. Each specification is identical except for its interface circuitry , which determines on what type of cabled medium it runs. As a result, the technologies currently aren't interchangeable; each must be connected to its own type of hub. For example, a 100Base-T4 NIC must be connected to a 100Base-T4 interface; likewise, a TX NIC must be connected to a TX interface at the other end. 100Base-T is the most popular and cost-effective high-speed LAN technology because it is designed to integrate with existing Ethernets with minimal disruption, as all are based on the conventional Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) standard. Essentially an extension of 10Base-T, 100Base-T achieves increased throughput by decreasing the latency period between bits, which effectively increases the packet speed by a factor of 10. The standard adheres to the 802.3u MAC specification, which builds on the 802.3 Ethernet standard to ensure compatibility with existing 10Base-T installations. As a result, an upgrade from 10Base-T to 100base-T is invisible to users, the NOS and current network management applications. 100Base-T uses the 4B5B Manchester encoding scheme for purposes of Clock/Data Recovery (CDR).

My own experience with upgrading to 100Base-T was not 100% overwhelmingly positive. First, we tried upgrading our Macintosh network to 100 Mbps (i.e., Fast Ethernet), but found zero improvement in the speed of transferring a file from the server to a Mac. Problem? Allegedly, the Macintosh network operating system simply won't work that fast. Then we started to upgrade some of our PC workstations to 100 Mbps, but found it made more sense to break our big PC LAN apart into smaller LANs, each run by an Ethernet switch and then have each Ethernet switch join to each other by 100 Mbps over fiber running 100Base-FX. That has worked wonderfully. The point of all this? Designing networks is not trivial. The speed of the individual links ” 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps ” may not be the gating factor. Check before you spend the money. See 4B5B, 100Base-FX, 100Base-T4, 100Base-FX, and CDR.

Newton[ap]s Telecom Dictionary
Newton[ap]s Telecom Dictionary
ISBN: 979387345
Year: 2004
Pages: 133 © 2008-2017.
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