Network Protocol Support


The Networking Options kernel menu contains options related to network protocols. You can include or exclude support for entire protocol stacks, and for some (particularly TCP/IP), you can fine-tune the support to optimize the kernel for particular roles, such as router options or packet filtering.

Packet and Socket Options

At a fairly low level, Linux networking operates by allowing programs to send or receive chunks of data (known as packets ) via data structures known as sockets. In most cases, a program opens a socket in a manner that's similar to the way a program opens a file. The program can then send and receive data via that socket. The network protocol stack (discussed shortly in "Alternative Network Stack Options") processes the data in ways that allow it to reach its destination or to be interpreted by the program after having been received from the sender.

In some cases, it's desirable or even necessary to process network data in some other way, or to modify or extend the standard packet and socket operations. Some of these options are important enough that they have their own sections. A few miscellaneous options include the following:

  • Packet Socket ” This option allows applications to bypass much of the normal protocol stack. Most programs don't need this feature, but some network diagnostic tools and other low-level utilities do need it. For instance, tcpdump , which displays low-level TCP/IP packet information, uses this kernel option. Including this option unnecessarily will slightly increase the size of the kernel and might allow an intruder to use low-level network diagnostics like tcpdump that you'd rather the intruder not be able to use. Omitting this feature will prevent you from running these utilities, though.

  • Packet Socket: Mmapped IO ” This is a packet socket suboption that, if enabled, can improve the performance of tools that use packet socket connections.

  • Unix Domain Sockets ” Several common and important Linux programs use networking protocols to communicate with each other when they run on a single computer. Examples include syslogd (which handles log files) and X (X programs use network protocols to communicate with the X server, which displays their windows ). The Unix Domain Sockets option allows this within-computer communication even on systems that lack conventional network hardware. When computers have conventional hardware, the domain sockets approach is faster than using the more general-purpose TCP sockets. You should include this option on all normal Linux systems; only specialized embedded devices or the like might lack this option.

These options all have default settings that are reasonable for most installations. You might want to disable packet socket support on some systems, though.

Network Filter Options

Network filters are designed to allow the system to block or modify packets that come into or leave a computer. One of these options (packet filtering) is particularly important for constructing firewalls or performing IP masquerading, as discussed in Chapter 25, Configuring iptables. A firewall can block certain types of undesirable access to a computer or a network that it protects, and IP masquerading lets you share a single IP address among an entire network. Specific kernel network filter options include the following:

  • Socket Filtering ” Normally, the kernel passes all packets that it receives for a given socket on to the program that created the socket. This option allows the program to point the kernel to a small program (known as a filter ) that will block some of the packets it receives. Few programs require this facility, but the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an important exception ”both recent DHCP servers and some DHCP clients require it. You should therefore enable this option if your network uses DHCP.

  • Network Packet Filtering ” This option is the 2.4. x kernel's most important type of filter, because it enables certain firewall and IP masquerading techniques. Because these are so important, it's generally a good idea to include this support. When you do so, the Network Packet Filtering Debugging option becomes available, which you can enable if you experience problems. A later submenu, IP: Netfilter Configuration, also becomes available. Subsequent items in this list appear on this submenu.

  • Connection Tracking ” Enabling this option allows the kernel to track network connections in greater detail than is normal. For instance, a router usually passes packets more-or-less blindly between two network interfaces, but when this option is enabled (both in the kernel and by user -level tools), Linux can match up the source and destination IP addresses and ports for future reference. This feature is required for IP masquerading, so it should be enabled on a computer that is to function in this way. It's not necessary for most other systems. If you enable it, the FTP protocol support option becomes available. FTP requires extra housekeeping, so enable this option if you want to use FTP on an IP masqueraded connection.

  • IP Tables Support ” This option includes kernel support routines for the iptables utility, which is used to set up packet filter firewalls and IP masquerading, as discussed in Chapter 25. Activating this option also allows you to select a number of suboptions that fine-tune the features available to you. Many of these options have names of the form Criterion Type Match Support, which enables the kernel to match on the specified Criterion Type. Of these, Connection State Match Support is particularly important, because it allows the system to perform stateful packet inspection, a useful form of firewall operation discussed in Chapter 25. The Packet Filtering, Full NAT, and LOG Target Support options are also very important, as are each of their suboptions. Enable all of these features if you want to use a computer as an IP masquerading router or firewall. You can omit Full NAT for a standalone workstation or server.

  • ipchains (2.2-Style) Support ” If you have an older firewall script that's based on the ipchains utility used by the 2.2. x kernels , you can activate support for this utility as long as you don't compile IP Tables Support directly into the kernel. (The ipchains and iptables tools are mutually incompatible methods of doing largely the same things, but iptables is more advanced.) If you're creating a firewall from scratch, you can safely omit ipchains support.

  • ipfwadm (2.0-Style) Support ” The 2.0. x kernels used a firewall tool called ipfwadm . If you have an ipfwadm -based firewall script, you can use it by compiling this feature, which is incompatible with both the iptables and ipchains support. Unless you have such a script and lack the inclination to modify it to use iptables , you can safely omit this option.

Between the 2.0. x and 2.4. x kernels, Linux's network filtering options have become more sophisticated. The 2.4. x kernel includes many optional features, and it's important that you activate all those you'll need for the type of firewall you intend to implement. When in doubt about a specific feature in the IP: Netfilter Configuration menu, I recommend you activate it. This will increase the kernel's size slightly, but it will also provide you with greater flexibility in designing firewall rules.

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You may think that you don't need to implement firewall rules on a Linux computer, particularly if it resides on a network behind a dedicated firewall. Unfortunately, even many allegedly protected networks have security flaws, so it's best to err on the side of caution. To that end, implementing simple firewalls on individual Linux computers is often a good idea.


TCP/IP Routing Options

A router (also referred to as a gateway ) is a computer that transfers data between two or more networks. For instance, a department at a large company or university is likely to have a router to link its own subnetwork with the larger network that belongs to the company or university as a whole. The company or university will then have a router to link all of its computers to the Internet. This topic is important enough that Chapter 24, Advanced Router Options, is devoted to the subject. For now, know that the Linux kernel includes several options that can influence its router operation. These are clustered as suboptions of IP: Advanced Router. Chapter 24 discusses the configuration and use of these options in more detail.

IPv6 Support Options

The Internet is built on TCP/IP protocols, and particularly on version 4 of the IP protocols ( IPv4 ). Unfortunately, IPv4 is showing its age in many ways. For instance, it supports IP addresses that are four bytes (32 bits) in length, meaning that there is a theoretical maximum of 2 32 , or 4,294,967,296, addresses. Because of inefficiencies in the way addresses are assigned, the number of Internet addresses is actually much lower than this. Consequently, the Internet is running out of addresses. IPv4 also has security limitations that allow miscreants to seriously disrupt Internet operation. These problems are not severe in 2002, but they're likely to become critical well before decade 's end.

For these reasons, an upgrade to IPv4, known as IPv6, is under development. Among other things, IPv6 uses a 128-bit IP address for a theoretical maximum of 2 128 , or 3.4 x 10 38 addresses ”enough for 2.2 x 10 18 addresses per square millimeter of land surface on the Earth. IPv6 also includes better hooks for certain types of security systems than does IPv4. In 2002, few networks allow the use of IPv6, but if yours is one, or if you want to experiment with IPv6 on a private internal network, you can activate experimental Linux IPv6 support via the IPv6 Protocol (Experimental) option in the Networking Options menu. Once you do this, another option or two may become available, including an entire submenu entitled IPv6: Netfilter Configuration. This submenu includes a subset of options similar to those described earlier, in "Network Filter Options," but geared towards IPv6 rather than IPv4.

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In order to activate IPv6 support, you must select Yes for the Prompt for Development and/or Incomplete Code/Drivers option in the kernel's Code Maturity Level Options menu. This is true of other "experimental" drivers as well. Eventually, IPv6 will become mainstream and nonexperimental. Like other experimental features, you should treat IPv6 support with some caution.


QoS Options

Suppose your Linux system is a router for a busy domain, or is a major server that processes a lot of traffic. In situations like this, it's not uncommon for Linux to find that it has more packets to process than it can send over its network interfaces. Thus, Linux needs some system for scheduling the transmission of outgoing packets. Ordinarily, Linux uses a first-in/first-out (FIFO) strategy, in which each outgoing packet waits in line behind all the others that have already been queued. In some situations, however, you might not want to use this system. You might want to favor certain types of packets, such as those delivered to certain networks or those that involve certain protocols. For instance, you might want to favor packets that carry real-time data, such as Internet telephony protocols. Adjusting packet priorities is the job of the quality of service (QoS) options. These options are all available from the QoS and/or Fair Queueing menu off of the Networking Options menu.

In order to implement a QoS system, you must select the QoS and/or Fair Queueing option in the menu of the same name . This action enables many of the options on this menu. A few others rely upon your selection of one or more other specific options. The most basic features are enabled by the various packet scheduler and queue options, such as CBQ Packet Scheduler and SFQ Queue. These options allow the kernel to schedule packets in more complex ways than the default FIFO. The QoS Support and Packet Classifier API options, as well as their individual suboptions, enable the use of Differentiated Services and the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). These both allow routers to communicate QoS priorities to other routers. If all the routers between two sites implement compatible QoS protocols, the end result can be greatly improved performance for time-critical protocols, at the expense of less time-critical protocols.

Most nonrouter systems don't need any QoS options. If you're configuring a Linux computer as a router, though ”particularly a heavily used router ”you may want to activate these options. If you activate one, it may make sense to activate them all, because without all options activated, the tools you use to specify QoS criteria won't be as flexible. For instance, if you omit the U32 Classifier option, you won't be able to prioritize traffic according to the destination address.

In practice, using QoS features requires the use of advanced routing tools, such as ip and tc . Chapter 24 touches upon these tools, but they can be extremely complex. The iproute2 + tc Notes (http://snafu.freedom.org/linux2.2/iproute-notes.html) and Differentiated Services on Linux (http://diffserv. sourceforge .net) Web sites contain additional documentation on these tools.

High-Level Protocol Support

The Linux kernel includes explicit support for several high-level network protocols. Placing this support in the kernel has two principal advantages. First, this code can run more quickly than can an ordinary user-level program. Second, placement in the kernel permits a tighter integration of the features of that protocol with the rest of the system. For instance, kernel-level support for network file-sharing protocols allows Linux to mount remote file exports as if they were local filesystems. The 2.4. x kernel includes support for three particularly important high-level protocols: HTTP, NFS, and SMB/CIFS.

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This list of protocols is not comprehensive. Several others (particularly for network file-sharing protocols) are supported.


HTTP Acceleration

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is at the core of the World Wide Web. Beginning with the 2.4. x kernels, Linux includes what is effectively a simple HTTP server in the kernel. This server is included with the Kernel HTTPd Acceleration option and configured and activated by writing specific values to pseudofiles in the /proc/sys/net/ khttpd directory, as described in Chapter 20, Running Web Servers.

The kernel's HTTP server was created because the work of serving static Web pages (that is, those whose contents are fixed, as opposed to dynamic pages whose contents may be customized for individual users) is essentially just one of copying files from disk to a network address. This operation can be performed much more efficiently in the kernel than in a user-space program. For dynamic content and even some types of static content, the kernel's server falls back on a user-space Web server such as Apache. No special Apache configuration is required; Apache simply doesn't see requests for static Web pages.

NFS Options

Sun developed the Network Filesystem (NFS) as a way to share files among several computers as if those files were local. Linux includes support for NFS, as detailed in Chapter 8, File Sharing via NFS. To mount remote NFS exports, you must include NFS support in the kernel. Most Linux NFS servers also rely on support in the kernel. Both client and server NFS options reside in the Network File Systems submenu off of the File Systems menu, not in the Networking Options menu. Specifically, options you might want to activate include the following:

  • NFS File System Support ” This option enables basic NFS client support (that is, the ability to mount remote NFS exports as if they were local disk partitions). Enable it if you want to mount NFS directories exported by other computers.

  • Provide NFSv3 Client Support ” NFS has undergone various revisions, the latest of which is version 3 (NFSv3). This support must currently be explicitly enabled, because it's not as reliable as is support for older versions of NFS, as activated by NFS File System Support. The NFSv3 support relies on the basic NFS support.

  • Root File System on NFS ” If you select IP: Kernel Level Autoconfiguration in the Networking Options menu, you can select this option, which lets Linux mount its root filesystem from an NFS export. You'll normally only use this option on workstations that lack hard disks.

  • NFS Server Support ” To have Linux function as an NFS server (that is, to make some or all of its directories available to other computers), you need to run an NFS server. This option provides acceleration features for NFS servers that are written to take advantage of it. This option is not strictly required to run an NFS server, but it's generally a good idea to include it, since most Linux NFS servers are written to expect this support.

  • Provide NFSv3 Server Support ” If you want to run a kernel-aware NFS server for clients that understand NFSv3, activate this option. As with NFSv3 client support, this option relies upon the matching generic NFS support.

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NFS is used mainly by Unix and Linux systems. File sharing between other platforms is usually handled by other tools, one of which is discussed next .


SMB/CIFS Options

NFS isn't the only network file-sharing protocol available. Macintoshes often use AppleTalk, for instance, and Novell's IPX/SPX is a popular protocol stack with associated file-sharing tools. Perhaps the most common file-sharing tool for Linux, aside from NFS, is Samba, which implements the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol, which is also known as the Common Internet Filesystem (CIFS). Chapter 7, File and Printer Sharing via Samba, covers Samba configuration and use.

Samba provides everything needed for Linux to function as an SMB/CIFS server, so there's no kernel configuration required for this function. If you want Linux to be able to mount SMB/CIFS shares, though, you must activate the SMB File System Support option, which is roughly equivalent to NFS File System Support for NFS. Two suboptions (Use a Default NLS and Default Remote NLS Option) let Linux perform filename translations based on National Language Support (NLS) character sets. These options may be important if you use non-Roman alphabets like Cyrillic, or even extensions to the Roman alphabet as used by English, like characters that contain umlauts.

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It's possible to use Linux as an SMB/CIFS client using the smbclient program, even if you don't activate Linux's SMB/CIFS kernel options. smbclient doesn't actually mount an SMB/CIFS share, though; it gives you access to the share using an FTP-like interface.


Alternative Network Stack Options

Although TCP/IP is the most popular set of network protocols for Linux, and the one upon which the Internet is built, it's not the only choice of network protocol stack. The Networking Options menu includes several others. Most of the options in this menu are actually suboptions of TCP/IP Networking. If you scroll past these, you'll see the alternatives to TCP/IP:

  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) ” This is an experimental set of options to support ATM hardware and protocols. ATM is really at least as much of a hardware definition as a network stack, but in the 2.4. x kernels, it's enabled in the Networking Options menu, along with other protocol stacks.

  • The IPX Protocol ” Novell's Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is a protocol stack that's used on many local networks, particularly those running the Netware server OS. To use this stack, you'll need additional software, such as Mars_nwe (documented at http://www.redhat.com/support/docs/tips/Netware/netware.html). The NCP File System Support option in the Network File Systems submenu of the File Systems menu will let you mount Netware volumes , much as the equivalent NFS and SMB/CIFS options let you mount NFS exports or Windows file shares.

  • AppleTalk Protocol Support ” Apple developed the AppleTalk protocol stack to enable file and printer sharing on its Macintosh computers. Linux supports AppleTalk through a combination of the kernel and the Netatalk package (http://netatalk.sourceforge.net/).

  • DECnet Support ” Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC; since bought out by Compaq) developed a network technology known as DECnet for its computers. Linux includes support for DECnet, but you must have a package of programs to use this protocol stack. Check http://linux-decnet.sourceforge.net for more information.

Linux also includes support for a handful of more obscure network protocols, such as Acorn's Econet. On most systems, TCP/IP and possibly one or two other protocols will be quite sufficient. Because of the success of the Internet, vendors who had previously used proprietary protocol stacks have been converting their tools to use TCP/IP. For instance, although Apple has long used AppleTalk, its file-sharing tools now work both over plain AppleTalk and a TCP/IP-based variant.

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The standard Linux kernel lacks support for one common network stack, NetBEUI. This stack was the default for Windows file sharing via SMB/CIFS in the past, but SMB/CIFS today works equally well over TCP/IP.


Chapter 3, Alternative Network Stacks, covers network stacks and their use in more detail.



Advanced Linux Networking
Advanced Linux Networking
ISBN: 0201774232
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2002
Pages: 203

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