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Chapter 1. Project Management Framework

    Exam Prep Questions

    Answers and Explanations

Exam Prep Questions


George works for a medium-size IT consulting company and likes his job. He recently became involved with an upgrade of his company's IT system, and it will likely become an ongoing activity for him in addition to his other responsibilities. What describes the work that George is doing for this new assignment?

  • A. It is an attractive project and he should take it.

  • B. Because the project has several phases, it will use a lot of resources.

  • C. His new work is an interesting program for the company.

  • D. He should look for a new job.


Projects come in all sizes and shapes. Many times, project managers must draw from their "toolbox" of processes, tools, or methodologies. How many knowledge areas are described in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)?

  • A. 2core processes and facilitating processes

  • B. 9

  • C. 5initiation, planning, execution, control, and closing

  • D. 39


What areas does project integration management include?

  • A. Plan development, execution, and scope management

  • B. Execution, time management, and scope planning

  • C. Change control, execution, and plan development

  • D. Cost management, integrated change control, and cost estimating


Project human resource management includes numerous "soft" skills that are not easy to learn, and many project managers require additional training or development to effectively schedule and coordinate resources. Human resource planning includes all of the following, except

  • A. Team skills analysis

  • B. Staff acquisition

  • C. Team development

  • D. Organizational planning


Many organizations have different definitions for Project Management because the profession encompasses so many industries. Consequently, the Project Management Institute (PMI) describes Project Management as

  • A. The processes and tools in order to complete a project

  • B. The use of knowledge, tools, and techniques to meet requirements

  • C. Industry specific because the definition changes based upon whatever industry the company is involved with

  • D. Initiation, planning, execution, control, and closeout of a project


When an iterative type of approach is used with projects, there are several incarnations that occur throughout the entire process. Each of these iterations is called

  • A. A prototype

  • B. Deliverable

  • C. A work product

  • D. Progressive elaboration


A waterfall methodology is commonly utilized with IT projects. There are several steps in the process, which includes all of the following except

  • A. Testing and implementation

  • B. Analysis and development

  • C. Requirements

  • D. Design and customer buy-in


The difference between core processes and facilitating processes is

  • A. Core processes take more time and resources.

  • B. Core processes are performed in the same sequence and facilitating processes are intermittent.

  • C. Facilitating processes often require micromanagement in order to be completed on time.

  • D. Core processes are not performed in the same sequence and facilitating processes are.


The president and the vice president of marketing for a software development services organization hold a meeting to discuss a change to a key task in the design phase of a project. After the discussion, they tell the project manager to make the appropriate changes. This scenario is an example of

  • A. Proactive senior management

  • B. A project-based organization

  • C. Effective decision making

  • D. A project coordinator role


Which of the following statements about the project expeditor or the project coordinator role is correct?

  • A. The project expeditor does not make decisions.

  • B. The project coordinator does not make decisions.

  • C. The project coordinator has no authority.

  • D. The project expeditor focuses on completing the project on schedule.


The project selection process must be well thought out in order for the project to be successful and the stakeholders to be satisfied with the outcome. Which one of the following steps is not part of the project selection process?

  • A. List assumptions.

  • B. Develop resource wage structures.

  • C. Gather data and information for each opportunity.

  • D. Develop a set of criteria against which the opportunity will be evaluated.


A work breakdown structure, a status report, and a responsibility assignment matrix are frequently used throughout a project. However, their usage might be iterative. These are examples of

  • A. Project Management tools

  • B. Work products

  • C. Milestones

  • D. Deliverables


A project manager for a not-for-profit organization is completing a new retail outlet project but is unable to get the planned amount of time from key resources to complete some of the critical path tasks. The key resources are focused on completing their day-to-day tasks, and the project manager does not control the work assignments for these people. This scenario is an example of what type of organization?

  • A. Balanced matrix

  • B. Tight matrix

  • C. Functional

  • D. Project coordinator


Ambiguous jurisdiction is more common in a functional or weak matrix organization than a strong matrix or projectized organization. Why?

  • A. Projectized organizations tend to be large in size.

  • B. Conflict between a functional manager and a project manager is more common in a functional or weak matrix.

  • C. Legal issues are more frequent in a functional or weak matrix organization.

  • D. Projectized and strong matrix organizations are the best companies for a project manager to work for due to less ambiguity in scope development.


The level of authority and autonomy that a project manager possesses is vital to his success and ability to influence the project, time, and personnel scheduling. In what type of organization does the project manager maintain a moderate to high level of authority?

  • A. Functional matrix

  • B. Balanced matrix

  • C. Strong matrix

  • D. Projectized matrix


The differences between managing people and leading people can be linked to a project manager's personality and ability to interact with individuals and groups. Why does a project manager need to have both leadership and management skills in order to be the most effective?

  • A. Project managers spend up to 90% of their time communicating with their team and stakeholders.

  • B. Managers focus on resource scheduling and leaders focus on motivation.

  • C. Leaders are more effective than managers.

  • D. Managers focus on processes and leaders are more people oriented.


Colleen wants to make sure she eliminates any potential projects that might go before the project review board and be vetoed due to lack of research and planning. She understands that the needs identification is part of the initial phase of a project. What does it not start with?

  • A. A problem

  • B. An opportunity

  • C. A need

  • D. An idea


The world is becoming more of a global economy all of the time. Project managers will need the ability to interact and manage remote resources, and outsource tasks in order to meet strict deadlines. Looking at the differences and advantages of working with various cultures and nationalities, numerous advantages for creative scheduling of resources become evident. Which of the following statements is not true?

  • A. Cultural differences are always a constraint on any project.

  • B. Culture is a critical lever for competitive advantage.

  • C. There is a common ground for people from different cultures to work from when they help resolve project conflicts together.

  • D. Only those who realize that cultural differences are a resource to leverage will survive in the twenty-first century.


Standards and regulations are commonplace within organizations and society. Millions of dollars are spent every year for companies to be compliant with OSHA and ISO 9000 requirements. Six Sigma certifications are desired, but costly to administer and maintain. The FDA has standards and regulations, but IBM only has standards. Why doesn't IBM have regulations?

  • A. IBM is a for-profit corporation and the FDA is a government entity.

  • B. IBM does not utilize Six Sigma methodology but it is ISO 9000 compliant.

  • C. The FDA has standards for its internal use and enforces regulations upon other organizations.

  • D. Because the government develops its own laws and regulations, it is the watchdog for standards.


The triple constraints of Project Management are frequently discussed in other contexts such as marketing classes and a variety of other subjects. The interaction between _______, _______, and _______ can be seen as a triangle, with the three sides impacting the others.

  • A. quality, resources, time

  • B. money, resources, quality

  • C. scope, quality, planning

  • D. time, scope, cost


There are plenty of tools and techniques that project managers can utilize in order to create synergy on a project. Some of these skills cannot be developed by reading a book and must be learned on the job. Project managers need solid communication and negotiation skills primarily because

  • A. They must give presentations and briefings to senior management.

  • B. Getting the best deals from vendors requires these skills.

  • C. They might be leading a team with no direct control over the individual team members.

  • D. They must be able to effectively share their technical expertise.


Many people confuse operational activities with projects and do not assign appropriate resources to the tasks. Frequently, they fail because a good subject matter expert (SME) does not always make a good project manager (PM). Why?

  • A. They do not understand the importance and trade-offs of the triple constraints.

  • B. They do not understand what the appropriate leadership style for managing the project is.

  • C. They lack social and communication skills.

  • D. They can't delegate authority to subordinates.


There are several processes, tools, and techniques that you need to learn for the PMP exam. According to the PMBOK, the five process groups are

  • A. Initiation, planning, execution, resources, and quality

  • B. Initiation, scheduling, reporting, closeout, and approval

  • C. Analysis, design, building, development, and support

  • D. Initiation, planning, execution, control, and closeout


Whenever people are looking for a job, they frequently see "program manager wanted" and "project manager wanted" when reading the job listings in their local newspaper. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between projects and programs?

  • A. There are no differences between the two; they are just different terms for the same thing.

  • B. A project is composed of one or more related programs.

  • C. A program is composed of one or more related projects.

  • D. A project is a temporary endeavor, whereas a program is permanent.


Soliciting feedback from stakeholders is important to the success of a project. If the project manager does not include this as part of the project development process, she can encounter plenty of problems later. The process of soliciting feedback and incorporating stakeholder ideas into the project is called

  • A. Feedback loop

  • B. Buy-in

  • C. Progressive elaboration

  • D. Project approval


You need to take the following items when you take the PMP exam:

  • A. Driver's license or photo ID and "cheat sheets"

  • B. Study guides and "cheat sheets"

  • C. Driver's license or photo ID, calculator, and watch

  • D. PMI membership card


Every year, auto manufacturers introduce new model cars and retire models that do not sell or have become obsolete. Frequently, project managers work with engineers and designers to develop new styles and features that will sell in the marketplace. The cycle for an automobile that extends from the concept to the introduction to the phaseout is called

  • A. A project life cycle

  • B. A product life cycle

  • C. Product development

  • D. R and D (Research and Development)


All projects should have basic elements in order to be planned and executed efficiently and successfully. Many project managers do not plan properly and, ultimately, the projects fail and money and resources are lost. One of the following documents authorizes and initiates the project while empowering the project manager to begin working on it. This document is known as a

  • A. Project charter

  • B. Project plan

  • C. Work authorization form

  • D. Project approval requisition


There are numerous milestones that Suzy, an aspiring PMP, wants to incorporate into her project but she does not know how to differentiate among all of the tasks. She realizes that the first meeting of stakeholders and team members is a key element to the positive start of a project. Whether an in-person meeting or a virtual meeting, this initial gathering provides an opportunity to clarify roles, ask questions, and transfer knowledge. This is called

  • A. A team meeting

  • B. An ad hoc meeting

  • C. A kickoff meeting

  • D. A project overview


You have recently been promoted to project manager for a clinical testing facility. The team is developing a new product that will cut down on testing interval requirements for a new seizure management medication. After you become involved with the project, you decide to add more research reports, which the customer did not request. This is an example of

  • A. Good customer service

  • B. Scope creep

  • C. Due diligence

  • D. Gold plating


There are distinct differences between project life cycles and project phases. Which of the following statements describes the relationship between project phases and project life cycles?

  • A. A project phase can contain one or more iterations of the project life cycle.

  • B. Collectively, the project phases are known as the project life cycle.

  • C. The project life cycle is known as the sequence of project activities, whereas phases are defined to control the overlapping activities.

  • D. The project life cycle contains the iterative, incremental elements inside a project phase.


The PMIS is a valuable tool for the project manager to utilize as a communication mechanism throughout the duration of the project. The communication plan is frequently a subproject of the PMIS development milestone that is used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the _________ of the Project Management processes.

  • A. outputs

  • B. tools

  • C. deliverables

  • D. scope changes


Susan wants to be a project manager and has done Project Management at PMC Construction Company for more than 10 years. Until she discovered the PMI, she was unaware there was a global authority on Project Management certification or benchmarking in the planning and delivery of projects. When describing the purpose of the PMBOK, it is important to note that the guide is used to provide practices and knowledge that are generally accepted because

  • A. They are global in perspective.

  • B. They are applicable to most projects, most of the time.

  • C. They provide a foundation of knowledge from which to learn for future project managers.

  • D. Project Management is a relatively new profession that continues to build credibility.


Projects come in all sizes and shapes. They occur in almost every industry, including aerospace, manufacturing, information services, engineering, and life sciences. Because Project Management encompasses so many different areas and disciplines, many people have a difficult time explaining what Project Management is. Regardless of the industry, Project Management includes all of the following except

  • A. Impermanence

  • B. Creating a unique item for consumption

  • C. Creating a unique service

  • D. Increasing efficiency of projects


A company that you previously worked for is seeking new employees and you are trying to explain the culture to a potential candidate. The company has strict policies, supervisory control, and rules. Team members are not encouraged to be individualistic nor offer feedback to upper management. Many times, the team feels its input is not valuable or implemented. This explanation describes a company that utilizes what employee management theory?

  • A. Meredith and Mann's Autocratic Management Theory

  • B. Deming's Zero Defects Theory

  • C. Kerzner's Earned Value Theory

  • D. McGregor's X Theory


NASA developed the space shuttle over an extended period of time. When the project first began, many of the engineers had to develop their blueprints based upon a vision of what they saw as the final product. This focus on the end result is one of the keys to successful Project Management. Each time that a blueprint was revised, before the final design was approved, the team became challenged with additional work; however, it understood that

  • A. Scope creep was common in a large scope project.

  • B. Progressive elaborations of the blueprints accurately defined the final deliverable.

  • C. New subject matter experts would be needed.

  • D. The project sponsor would develop a change control document.


Management by projects views aspects of ongoing operations as projects in order to apply Project Management techniques to them. This can be used to describe an organizational approach to the management of ongoing operations. Why would a company want to utilize this methodology on nonprojects?

  • A. To keep project managers employed

  • B. To provide better estimates about durations

  • C. To allow the utilization of PM tools, such as earned value, to calculate ROI

  • D. To specify the different phases within the operations


General management includes all of the following except

  • A. Staffing and planning

  • B. Controlling operations of an ongoing enterprise

  • C. Organizing and procurement

  • D. Executing and logistics


According to PMI, application areas are categories of projects that have common elements that exist in general management projects, but are not needed or present in all projects. Consequently, application areas are usually defined in terms of

  • A. Industry groups

  • B. Financial impact upon the organization

  • C. Deliverables and time frames

  • D. Visibility within the company


Your new nursing resource company is doing well after its 10th year of business but, frequently, projects go over time, over budget, or both. Therefore, the new PMO director, Tom Thinwallet, has implemented new change control procedures for your projects in order to keep them in line financially. In order for Tom's change control management plan to be effective, it must

  • A. Be conservative.

  • B. Utilize milestones as frequently as possible.

  • C. Define how project deliverables can be changed.

  • D. Tie stakeholder rewards to definite timetables.


Open-heart surgery can be viewed as a project and a program. Why?

  • A. Because heart usage does not have a definite ending, the project is also a program.

  • B. Because the surgery requires a tremendous amount of resources, it is considered a project.

  • C. The surgery is a project; the ongoing support is a program.

  • D. Getting the skills and resources is a program. Scheduling and coordinating the skills and resources is a project.


Your team has developed a thorough project plan and risk analysis for your project. You have a tight time frame to develop a team, determine your milestones, and get everyone up to speed. The best way to communicate this information as quickly as possible is

  • A. Via email

  • B. However it is described in the communication management plan

  • C. At the kickoff meeting

  • D. Through the project team


Amy has become involved with Six Sigma at work and she sees some parallels between Project Management and Six Sigma. She is also a firm believer that each project phase should be reviewed to determine whether the project should continue to the next phase. The review and decision to proceed with the project is

  • A. A kill point

  • B. A milestone

  • C. Based upon stakeholder expectations

  • D. Time consuming and unnecessary for small projects


The project life cycle can be broken into five phases that tend to overlap with each other from one phase to another; however, the control phase does not overlap with a specific phase. Why?

  • A. Change control management is separate from the other phases.

  • B. Change control management has a plan that can be used throughout the initiation, planning, execution, and closeout of the project.

  • C. Because the project sponsor is responsible for change control management, the project manager is not involved with that phase of the project.

  • D. Change control extends throughout the entire project from initiation to closeout.


You have been assigned to manage a new supply chain solicitation and procurement process project. This enterprisewide initiative will be rolled out to 30 locations within 8 months in 3 geographical regions including Asia, Ireland, and Spain. Because of the abbreviated time frame, you must look for ways to reduce your timelines for the various tasks. By utilizing resource scheduling software, you determine several opportunities for overlapping phases in order to speed up the process. This is an example of

  • A. Crashing the schedule

  • B. Peak shaving

  • C. Resource reallocation

  • D. Fast tracking


Mark Smallbrain, the internationally known author and consultant, predicts that bowling will be the next fad to have a revitalization this decade. Therefore, he plans to endorse a chain of bowling franchises and invest in their vision of bowling splendor. The probability of his failure is the highest at the beginning of a project. The bowling aficionados (stakeholders) will also have the biggest impact upon the project scope at the beginning of the project. Why are the probabilities higher at the beginning of the project?

  • A. Stakeholders are more fickle at the beginning of a project.

  • B. Risk decreases over time and stakeholders lose vision of their original scope over time.

  • C. Risk decreases as deliverables are provided and timelines and milestones are met. Stakeholder influence decreases as the scope is documented and expectations are set.

  • D. A risk analysis has not been prepared and not all of the stakeholders have been identified.


Sam is running a one-year project that is expected to be in initiation and planning for three months, execution for six months, and rollout for three months. When will his project spend the most money?

  • A. Initiation

  • B. Planning

  • C. Execution

  • D. Control


The software development life cycle begins with a proof of concept and progresses into the build, test, and acceptance phases as the project develops. Sometimes, differences between stakeholders can develop into conflict, which impacts the customer. As a trained, professional project manager, how do you handle this situation and resolve the customer's concerns?

  • A. Let the customer vent and take notes.

  • B. Schedule a meeting.

  • C. Develop a change request for the customer.

  • D. Resolve the matter in favor of the customer.


A project coordinator or project leader title or position is more common in a functional or weak matrix organization because a project manager's role is only utilized on a part-time basis. In a projectized or strong matrix organization, a project manager's level of authority changes in what way?

  • A. The level of authority increases because you have more control over resources.

  • B. The level of authority stays the same however the autonomy increases.

  • C. Coercion power is more effective in a projectized organization.

  • D. The administrative staff becomes full time, so there is more emphasis on results and accountability.


Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between project life cycle phases and Project Management processes?

  • A. Project Management processes correspond one to one with project life cycle phases.

  • B. Project life cycle phases can repeat within a Project Management process.

  • C. Project Management processes can repeat within a project life cycle.

  • D. Project Management processes are completely independent of project life cycle phases.